Special Issue "Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Rafael Comesaña
Website
Guest Editor
Materials Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Construction, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain
Interests: laser materials processing; laser surface modification; laser cladding; laser texturing; nanoparticle production by laser ablation; biomaterials processing and characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research about surface treatment using laser-assisted techniques has developed in the last few years, while studied surface modifications are continuously evolving, from the macroscale to the nanoscale. The scope of this Special Issue of Coatings on “Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques” includes (but is not limited to):

Laser-assisted processes at nano-, micro- and macro- scales for modification of surface properties, such as roughness, corrosion resistance, adhesion, adsorption, bonding ability, wettability, hydrophobicity, fouling, wear, friction, hardness, fracture toughness, fatigue behaviour, residual stress, conductivity, emissivity, absorption, topography, reflectivity, and other related properties. Short and ultrashort pulse laser treatments of polymers, ceramics, metals and composites for general surface applications are also of interest.

Established techniques, such as laser ablation, laser cladding, laser surface alloying, laser annealing, laser blasting, laser cleaning, laser etching, laser electroplating, laser hardening, laser structuring, laser texturing, hierarchical structuring, laser induced periodic surface structuring, interference patterning, laser micromachining, laser nitriding, pulsed laser deposition, laser thin film deposition, laser polishing, laser remelting, laser recrystallization, laser shock peening, and laser surface activation.

Laser-assisted processes for surface modification in biomaterials and medical devices, laser surface functionalization, degradability modification, bioactive coatings, biocompatibility enhancement, cell alignment, and laser surface modification of hard and soft tissues.

Mathematical modelling, theoretical analysis, thermo-mechanical models and simulation in laser surface treatments.

Submissions of original research and review articles are welcome.

Dr. Rafael Comesaña
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Laser ablation
  • Laser cladding
  • Pulsed laser deposition
  • Laser surface functionalization
  • Laser texturing
  • Biomaterial surface modification
  • Surface engineering
  • Tribology
  • Ultrashort laser pulse processing
  • Coatings

