Special Issue "Surface Modification of Medical Implants"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactive Coatings and Biointerfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Alina Vladescu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department for Advanced Surface Processing and Analysis by Vacuum Technologies, National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor St., 077125 Magurele-Bucharest, Romania
Interests: surface functionalization; biocompatible and bioactive coatings; corrosion-wear resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The mechanism of implant failure is nowadays the target of intensive research, aiming to increase implant’s service life, since bone fixation devices and artificial joints comprise 44% of all medical devices. The results obtained world-wide in the last 15 years have demonstrated that the most important causes of artificial joint loosening are due to implant infection, osseointegration, degradation, friction, and abrasive wear. Thus, many efforts have been directed towards finding a solution to obtain a new implant with good mechanical, osseoconductive, and antibacterial properties, and good resistance to wear and corrosion (low friction coefficient and wear rate in the solution specific to the human body). One of prospective ways is to induce the surface modification of common medical implants in order to obtain the desired properties for clinical applications. Currently, several techniques have been developed for preparing biocompatible coatings, such as plasma spray, sol–gel, micro-arc oxidation, electrodeposition, anodization, plasma electrolytic oxidation, magnetron sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition, etc. The main goal of this Special Issue is to present the latest developments in the field of the surface modification of medical implants for enhancing the specific functionality in human aggressive media.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Surface science of bioactive coatings
  • Deposition and growth of biocompatible coatings
  • Coatings-based polymers
  • Surface modification by directed energy deposition (lasers, ion, or electron beams) or other techniques such as plasmas
  • Friction performance, corrosion, and wear resistance of coated load-bearing implants and/or dental implants

Dr. Alina Vladescu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Tunable Microstructure and Morphology of the Self-Assembly Hydroxyapatite Coatings on ZK60 Magnesium Alloy Substrates Using Hydrothermal Methods
Coatings 2021, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010008 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite coatings have been widely used to improve the corrosion resistance of biodegradable magnesium alloys. In this paper, in order to manufacture the ideal hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the ZK60 magnesium substrate by hydrothermal method, formation mechanism of enhanced hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, influence [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite coatings have been widely used to improve the corrosion resistance of biodegradable magnesium alloys. In this paper, in order to manufacture the ideal hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the ZK60 magnesium substrate by hydrothermal method, formation mechanism of enhanced hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, influence of pH values of the precursor solution on the HA morphology, corrosion resistance and cytotoxicity of HA coatings have been investigated. Results show that the growth pattern of the HA is influenced by the local pH value. HA has a preferential c-axis and higher crystallinity in the alkaline environment developing a nanorod-like structure, while in acid and neutral environments it has a preferential growth along the a(b)-plane with a lower crystallinity, developing a nanosheet-like structure. The different morphology and microstructure lead to different degradation behavior and performance of HA coatings. Immersion and electrochemical tests show that the neutral environment promote formation of HA coatings with high corrosion resistance. The cell culture experiments confirm that the enhanced corrosion resistance assure the biocompatibility of the substrate-coating system. In general, the HA coating prepared in neutral environment shows great potential in surface modification of magnesium alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Medical Implants)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Corrosion of Titanium Nitride and Oxynitride-Based Biocompatible Coatings Deposited on Stainless Steel
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080710 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
The reactive cathodic arc deposition technique was used to produce Ti nitride and oxynitride coatings on 304 stainless steel substrates (SS). Both mono (SS/TiN, SS/TiNO) and bilayer coatings (SS/TiN/TiNO and SS/TiNO/TiN) were investigated in terms of elemental and phase composition, microstructure, grain size, [...] Read more.
