Special Issue "Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi

Istituto di Chimica dei Composti OrganoMetallici (ICCOM-CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
E-Mail
Phone: 00390555225250
Interests: electrodeposition of materials for renewable energy production; surface engineering; corrosion and corrosion protection; thermal barriers coatings; electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); X-ray techniques for surface structure and composition (XPS, XRF, XRD); electroless deposition of metals and cermets; simulation and modelling of complex electrochemical systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a pleasure for me to introduce this new special issue of Coatings: “Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology — Feature Papers”.

Surface modification offers solutions to material problems relevant in addressing critical societal challenges. Coatings are essential for achieving materials resistance and durability in extreme environment, realizing bio-compatible devices, building systems for sustainable energy generation and pollution remediation, just to mention some of the hottest applications. A continuous research effort is dedicated worldwide, both in industry and academia, to the quest of new coatings or coating architectures for an ever increasing variety of issues.

With the purpose of highlighting some of the most stimulating challenges in coatings science and technology, Coatings launches this new special issue consisting of invited feature, review and research papers from some of the most prominent investigators in the field.

Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle TiCl4 Barrier Process Engineering in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 25 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
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Abstract
Titanium nitride (TiN) not only was utilized in the wear-resistant coatings industry but it was also adopted in barrier processes for semiconductor manufacturing. Barrier processes include the titanium (Ti) and TiN processes, which are commonly used as diffusion barriers in via/contact applications. However, [...] Read more.
Titanium nitride (TiN) not only was utilized in the wear-resistant coatings industry but it was also adopted in barrier processes for semiconductor manufacturing. Barrier processes include the titanium (Ti) and TiN processes, which are commonly used as diffusion barriers in via/contact applications. However, engineers frequently struggle at the via/contact module in the beginning of every technology node. As devices shrink, barrier processes become more challenging to overcome the both the physical fill-in and electrical performance requirements of advanced small via/contact plugs. The aim of this paper is to investigate various chemical vapor deposition (CVD) TiCl4-based barrier processes to serve the application of advanced small via/contact plugs and the metal gate processes. The results demonstrate that the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) TiCl4-based Ti process needs to select a feasible process temperature to avoid Si surface corrosion by high-temperature chloride flow. Conventional high step coverage (HSC) CVD TiCl4-based TiN processes give much better impurity performance than metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) TiN. However, the higher chloride content in HSC film may degrade the long-term reliability of the device. Furthermore, it is evidenced that a sequential flow deposition (SFD) CVD TiCl4-based process with multiple cycles can give much less chloride content, resulting in faster erase speeds and lower erase levels than that of conventional HSC TiN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Natural Deposit Coatings on Steel during Cathodic Protection and Hydrogen Ingress
Coatings 2015, 5(4), 816-829; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5040816
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
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Abstract
The calcareous coating formed during cathodic protection (CP) in seawater is known to reduce the current demand by hindering the transport of species required to support the cathodic reactions and, thereby, improve the economic performance of CP systems. There is, however, uncertainty as [...] Read more.
The calcareous coating formed during cathodic protection (CP) in seawater is known to reduce the current demand by hindering the transport of species required to support the cathodic reactions and, thereby, improve the economic performance of CP systems. There is, however, uncertainty as to whether the coating reduces hydrogen uptake or indeed enhances it. To ascertain this, two sets of samples were polarized at −1.1 V (standard calomel electrode, SCE) in 3.5% w/v NaCl and synthetic seawater (ASTM D1141) at 20 °C and the diffusible hydrogen content measured over a period of 530 h. Under such conditions reports suggest a deposit with two distinct layers, comprising an initial brucite layer followed by an aragonite layer. Contrary to other findings, a fine initial layer containing Ca and Mg followed by a brucite layer was deposited with a few specks of Ca-containing zones in synthetic seawater. The hydrogen uptake was found to occur within the initial 100 h of exposure in synthetic seawater whilst it continued without the benefit of a deposit coating, i.e., in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Development of 3D Multicomponent Model for Cold Spray Process Using Nitrogen and Air
Coatings 2015, 5(4), 688-708; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5040688
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cold spray is a unique coating technology that allows for solid state deposition of particles under atmospheric pressure. In this paper, a three dimensional, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) multicomponent model is developed to estimate cold spray gas conditions involving both nitrogen and air. [...] Read more.
