Special Issue "Novel Marine Antifouling Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Elisabete Ribeiro Silva Website E-Mail
1. Centro de Química e Bioquímica (CQB), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal
2. Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente (CERENA), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: antifouling strategies; non-toxic antifouling coatings; immobilization of bioactive agents in polymeric matrices; catalytic processes for pollutants remediation (VOCs, pesticides)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antifouling coatings play a vital role in the marine industry for the prevention and/or control of marine biofouling attach and growth on submerged surfaces. This undesired bio-attach has been associated with serious economic and environmental penalties on both stationary and non-stationary (mobile) marine systems, from shipping, fisheries, aquaculture (e.g., cages) and other offshore activities, for instance, oil/wind-turbine-sea-platforms, desalination units, pipelines, water valves, filters and sensors. It can promote substrate deterioration, systems clogging, drag friction and fluids contamination, follow-on costly maintenance and retrofitting consequences.

Along the history of protective marine coatings, several antifouling strategies have been exploited. The most revolutionary coatings generation was marked by the appearance of the tributyltin (TBT) releasing based antifouling coatings, around the 1960s, owing to their high efficacy and broad spectrum toxic action, able to provide huge operational savings. But soon this solution was abandoned due to its harmful effects on the marine ecosystem, being totally banned in 2008. Since then, efforts have been done to replace this toxic agent and/or derivatives. Most conventional antifouling strategies (e.g., soluble polymeric matrices, controlled depletion polymer coatings (CDPs), self-polishing tin-free copolymer coatings (TF-SPC)) are however still acting by controlled-releasing mechanisms of toxic agents or booster biocides. Despite being considered less toxic to the aquatic environment, the global environmental concern has been leading to severe restrictions on their use. Alternative strategies, mostly inspired by the observation of natural chemical-physical antifouling defense mechanisms, have been emerging, from foul-releasing systems, biopassive polymeric coating, microtopography modified polymers, among others. Even so, these strategies still do not accomplish an effective effect comparable to the TBT generation or involve costly implementations.

Efforts are required to provide new strategies able to offer more efficient and sustainable environmental-friendly antifouling solutions, as well as to overcome major challenges, such as the complexity of the biofouling process and the global warming, able to inflict serious impacts in the marine ecosystem.

This Special Issue of Coatings on "Novel Marine Antifouling Coatings" is intended to cover the most recent and promising advances in marine antifouling coatings.

The main topics that this Special issue of Coatings will encompass are:

  • Foul-releasing coatings;
  • Antifouling self-healing coatings;
  • Non-releasing biocidal coatings;
  • Biopassive based polymeric coatings (zwitterionic, self-assembled monolayers approaches);
  • Bioinspired coatings (incorporating natural and/or new synthesized biomimetic based agents, microtopographically modified coatings);
  • Hybrid and/or multifunctional coatings (amphiphilic/stimuli-responsive systems).

Dr. Elisabete Ribeiro Silva
Guest Editor

 

