Viral Diseases in Dermatology

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Virology and Viral Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 46806

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Viral skin infections are some of the most common skin diseases in medical dermatology. Despite all the advances in understanding their pathophysiology and treatment, the viruses that lead to common skin infections continue to evade complete destruction. This Special Issue of Viruses welcomes both primary research articles and comprehensive reviews on various aspects of these diseases.

Dr. Mohamad Goldust
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • viral diseases in dermatology
  • viral skin diseases
  • molluscum contagiosum
  • eczema herpeticum
  • atopic dermatitis
  • epidemiology
  • pathophysiology
  • treatment

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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1 pages, 168 KiB  
Editorial
Viral Diseases in Dermatology
by Mohamad Goldust
Viruses 2023, 15(2), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15020513 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Viral skin infections are some of the most common skin diseases in medical dermatology [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases in Dermatology)

Research

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19 pages, 1699 KiB  
Article
An Improved Protocol for Comprehensive Etiological Characterization of Skin Warts and Determining Causative Human Papillomavirus Types in 128 Histologically Confirmed Common Warts
by Lucijan Skubic, Lea Hošnjak, Vesna Breznik, Kristina Fujs Komloš, Boštjan Luzar and Mario Poljak
Viruses 2022, 14(10), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14102266 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etiologically associated with various benign and malignant neoplasms of cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. We describe an improved diagnostic protocol for comprehensive characterization of causative HPV types in common warts, in which broad-spectrum PCRs followed by Sanger sequencing, two previously [...] Read more.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etiologically associated with various benign and malignant neoplasms of cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. We describe an improved diagnostic protocol for comprehensive characterization of causative HPV types in common warts, in which broad-spectrum PCRs followed by Sanger sequencing, two previously described and seven newly developed type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCRs) coupled with the human beta-globin qPCR were used for: (i) diagnosis of HPV infection in warts; (ii) estimation of cellular viral loads of all HPV types detected; and (iii) determination of their etiological role in 128 histologically confirmed fresh-frozen common wart tissue samples. A total of 12 different causative HPV types were determined in 122/126 (96.8%) HPV-positive warts, with HPV27 being most prevalent (27.0%), followed by HPV57 (26.2%), HPV4 (15.1%), HPV2 (13.5%), and HPV65 (7.9%). The cellular viral loads of HPV4 and HPV65 were estimated for the first time in common warts and were significantly higher than the viral loads of HPV2, HPV27, and HPV57. In addition, we showed for the first time that HPV65 is etiologically associated with the development of common warts in significantly older patients than HPV27 and HPV57, whereas HPV4-induced warts were significantly smaller than warts caused by HPV2, HPV27, HPV57, and HPV65. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases in Dermatology)
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20 pages, 598 KiB  
Article
Genetic Associations and Differential mRNA Expression Levels of Host Genes Suggest a Viral Trigger for Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus
by Valéria Bumiller-Bini Hoch, Ana Flávia Kohler, Danillo G. Augusto, Sara Cristina Lobo-Alves, Danielle Malheiros, Gabriel Adelman Cipolla, Angelica Beate Winter Boldt, Karin Braun-Prado, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Claudia Pföhler, Margitta Worm, Nina van Beek, Matthias Goebeler, Miklós Sárdy, Saleh Ibrahim, Hauke Busch, Enno Schmidt, Jennifer Elisabeth Hundt, Patrícia Savio de Araujo-Souza and Maria Luiza Petzl-Erleradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050879 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
The long search for the environmental trigger of the endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, fogo selvagem) has not yet resulted in any tangible findings. Here, we searched for genetic associations and the differential expression of host genes involved in early viral infections and innate [...] Read more.
The long search for the environmental trigger of the endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, fogo selvagem) has not yet resulted in any tangible findings. Here, we searched for genetic associations and the differential expression of host genes involved in early viral infections and innate antiviral defense. Genetic variants could alter the structure, expression sites, or levels of the gene products, impacting their functions. By analyzing 3063 variants of 166 candidate genes in 227 EPF patients and 194 controls, we found 12 variants within 11 genes associated with differential susceptibility (p < 0.005) to EPF. The products of genes TRIM5, TPCN2, EIF4E, EIF4E3, NUP37, NUP50, NUP88, TPR, USP15, IRF8, and JAK1 are involved in different mechanisms of viral control, for example, the regulation of viral entry into the host cell or recognition of viral nucleic acids and proteins. Only two of nine variants were also associated in an independent German cohort of sporadic PF (75 patients, 150 controls), aligning with our hypothesis that antiviral host genes play a major role in EPF due to a specific virus–human interaction in the endemic region. Moreover, CCL5, P4HB, and APOBEC3G mRNA levels were increased (p < 0.001) in CD4+ T lymphocytes of EPF patients. Because there is limited or no evidence that these genes are involved in autoimmunity, their crucial role in antiviral responses and the associations that we observed support the hypothesis of a viral trigger for EPF, presumably a still unnoticed flavivirus. This work opens new frontiers in searching for the trigger of EPF, with the potential to advance translational research that aims for disease prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases in Dermatology)
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Review