Cold spray is a unique coating technology that allows for solid state deposition of particles under atmospheric pressure. In this paper, a three dimensional, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) multicomponent model is developed to estimate cold spray gas conditions involving both nitrogen and air. Calibration of the model followed by validation is accomplished by considering the thermal history of substrate exposed to cold spray supersonic jet. The developed holistic multicomponent model is effective in determining the state of gas and particles from injection point to the substrate surface with the advantage of optimizing very rapid cold spray deposition in nanoseconds. The validation of k-ε type CFD multicomponent model is done by using the temperature measured for a titanium substrate exposed to cold spray nitrogen at 800 °C and 3 MPa. Heat transfer and radiation are considered for the de Laval nozzle used in cold spray experiments. The calibrated multicomponent model has successfully estimated the state of propellant gas for the chosen high pressure and high temperature cold spray conditions. Moreover, the multicomponent model predictions are in good agreement with a previous holistic three dimensional cold spray model in which only nitrogen was used as the surrounding as well as the propellant gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle High Energy Radial Deposition of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings
Coatings 2015, 5(3), 326-337; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5030326
Received: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
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Abstract
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited with a new direct ion deposition system using a novel 360 degree ion source operating at acceleration voltage between 4 and 8 kV. Cross-sectional TEM images show that the coatings have a three layered structure which originates [...] Read more.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited with a new direct ion deposition system using a novel 360 degree ion source operating at acceleration voltage between 4 and 8 kV. Cross-sectional TEM images show that the coatings have a three layered structure which originates from changes in the deposition parameters taking into account ion source condition, ion current density, deposition angles, ion sputtering and ion source movement. Varying structural growth conditions can be achieved by tailoring the deposition parameters. The coatings show good promise for industrial use due to their high hardness, low friction and excellent adhesion to the surface of the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Shearing Strength of a WC-12Co Thermal Spray Coating by the Scraping Test Method
Coatings 2015, 5(3), 278-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5030278
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
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Abstract
This paper reports on an experimental and analytical investigation conducted into efficacy of the scraping shear-test method in estimating the shearing adhesive strength of a thermally sprayed coating. It was found that the critical average shear stress, the apparent failure strength of WC-Co [...] Read more.
This paper reports on an experimental and analytical investigation conducted into efficacy of the scraping shear-test method in estimating the shearing adhesive strength of a thermally sprayed coating. It was found that the critical average shear stress, the apparent failure strength of WC-Co thermal spray coating, depends on both the dimensions of the test piece and the loading position around the interface between the coating and the substrate. More specifically, the apparent critical shear stress decreased as the height and width of the test piece increased. In addition, the apparent critical shear stress increased with increasing coating thickness and with decreasing loading point distance measured from the interface. Consequently, the real adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coating could not be ascertained from these experimental results. Furthermore, most of the failure initiation points were inside the coating, as opposed to at the interface. This fact means that the results of the tests do not indicate the interfacial adhesive strength, but rather the shear strength of the coating. Three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) analysis showed that the distributions of the shearing stress at the loading points were virtually the same at failure, regardless of the dimensions of the test piece. These results suggest that the scraping test method needs a corresponding numerical analysis of the failure mode in order to produce reliable results and is not necessarily able to estimate the interfacial adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Trap Generation Dynamics in Photo-Oxidised DEH Doped Polymers
Coatings 2015, 5(3), 263-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5030263
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of polyester films doped with a hole transport molecule, p-diethylaminobenzaldehyde-1,1'-diphenylhydrazone (DEH), have been systematically exposed to ultraviolet radiation with a peak wavelength of about 375 nm. The electronic performance of the films, evaluated using time-of-flight and space-charge current injection methods, is [...] Read more.
A series of polyester films doped with a hole transport molecule, p-diethylaminobenzaldehyde-1,1'-diphenylhydrazone (DEH), have been systematically exposed to ultraviolet radiation with a peak wavelength of about 375 nm. The electronic performance of the films, evaluated using time-of-flight and space-charge current injection methods, is observed to continuously degrade with increasing ultraviolet exposure. The degradation is attributed to photo cyclic oxidation of DEH that results in the creation of indazole (IND) molecules which function as bulk hole traps. A proposed model for the generation dynamics of the IND traps is capable of describing both the reduction in current injection and the associated time-of-flight hole mobility provided around 1% of the DEH population produce highly reactive photo-excited states which are completely converted to indazole during the UV exposure period. The rapid reaction of these states is incompatible with bulk oxygen diffusion-reaction kinetics within the films and is attributed to the creation of excited states within the reaction radius of soluble oxygen. It is suggested that encapsulation strategies to preserve the electronic integrity of the films should accordingly focus upon limiting the critical supply of oxygen for photo cyclic reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Strain Energy Effects in the Spinodal Decomposition of Cu-Ni(Fe) Nanolaminate Coatings
Coatings 2015, 5(3), 246-262; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5030246
Received: 9 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
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Abstract
A model for spinodal decomposition must account for interface effects that include gradient and strain energy terms. The measurement of diffusion in the Cu-Ni(Fe) alloy for the special case of nanolaminate structured coatings is considered wherein the composition fluctuation is one-dimensional along <111>. [...] Read more.