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Biofouling of FeNP-Coated SWRO Membranes with Bacteria Isolated after Pre-Treatment in the Sea of Cortez
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070462 - 23 Jul 2019
Abstract
Commercial seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes were coated with iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) and biofouled with a bacterium strain isolated from the Sea of Cortez, Mexico. This strain was selected and characterized, as it was the only cultivable strain in pretreated seawater. Molecular identification [...] Read more.
Commercial seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes were coated with iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) and biofouled with a bacterium strain isolated from the Sea of Cortez, Mexico. This strain was selected and characterized, as it was the only cultivable strain in pretreated seawater. Molecular identification of the strain showed that it belongs to Bacillus halotolerans MCC1. This strain was Gram positive with spore production, and was susceptible to Fe+2 toxicity with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.8 g L−1. Its biofouling potential on both uncoated and FeNP coated reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was measured via biofilm layer thickness, total cell count, optical density and organic matter. The FeNP-coated RO membrane presented a significant reduction in biofilm cake layer thickness (>90%), total cells (>67%), optical density (>42%) and organic matter (>92%) with respect to an uncoated commercial membrane. Thus, Bacillus halotolerans MCC1 shows great potential to biofoul RO membranes as it can pass through ultrafiltration membranes due to its spore producing ability; nonetheless, FeNP-coated membranes represent a potential alternative to mitigate RO membrane biofouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Marine Antifouling Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Polydimethylsiloxane-Modified Polyurethane and the Structure and Properties of Its Antifouling Coatings
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050157 - 26 Apr 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) could be used to improve the antifouling properties of the fouling release coatings based on polyurethane (PU). A series of polydimethylsiloxane-modified polyurethane coatings were synthesized with various PDMS contents, using the solvent-free method. The effects of PDMS content and seawater immersion [...] Read more.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) could be used to improve the antifouling properties of the fouling release coatings based on polyurethane (PU). A series of polydimethylsiloxane-modified polyurethane coatings were synthesized with various PDMS contents, using the solvent-free method. The effects of PDMS content and seawater immersion on the chain structure and surface morphology were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the measurements of contact angles of deionized water and diiodomethane, surface free energies of the coatings were estimated according to the Owens two-liquid method. The PDMS-modified polyurethane exhibited lower surface free energy and a lower glass transition temperature than polyurethane. The presence of PDMS increased the degree of microphase separation, and enhanced the water resistance of the coatings. The optimum amount of PDMS reduced the elastic modulus and increased the ductility of the coating. The presence of PDMS benefited the removal of weakly attached organisms. Panel tests in the Yellow Sea demonstrated the antifouling activity of the PDMS-modified polyurethane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Marine Antifouling Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sharply Reduced Biofilm Formation from Cobetia marina and in Black Sea Water on Modified Siloxane Coatings
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8040136 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Siloxane fouling release coatings are currently the only viable non-toxic commercial alternative to toxic biocide antifouling paints. However, they only partially inhibit biofouling since biofilms remain a major issue. With the aim to improve the bacterial resistance of siloxane coatings modified with non-ionic [...] Read more.
Siloxane fouling release coatings are currently the only viable non-toxic commercial alternative to toxic biocide antifouling paints. However, they only partially inhibit biofouling since biofilms remain a major issue. With the aim to improve the bacterial resistance of siloxane coatings modified with non-ionic surfactant (NIS), antioxidant (AO) or both NIS/AO, the ability of PEG-silane co-cross-linker was investigated to reduce Cobetia marina adhesion and multispecies biofilm formation from natural seawater. Surface physical-chemical and physical-mechanical parameters relevant to bio-adhesion were estimated before the testing of the biofilm formation. Slightly reduced biofilm from C. marina and sharply reduced multispecies biofilm, formed in natural sea water, were found on the PEG-silane co-cross-linked coatings without modifying additives. However, both C. marina growth and biofilm formation from natural sea water were sharply reduced on the PEG-silane co-cross-linked coatings containing NIS or AO, even more, no C. marina adhesion was seen on the coating containing NIS and AO simultaneously. Possible explanations of the observed effects are presented in this article. It was concluded that the PEG-silane co-cross-linker, toghether with NIS and AO, can be used as an efficient tool to additionally reduce the bioadhesion of Gram-negative marine bacteria and multispecies biofilm formation on siloxane antifouling coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Marine Antifouling Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
The Dispersion Tolerance of Micro/Nano Particle in Polydimethylsiloxane and Its Influence on the Properties of Fouling Release Coatings Based on Polydimethylsiloxane
Coatings 2017, 7(7), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7070107 - 21 Jul 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Particles can be used to improve the mechanical properties of fouling release coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). In this study, coatings were prepared by high speed stirring using seven types of particles, with different particle size from nanometer to micrometer. The influence of [...] Read more.
Particles can be used to improve the mechanical properties of fouling release coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). In this study, coatings were prepared by high speed stirring using seven types of particles, with different particle size from nanometer to micrometer. The influence of specific surface area of the particles on the dispersion tolerance was investigated. The results showed that the dispersion tolerance of particles in PDMS decreased with the increase in specific surface area of the particle, and for nano particles, the factor most affecting the dispersion tolerance was the specific surface area of agglomerate particle. Subsequently, the surface properties, mechanical properties, and biofilm adhesion assay of coatings were investigated. Results indicated that surface roughness increased with the increase of dispersion tolerance. Surface roughness of samples improved the hydrophobicity of samples, yet the polar chemical group of nano silica and fumed silica reduced the hydrophobicity of samples. Further, particles could enhance the mechanical properties of coating, especially nano particles. Compared to the coating without particle, biofilm adhesion performance of coating with particles decreased, which was determined by the increase of the elastic modulus and surface roughness of coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Marine Antifouling Coatings)
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