Special Issue "Varnishes and Surface Treatments of Historical Wooden Artworks"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Marco Malagodi

Department of Musicology and Cultural Heritage, University of Pavia, Corso Garibaldi 178, 26100 Cremona, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: materials characterization; non invasive analysis; studies of coatings and protectives; artworks conservation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wood is probably one of the most employed materials in human history, due to the properties of ease in manufacturing, extreme availability and transportability, and also the capability of being a valid support for both organic and inorganic materials. Like all natural materials, wood undergoes fast degradation processes, either chemical and biological; therefore, we have always developed better conservation technologies, connected both to a suitable conservation of the manufacturing and in the protection of their surfaces. The conservation of wooden manufactured goods embraces different areas of restorative intervention, ranging from wooden polychrome works to lutherie area, up to the wider and better-known field of wooden furniture restoration. All these areas of intervention, each with its specific features, often use the same categories of natural compounds in the treatment of wooden surfaces, although using different application techniques. The main functions of these products are connected to the protection of the wooden surface, both from a mechanical and a chemical point of view, creating a superficial film that performs an aesthetic function that reduces the direct contact of the wooden support with the environment, which increases the hydrophobic rate of the wood itself and protects it from external agents, such as light, relative humidity, accidental impacts, biological agents and insects. The categories of natural materials still in use today for the protection of wooden surfaces concern products, such as animal resins (shellac), vegetal resins (mastic, sandarac), natural oils (especially siccative oils, e.g., linseed oil), and natural waxes. The considerable advantages that these natural products provide are unfortunately compensated by some functional limitations, such as high removability due to abrasion, a low hardness and consequent reduction of surface resistance, excessive thermoplasticity that changes structural characteristics during hot periods, or when in contact with external heat sources (even the human body). Towards this goal, we are assembling a Special Issue of Coatings to encourage researchers and to provide them with a platform to publish their novel studies.

The theme of this Special Issue broadly includes (but is not limited to):

• Natural organic coatings;
• Hydrophilic or hydrophobic coatings;
• Interactions between wood and coatings;
• Polychrome coatings;
• Degradation processes of coatings and wood;
• Novel coatings and characterizations.

Dr. Marco Malagodi

Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Approaches for Detecting Madder Lake in Multi-Layered Coating Systems of Historical Bowed String Instruments
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050171
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Musical instrument coatings are generally made by multi-layered systems of organic and inorganic materials, applied on the wood substrate by the violin makers during the finishing process. This coating has paramount relevance for several aspects: protection from sweat and dirt, increase of specific
[...] Read more.
Musical instrument coatings are generally made by multi-layered systems of organic and inorganic materials, applied on the wood substrate by the violin makers during the finishing process. This coating has paramount relevance for several aspects: protection from sweat and dirt, increase of specific acoustic features, and especially aesthetic effects. In fact, the colour of historical bowed string instruments represents a very peculiar characteristic of each workshop. Among the various colourants, lakes are the most challenging to detect because of their sensibility to the alteration processes. In this work, non-invasive and micro-invasive procedures were applied to a set of mock-ups mimicking historical coatings systems prior and after artificial ageing, in order to highlight the overall information that can be recovered for the detection of madder lake in historical bowed instruments. A set of techniques, including colourimetry, visible and UV-light imaging, stereomicroscopy, Fibre Optics Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (FORS), X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-ray microprobe (SEM-EDX), and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in order to evaluate the pros and cons in the detection of organic and inorganic component of madder lake at low concentration levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Varnishes and Surface Treatments of Historical Wooden Artworks)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Selected Properties of Shellac Varnish for Restoration and Polyurethane Varnish for Reconstruction of Historical Artefacts
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8040119
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (23425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At present, many historical artefacts and furniture are only reconstructed and not restored. They are preserved in terms of material reparation, but their historical value decreases significantly. This work is focused on the comparison of the resistance of high-gloss polyurethane varnish with traditional
[...] Read more.
At present, many historical artefacts and furniture are only reconstructed and not restored. They are preserved in terms of material reparation, but their historical value decreases significantly. This work is focused on the comparison of the resistance of high-gloss polyurethane varnish with traditional shellac varnish. The varnishes were applied to oak wood and exposed to interior artificial accelerated ageing in Xenotest. Before and after ageing, cold liquid-resistance tests were performed on the tested specimens and gloss, colour, and adhesion were also evaluated. The structures of the surfaces were also analysed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. As expected, polyurethane varnish was much more durable than shellac varnish. Interestingly, shellac varnish was fairly resistant to water at the beginning, but this resistance was greatly reduced after artificial accelerated ageing. This illustrates the importance of sheltering the shellac treated artefacts in stable temperature-humidity conditions with the least possible effect of solar radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Varnishes and Surface Treatments of Historical Wooden Artworks)
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Open AccessArticle Determining the Presence of Spalted Wood in Spanish Marquetry Woodworks of the 1500s through the 1800s
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110188
Received: 16 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The process of using fungal-colored wood (spalted wood) for marquetry and intarsia woodworks in Italy and Germany was very popular from the 1400–1600s, with some instances continuing as late as the 1800s. While spalted marquetry in these countries is relatively well documented, less
[...] Read more.
The process of using fungal-colored wood (spalted wood) for marquetry and intarsia woodworks in Italy and Germany was very popular from the 1400–1600s, with some instances continuing as late as the 1800s. While spalted marquetry in these countries is relatively well documented, less is known about its use in other parts of Europe. One of the primary reasons for this lack of knowledge is the difficulty in identifying spalted wood, especially the blue-green variety produced from Chlorociboria species, from wood dyed with copper-based compounds or other synthetics. The most reliable testing method involves destructive sampling, where a small piece is taken from the work, the pigment extracted, and an analysis performed. Such sampling is simply not feasible, nor often allowed, on ancient artwork. To make a reliable, non-destructive identification of spalted wood, a visual method based on anatomical characteristics of spalted wood was developed to differentiate spalted wood from dyed wood. High-resolution pictures were taken from wooden artifacts containing blue-green colored wood in collections at the National Museum of Decorative Arts (MNAD), the Royal Site Monastery El Escorial and the Bilbao Museum of Fine Arts in Spain. The concentration of pigment in the rays, the color distribution, the size of the piece and the date of production, were analyzed. With the use of this new visual method, it was possible to determine that intarsia artifacts, held in Spain but of Augsburg origin from the 1500–1600s, contained spalted wood details. Meanwhile, Spanish and Italian intarsia artifacts from the 1800s were found to only contain dyed wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Varnishes and Surface Treatments of Historical Wooden Artworks)
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