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17 pages, 371 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Overview of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and the Management of Herpes Labialis
by Divya Gopinath, Kim Hoe Koe, Mari Kannan Maharajan and Swagatika Panda
Viruses 2023, 15(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15010225 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5302
Abstract
Herpes labialis remains exceedingly prevalent and is one of the most common human viral infections throughout the world. Recurrent herpes labialis evolves from the initial viral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) which subsequently presents with or without symptoms. Reactivation of [...] Read more.
Herpes labialis remains exceedingly prevalent and is one of the most common human viral infections throughout the world. Recurrent herpes labialis evolves from the initial viral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) which subsequently presents with or without symptoms. Reactivation of this virus is triggered by psychosocial factors such as stress, febrile environment, ultraviolet light susceptibility, or specific dietary inadequacy. This virus infection is also characterized by uninterrupted transitions between chronic-latent and acute-recurrent phases, allowing the virus to opportunistically avoid immunity and warrant the transmission to other vulnerable hosts simultaneously. This review comprehensively evaluates the current evidence on epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission modes, clinical manifestations, and current management options of herpes labialis infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases in Dermatology)
16 pages, 956 KiB  
Review
Pathobiology of Cutaneous Manifestations Associated with COVID-19 and Their Management
by Waniyah Masood, Shahzaib Ahmad, Noor Ayman Khan, Amaima Shakir, Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni, Michael H. Gold, Clay J. Cockerell, Robert A. Schwartz and Mohamad Goldust
Viruses 2022, 14(9), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14091972 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a rising concern since its declaration as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. Recently, its association with multiple underlying organs has been identified that [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a rising concern since its declaration as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. Recently, its association with multiple underlying organs has been identified that includes cardiac, renal, gastrointestinal, nervous systems, and cutaneous manifestations. Cutaneous COVID-19 findings have been supposedly classified into the following categories: vesicular (varicella-like), papulo-vesiculsar, chilblains-like (“COVID toes”) maculopapular, and urticarial morphologies. In this review, we aim to focus on the proposed pathophysiology behind the various dermatological manifestations associated with COVID-19 and their associated management. We also included prevalence and clinical features of the different COVID-19-related skin lesions in our review. A comprehensive narrative review of the literature was performed in PubMed databases. Data from case reports, observational studies, case series, and reviews till June 2022 were all screened and included in the review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases in Dermatology)
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13 pages, 325 KiB  
Review
Herpes zoster: A Review of Clinical Manifestations and Management
by Anant Patil, Mohamad Goldust and Uwe Wollina
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020192 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 106 | Viewed by 23542
Abstract
The Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus 3 is a neurotropic human alpha herpes virus responsible for chickenpox/varicella and shingles/Herpes zoster (HZ). This review will focus on HZ. Since HZ is secondary to varicella, its incidence increases with age. In children [...] Read more.
The Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus 3 is a neurotropic human alpha herpes virus responsible for chickenpox/varicella and shingles/Herpes zoster (HZ). This review will focus on HZ. Since HZ is secondary to varicella, its incidence increases with age. In children and youngsters, HZ is rare and associated to metabolic and neoplastic disorders. In adults, advanced age, distress, other infections (such as AIDS or COVID-19), and immunosuppression are the most common risk factors. HZ reactivation has recently been observed after COVID-19 vaccination. The disease shows different clinical stages of variable clinical manifestations. Some of the manifestations bear a higher risk of complications. Among the possible complications, postherpetic neuralgia, a chronic pain disease, is one of the most frequent. HZ vasculitis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Renal and gastrointestinal complications have been reported. The cornerstone of treatment is early intervention with acyclovir or brivudine. Second-line treatments are available. Pain management is essential. For (secondary) prophylaxis, currently two HZV vaccines are available for healthy older adults, a live attenuated VZV vaccine and a recombinant adjuvanted VZV glycoprotein E subunit vaccine. The latter allows vaccination also in severely immunosuppressed patients. This review focuses on manifestations of HZ and its management. Although several articles have been published on HZ, the literature continues to evolve, especially in regard to patients with comorbidities and immunocompromised patients. VZV reactivation has also emerged as an important point of discussion during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially after vaccination. The objective of this review is to discuss current updates related to clinical presentations, complications, and management of HZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases in Dermatology)
20 pages, 65591 KiB  
Review
Identification, Mechanism, and Treatment of Skin Lesions in COVID-19: A Review
by Diego Fernández-Lázaro and Manuel Garrosa
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101916 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6179
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystem disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that primarily causes respiratory symptoms. However, an increasing number of cutaneous manifestations associated with this disease have been reported. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystem disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that primarily causes respiratory symptoms. However, an increasing number of cutaneous manifestations associated with this disease have been reported. The aim of this study is to analyze the scientific literature on cutaneous manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 by means of a narrative literature review until June 2021. The search was conducted in the following electronic databases: Medline (PubMed), SciELO, and Cochrane Library Plus. The most common cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 are vesicular eruptions, petechial/purpuric rashes, acral lesions, liveoid lesions, urticarial rash, and maculopapular-erythematous rash. These manifestations may be the first presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as is the case with acral lesions, vesicular eruptions, and urticaria. In relation to severity, the presence of liveoid lesions may be associated with a more severe course of the disease. Treatment used for dermatological lesions includes therapy with anticoagulants, corticosteroids, and antihistamines. Knowledge of the dermatologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 contributes to the diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients with skin lesions associated with respiratory symptoms or in asymptomatic patients. In addition, understanding the dermatologic lesions associated with COVID-19 could be useful to establish a personalized care plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases in Dermatology)
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