The reactive cathodic arc deposition technique was used to produce Ti nitride and oxynitride coatings on 304 stainless steel substrates (SS). Both mono (SS/TiN, SS/TiNO) and bilayer coatings (SS/TiN/TiNO and SS/TiNO/TiN) were investigated in terms of elemental and phase composition, microstructure, grain size, morphology, and roughness. The corrosion behavior in a solution consisting of 0.10 M NaCl + 1.96 M H2O2 was evaluated, aiming for biomedical applications. The results showed that the coatings were compact, homogeneously deposited on the substrate, and displaying rough surfaces. The XRD analysis indicated that both mono and bilayer coatings showed only cubic phases with (111) and (222) preferred orientations. The highest crystallinity was shown by the SS/TiN coating, as indicated also by the largest grain size of 23.8 nm, which progressively decreased to 16.3 nm for the SS/TiNO monolayer. The oxynitride layers exhibited the best in vitro corrosion resistance either as a monolayer or as a top layer in the bilayer structure, making them a good candidate for implant applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Medical Implants)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
In Vitro Corrosion and Tribocorrosion Performance of Biocompatible Carbide Coatings
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070654 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 803
Abstract
The present study aims to explain the corrosion and the tribocorrosion performance in simulated conditions of the human body by the level of stress, adhesion of coating to substrate, roughness, and hardness. The coatings were synthesized by the cathodic arc evaporation method on [...] Read more.
The present study aims to explain the corrosion and the tribocorrosion performance in simulated conditions of the human body by the level of stress, adhesion of coating to substrate, roughness, and hardness. The coatings were synthesized by the cathodic arc evaporation method on 316L stainless steel substrates to be used for load bearing implants. Structure, elemental, and phase compositions were studied by means of energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The grain size and strain of the coatings were determined by the Williamson–Hall plot method. Tests on hardness, adhesion, roughness, and electrochemical behavior in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37 ± 0.5 °C were carried out. Tribocorrosion performances, evaluated by measuring the friction coefficient and wear rate, were conducted in 0.9% NaCl solution using the pin on disc method at 37 ± 0.5 °C. TiC and ZrC exhibited a (111) preferred orientation, while TiNbC had a (200) orientation and the smallest crystallite size (8.1 nm). TiC was rougher than ZrC and TiNbC; the lowest roughness was found for TiNbC coatings. The highest hardness and adhesion values were found for TiNbC, followed by TiC and the ZrC. All coatings improved the corrosion resistance of 316L steels, but TiNbC showed the best corrosion behavior. TiNbC had the lowest friction coefficient (1.6) and wear rate (0.99 × 10−5 mm3·N−1∙m−1) values, indicating the best tribocorrosive performance in 0.9% NaCl at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Medical Implants)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Clinical Results of Identically Designed Total Knee Prostheses with Different Surface Roughnesses
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050486 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 884
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the undersurface roughness of total knee prosthesis on clinical outcomes. We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes and prosthesis survivals in patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty using prosthesis with identical designs [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the undersurface roughness of total knee prosthesis on clinical outcomes. We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes and prosthesis survivals in patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty using prosthesis with identical designs but different surface roughness (average surface roughnesses (Ra), 5.0 μm vs. 11.6 μm). The results showed that the knee prostheses with a more roughened undersurface (Ra = 11.6 μm) produced significantly better functional results and enhanced prosthesis survival. The difference in surface roughness was associated with incidence of osteolysis and loosening at the tibial baseplate, but not at the femoral component. Overall, our results provided significant evidence that the use of roughened undersurface of tibial baseplate would be a way to prevent aseptic loosening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Medical Implants)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Activity Assays of Sputtered HAp Coatings with SiC Addition in Various Simulated Biological Fluids
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060389 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Considering the requirements of medical implantable devices, it is pointed out that biomaterials should play a more sophisticated, longer-term role in the customization and optimization of the material–tissue interface in order to ensure the best long-term clinical outcomes. The aim of this contribution [...] Read more.
Considering the requirements of medical implantable devices, it is pointed out that biomaterials should play a more sophisticated, longer-term role in the customization and optimization of the material–tissue interface in order to ensure the best long-term clinical outcomes. The aim of this contribution was to assess the performance of silicon carbide–hydroxyapatite in various simulated biological fluids (Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), simulated body fluid (SBF), and phosphate buffer solution (PBS)) through immersion assays for 21 days at 37 ± 0.5 °C and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior. The coatings were prepared on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates by magnetron sputtering method using two cathodes made of hydroxyapatite and silicon carbide (SiC). After immersion assays the coating’s surface was analyzed in terms of morphology, chemical and phase composition, and chemical bonds. According to the electrochemical behavior in the media investigated at 37 ± 0.5 °C, SiC addition inhibits the dissolution of the hydroxyapatite in DMEM acellular media. Furthermore, after adding SiC, the slow degradation of hydroxyapatite in PBS and SBF media as well as biomineralization in DMEM were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Medical Implants)
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