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060580 - 22 Jun 2020
Abstract
Laser radiation is a powerful tool for surface modification owing to its spatial and material absorbance selectivity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Tunable Hierarchical Nanostructures on Micro-Conical Arrays of Laser Textured TC4 Substrate by Hydrothermal Treatment for Enhanced Anti-Icing Property
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050450 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this work, an anti-icing structured surface was fabricated by combining laser ablation with hydrothermal treatment. A micro-patterned surface on a Ti alloy (TC4) substrate was easily fabricated by a highly effective nanosecond pulsed laser ablation. It was observed that titania (TiO2 [...] Read more.
In this work, an anti-icing structured surface was fabricated by combining laser ablation with hydrothermal treatment. A micro-patterned surface on a Ti alloy (TC4) substrate was easily fabricated by a highly effective nanosecond pulsed laser ablation. It was observed that titania (TiO2) nanostructures were formed by hydrothermal treatment in aqueous alkali on the laser ablated TC4 substrate to obtain the micro/nano-hierarchical structures. The growth mechanism of the tunable nanoarrays was discussed by the adjustment of hydrothermal temperature. The as-prepared samples exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity with contact angles greater than 160°. It was found that optimized hydrothermal treatment on laser-processed TC4 substrates could further enhance surface anti-icing property. The results showed that the delay time (DT) had been extended by achieving over 90 min for the water droplets to freeze on the as-prepared structured surfaces, providing great potential in various anti-icing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical/Numerical Model of the Powder-Gas Jet for Extreme High-Speed Laser Material Deposition
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040416 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Extreme high-speed laser material deposition, known by its German acronym EHLA, is a new variant of laser material deposition (LMD) with powdered additives. This variant’s process control is unlike that of LMD, where the powder melts as it contacts the melt pool. In [...] Read more.
Extreme high-speed laser material deposition, known by its German acronym EHLA, is a new variant of laser material deposition (LMD) with powdered additives. This variant’s process control is unlike that of LMD, where the powder melts as it contacts the melt pool. In the EHLA process, the laser beam melts the powder above the surface of the substrate to deliver a liquid to the melt pool. At a given intensity distribution in a laser beam, the heating of powder particles in the beam path depends largely on the three-dimensional powder particle density distribution (PDD) and the relative position within the laser beam caustic. As a key element of a comprehensive numerical process model for EHLA, this paper presents a statistical/numerical model of the powder-gas jet, as previously published in Experimentelle und modelltheoretische Untersuchungen zum Extremen Hochgeschwindigkeits-Laserauftragschweißen. The powder-gas jet is characterized experimentally and described with a mathematical model. This serves to map the PDD of the powder-gas flow—and particularly the particle trajectories for different grain fractions—as well as the powder mass flows and carrier and inert gas settings, to a theoretical model. The result is a numerical description of the particle trajectories that takes into account the measured particle size distribution with calculations made on the assumption of a constant particle velocity and linear trajectories of the particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
High Temperature Oxidation and Thermal Shock Properties of La2Zr2O7 Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited on Nickel-Based Superalloy by Laser-Cladding
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040370 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to reduce the difficulty and cost of manufacturing and improve the high temperature oxidation and thermal shock properties of nickel-based superalloy, a thin La2Zr2O7 thermal barrier coating without bond coat was successfully prepared by laser-cladding using [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the difficulty and cost of manufacturing and improve the high temperature oxidation and thermal shock properties of nickel-based superalloy, a thin La2Zr2O7 thermal barrier coating without bond coat was successfully prepared by laser-cladding using La2Zr2O7 powders on a nickel-based superalloy substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods were used to characterize the microstructure of the coating. The high temperature oxidation and thermal shock properties of the coating were evaluated by the air isothermal oxidation method at 1100 °C for 110 h and thermal cycling method at 25~1100 °C, respectively. The results show that the coating is mainly composed of La2Zr2O7 phase. The oxidation weight gain rate of the coating is about two-thirds of that of the substrate, and the first crack thermal shock lifetime of the coating is about 1.67 times of that of the substrate. The oxidation products of the coating are mainly Fe2O3, Cr2O3, NiCr2O4, Nb2O5 and La2Zr2O7. The existence of La2Zr2O7 phase in the coating is the main reason for the improvement of its oxidation resistance at 1100 °C and its thermal shock resistance at 25~1100 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructures and Wear Resistance of FeCoCrNi-Mo High Entropy Alloy/Diamond Composite Coatings by High Speed Laser Cladding
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030300 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
FeCoCrNi-Mo high entropy alloy/diamond composite coatings were successfully prepared by high speed laser cladding. A high scanning speed was adopted (>30 mm/s), and the effects of laser power, scanning speed, and diamond content on the microstructure and wear resistance of the composite coating [...] Read more.