A model for spinodal decomposition must account for interface effects that include gradient and strain energy terms. The measurement of diffusion in the Cu-Ni(Fe) alloy for the special case of nanolaminate structured coatings is considered wherein the composition fluctuation is one-dimensional along <111>. An analytic approach is taken to model the kinetics of the transformation process that provides quantification of the strain energy dependence on the composition wavelength, as well as the intrinsic diffusivities and higher-order gradient-energy coefficients. The variation of the wave amplification factor R with wavenumber is modeled first to incorporate the boundary condition for growth at infinite wavelength. These results are used next to determine the gradient energy coefficients Kμ by modeling the interdiffusion coefficient ĎB variation with wavenumber, where a unique determination of the diffusion coefficient Ď is made. The value of the strain energy component that originates from interface strains associated with the epitaxial growth between layers is then determined by assessing the variation of wavelength-dependent amplification factors. A peak value of 9.4 × 107 J·m−3 for the strain energy is computed for Cu-Ni(Fe) nanolaminate coatings with 2–4 nm composition wavelengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Deposition of High Conductivity Low Silver Content Materials by Screen Printing
Coatings 2015, 5(2), 172-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5020172
Received: 8 February 2015 / Revised: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
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Abstract
A comprehensive experimental investigation has been carried out into the role of film thickness variation and silver material formulation on printing capability in the screen printing process. A full factorial experiment was carried out where two formulations of silver materials were printed through [...] Read more.
A comprehensive experimental investigation has been carried out into the role of film thickness variation and silver material formulation on printing capability in the screen printing process. A full factorial experiment was carried out where two formulations of silver materials were printed through a range of screens to a polyester substrate under a set of standard conditions. The materials represented a novel low silver content (45%–49%) polymer material and traditional high silver content (65%–69%) paste. The resultant prints were characterised topologically and electrically. The study shows that more cost effective use of the silver in the ink was obtained with the low silver polymer materials, but that the electrical performance was more strongly affected by the mesh being used (and hence film thickness). Thus, while optimum silver use could be obtained using materials with a lower silver content, this came with the consequence of reduced process robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Correlation of Growth and Surface Properties of Poly(\(p\)-xylylenes) to Reaction Conditions
Coatings 2015, 5(2), 142-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5020142
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 21 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
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Abstract
Parylene, a non-critical, non-toxic layer material, which is not only a candidate for low-\(K\) dielectrics, but also well suited for long-term applications in the human body, has been deposited by (plasma-enhanced) chemical vapor deposition of the monomeric species. To that end, a specially-designed [...] Read more.
Parylene, a non-critical, non-toxic layer material, which is not only a candidate for low-\(K\) dielectrics, but also well suited for long-term applications in the human body, has been deposited by (plasma-enhanced) chemical vapor deposition of the monomeric species. To that end, a specially-designed reactor exhibiting a cracker tube at its entrance, which serves as the upstream control, and a cooling trap in front of the downstream control has been applied. The process of polymerization has been traced and is explained by evaporating the dimeric species followed by dissociation in the cracker at elevated temperatures and, eventually, to the coating of the polymeric film in terms of thermodynamics. Alternatively, the process of dissociation has been accomplished applying a microwave plasma. In both cases, the monomerization is controlled by mass spectrometry. The window for surface polymerization could be clearly defined in terms of a factor of dilution by an inert gas for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) case and in the case of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), additionally by the power density. The characterization of the layer parameters has been carried out by several analytical tools: scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the surface roughness and density and depth of voids in the film, which influence the layer capacitance and deteriorate the breakdown voltage, a bulk property. The main issue is the conduct against liquids between the two borders' hydrophilic and hydrophobic conduct, but also the super-hydrophobic character, which is the condition for the Lotus effect. The surface tension has been evaluated by contact angle measurements. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has proven the conservation of all of the functional groups during polymerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Experimental Parameters Using the Dip-Coating Method on the Barrier Performance of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings in Strong Alkaline Environments
Coatings 2015, 5(2), 124-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5020124
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier properties in alkaline environments are scarce. The aim of this experimental research was to study the influence of experimental parameters using the dip-coating method on the barrier performance of an OIH sol-gel coating in contact with simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS). The influence of residence time (Rt), a curing step between each dip step and the number of layers of sol-gel OIH films deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel to prevent corrosion in highly alkaline environments was studied. The barrier performance of these OIH sol-gel coatings, named U(400), was assessed in the first instants of contact with SCPS, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic methods. The durability and stability of the OIH coatings in SCPS was monitored during eight days by macrocell current density. The morphological characterization of the surface was performed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy before and after exposure to SCPS. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to investigate the thickness of the U(400) sol-gel coatings as a function of the number of layers deposited with and without Rt in the coatings thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Process Parameters on Twin Wire Arc Spray Pattern Shape
Coatings 2015, 5(2), 115-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5020115
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
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Abstract
A design of experiments approach was used to describe process parameter—spray pattern relationships in the Twin Wire Arc process using zinc feed stock in a TAFA 8835 (Praxair, Concord, NH, USA) spray torch. Specifically, the effects of arc current, primary atomizing gas pressure, [...] Read more.