FeCoCrNi-Mo high entropy alloy/diamond composite coatings were successfully prepared by high speed laser cladding. A high scanning speed was adopted (>30 mm/s), and the effects of laser power, scanning speed, and diamond content on the microstructure and wear resistance of the composite coating were studied. The processing parameters of laser cladding had significant influence on the dilution ratio, graphitization of diamond, and wear resistance of the composite coatings. When the laser cladding parameters were 3000 W of laser power and the high scanning speed of 50 mm/s, the composite coating exhibited a uniform microstructure, the lowest dilution ratio, and the best wear resistance. The wear resistance of the composite coating was enhanced with the addition of diamond, but microcracks also increased. When the amount of diamond was 15 wt.%, the best combination of microstructures and wear resistance was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermoelastic Response Induced by Volumetric Absorption of Uniform Laser Radiation in a Half-Space
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030228 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, the thermoelastic response in a generalized thermoelastic half-space induced by absorption of a penetrating pulsed laser radiation inside the medium is studied using the generalized theory with Dual-Phase-Lag (DPL). The surface of the target is considered stresses free and exposed [...] Read more.
In this paper, the thermoelastic response in a generalized thermoelastic half-space induced by absorption of a penetrating pulsed laser radiation inside the medium is studied using the generalized theory with Dual-Phase-Lag (DPL). The surface of the target is considered stresses free and exposed to temperature-dependent heat losses. Laplace integral transform is used analytically for obtaining the general solution, while its inverse is carried out numerically. The copper element is used as an application to compare the predictions induced by volumetric absorption of the Dual-Phase-lag theory with those for Lord–Shulman (LS) and classical coupled (CTE) theories, moreover the response induced by volumetric absorption for (LS) and (CTE) models in this work were compared with those induced by surface absorption in a previous work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Aluminum Laser Ablation on Interfacial Thermal Transfer and Joint Quality of Laser Welded Aluminum–Polyamide Assemblies
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110768 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Laser assisted metal–polymer joining (LAMP) is a novel assembly process for the development of hybrid lightweight products with customized properties. It was already demonstrated that laser ablation of aluminum alloy Al1050 (Al) prior to joining with polyamide 6.6 (PA) has significant influence on [...] Read more.
Laser assisted metal–polymer joining (LAMP) is a novel assembly process for the development of hybrid lightweight products with customized properties. It was already demonstrated that laser ablation of aluminum alloy Al1050 (Al) prior to joining with polyamide 6.6 (PA) has significant influence on the joint quality, manifested in the joint area. However, profound understanding of the factors affecting the joint quality was missing. This work investigates the effects of laser ablation on the surface properties of Al, discusses their corresponding impact on the interfacial thermal transfer between the joining partners, and evaluates their effects on the joint quality. Samples ablated with different parameters, resulting in a range from low- to high-quality joints, were selected, and their surface properties were analyzed by using 2D profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In order to analyze the effects of laser ablation parameters on the interfacial thermal transfer between metal and polymer, a model two-layered system was analyzed, using laser flash analysis (LFA), and the thermal contact resistance (TCR) was quantified. Results indicate a strong influence of laser-ablation parameters on the surface structural and morphological properties, influencing the thermal transfer during the laser welding process, thus affecting the joint quality and its resistance to shear load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Deposition of Ag Nanoparticles by Combining Laser Ablation and Electrophoretic Deposition Techniques
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090571 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Silver nanostructured thin films have been fabricated on silicon substrate by combining simultaneously pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) and electrophoretic deposition (ED) techniques. The composition, topography, crystalline structure, surface topography, and optical properties of the obtained films have been studied by energy [...] Read more.
Silver nanostructured thin films have been fabricated on silicon substrate by combining simultaneously pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) and electrophoretic deposition (ED) techniques. The composition, topography, crystalline structure, surface topography, and optical properties of the obtained films have been studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The coatings were composed of Ag nanoparticles ranging from a few to hundred nm. The films exhibited homogenous morphology, uniform appearance, and a clear localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) around 400 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Laser Surface Texturing of Alumina/Zirconia Composite Ceramics for Potential Use in Hip Joint Prosthesis
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060369 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The use of metal shell to fix an acetabular cup to bone in hip joint prosthesis carries some limitations, including restrictions in prosthetic femur ball diameter and in patient’s range of motion. These drawbacks could be ideally overcome by using a monolithic ceramic [...] Read more.
The use of metal shell to fix an acetabular cup to bone in hip joint prosthesis carries some limitations, including restrictions in prosthetic femur ball diameter and in patient’s range of motion. These drawbacks could be ideally overcome by using a monolithic ceramic acetabular cup, but the fixation of such an implant to host bone still remains a challenge. Since porous surfaces are known to promote more bone tissue interlocking compared to smooth materials, in this work the surfaces of sintered alumina/zirconia composite ceramics were treated by a pulsed laser radiation at 1064 nm with a pulse width in the nanosecond range, in order to impart controlled textural patterns. The influence of laser process parameters (e.g., energy per pulse, repetition rate, scanning speed, repetition number, angle of laser beam, and number of cycles) on the roughness and texture orientation was systematically investigated. The obtained surface topographies were inspected by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and the roughness was assessed by contact profilometry. Surface roughness could be modulated in the range of 3 to 30 µm by varying the processing parameters, among which the number of cycles was shown to play a major role. The laser treatment was also successfully adapted and applied to ceramic acetabular cups with a curved profile, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach to process real prosthetic components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Experiment Study of Rapid Laser Polishing of Freeform Steel Surface by Dual-Beam
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050324 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
One of the challenges regarding widespread use of parts made from alloy steel is their time-consuming polishing process. A rough freeform surface of part has been often expected to be polished rapidly up to a smooth surface finish. The focus of this study [...] Read more.
One of the challenges regarding widespread use of parts made from alloy steel is their time-consuming polishing process. A rough freeform surface of part has been often expected to be polished rapidly up to a smooth surface finish. The focus of this study is to develop a fast polishing method of freeform surface by using dual-beam lasers. The dual-beam laser system consists of continuous laser (CW) and pulsed laser based on a five-axis CNC device. In this study, a series of experiments of CW laser polishing present the effects of different spot irradiation on surface topography, then the combination trajectory of zigzag and square waveform of pulsed laser is explored to realize a “melting peak for filling into valley” (MPFV) method. The polishing experiment on a semisphere of S136H steel polished by dual-beam shows that a rough semisphere surface was rapidly polished from initial state value of Sa (=877 nm) to post-polished value of Sa (=142 nm), and the polishing efficiency is as high as 2890 cm2/H. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Surface Blasting of Granite Stones Using a Laser Scanning System
Coatings 2019, 9(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020131 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Granite stones are the most abundant rock of the crust. Due to their beauty, durability, and virtually zero maintenance, they have been used widely since ancient times in all types of construction, as a structural or decorative element. Commonly, this material is used [...] Read more.
Granite stones are the most abundant rock of the crust. Due to their beauty, durability, and virtually zero maintenance, they have been used widely since ancient times in all types of construction, as a structural or decorative element. Commonly, this material is used with a polished finishing, but there has been an increased interest in giving it a rustic aspect, mainly for decorative or functional reasons, e.g., to reduce slipping. Rough surfaces are usually produced by means of bush hammering, but this is an extremely noisy and inefficient process. In this work we have explored the capabilities and limits of a laser blasting process assisted by a scanning system in order to produce precise and controllable roughness on two varieties of granite plates. It was found that laser blasting of thin granite tiles can be accomplished with processing widths up to 250 mm at medium-low laser power, obtaining a rustic aspect suitable for use in façades, paving, or flooring. Moreover, laser scanner systems are capable of enhancing the productivity of this process up to ten times greater than that found in previous works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Pd and Pt Nanoparticles Produced by Nanosecond Laser Irradiations of Thin Films Deposited on Topographically-Structured Transparent Conductive Oxides
Coatings 2019, 9(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020068 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Pd and Pt nanoparticles on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) are produced. This outcome is reached by processing nanoscale-thick Pd and Pt films deposited on the FTO surface by nanosecond laser pulse. Such laser processes are demonstrated to initiate a dewetting phenomenon in the [...] Read more.
Pd and Pt nanoparticles on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) are produced. This outcome is reached by processing nanoscale-thick Pd and Pt films deposited on the FTO surface by nanosecond laser pulse. Such laser processes are demonstrated to initiate a dewetting phenomenon in the deposited metal films and lead to the formation of the nanoparticles. In particular, the effect of the film’s thickness on the mean size of the nanoparticles, when fixed the laser fluence, is studied. Our results indicate that the substrate topography influences the dewetting process of the metal films and, as a consequence, impacts on the nanoparticle characteristics. The results concerning the Pd and Pt nanoparticles’ sizes versus starting films thickness and substrate topography are discussed. In particular, the presented discussion is based on the elucidation of the effect of the substrate topography effect on the dewetting process through the excess of chemical potential. Finally, Raman analysis on the fabricated samples are presented. They show, in particular for the case of the Pd nanoparticles on FTO, a pronounced Raman signal enhancement imputable to plasmonic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Treatment by Laser-Assisted Techniques)
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