A design of experiments approach was used to describe process parameter—spray pattern relationships in the Twin Wire Arc process using zinc feed stock in a TAFA 8835 (Praxair, Concord, NH, USA) spray torch. Specifically, the effects of arc current, primary atomizing gas pressure, and secondary atomizing gas pressure on spray pattern size, spray pattern flatness, spray pattern eccentricity, and coating deposition rate were investigated. Process relationships were investigated with the intent of maximizing or minimizing each coating property. It was determined that spray pattern area was most affected by primary gas pressure and secondary gas pressure. Pattern eccentricity was most affected by secondary gas pressure. Pattern flatness was most affected by primary gas pressure. Coating deposition rate was most affected by arc current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Correlation between Microstructure Corrosion and Wear Resistance of Ag-Cu-Ge Alloys
Coatings 2015, 5(1), 78-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5010078
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
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Abstract
In this work, a morphological and structural characterization of a ternary Ag-Cu-Ge alloy of known composition was performed with the aim of evaluating how the passivation parameters (time and temperature) influence the morphological features of the material surface. A nanomechanical characterization was performed [...] Read more.
In this work, a morphological and structural characterization of a ternary Ag-Cu-Ge alloy of known composition was performed with the aim of evaluating how the passivation parameters (time and temperature) influence the morphological features of the material surface. A nanomechanical characterization was performed in order to correlate the morphology and microstructure of the alloy with its tarnish, wear, and scratch resistance. It was found that the addition of germanium to the alloy not only provides the material with tarnish and fire-stain resistance, but it also improves the scratch and wear resistance owing to the formation of a dense and stable thin oxide layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Halogen-Free Phosphonate Ionic Liquids as Precursors of Abrasion Resistant Surface Layers on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy
Coatings 2015, 5(1), 39-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5010039
Received: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2015 / Published: 28 January 2015
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Abstract
Surface coatings formed by immersion in the ionic liquids (ILs) 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP101), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP102) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylphosphonate (LEP102) on magnesium alloy AZ31B at 50 °C have been studied. The purpose of increasing the temperature was to reduce the immersion time, from [...] Read more.
Surface coatings formed by immersion in the ionic liquids (ILs) 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP101), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP102) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylphosphonate (LEP102) on magnesium alloy AZ31B at 50 °C have been studied. The purpose of increasing the temperature was to reduce the immersion time, from 14 days at room temperature, to 48 hours at 50 °C. The abrasion resistance of the coated alloy was studied by microscratching under progressively increasing load, and compared with that of the uncoated material. The order of abrasion resistance as a function of the IL is LEP102 > LMP101 > LMP102, which is in agreement with the order obtained for the coatings grown at room temperature. The maximum reduction in penetration depth with respect to the uncovered alloy, of a 44.5%, is obtained for the sample treated with the ethylphosphonate LEP102. However, this reduction is lower than that obtained when the coating is grown at room temperature. This is attributed to the increased thickness and lower adhesion of the coatings obtained at 50 °C, particularly those obtained from methylphosphonate ionic liquids. The results are discussed from SEM-EDX and profilometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Molybdenum Nitride Films: Crystal Structures, Synthesis, Mechanical, Electrical and Some Other Properties
Coatings 2015, 5(4), 656-687; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5040656
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 September 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (1265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among transition metal nitrides, molybdenum nitrides have been much less studied even though their mechanical properties as well as their electrical and catalytic properties make them very attractive for many applications. The δ-MoN phase of hexagonal structure is a potential candidate for an [...] Read more.
Among transition metal nitrides, molybdenum nitrides have been much less studied even though their mechanical properties as well as their electrical and catalytic properties make them very attractive for many applications. The δ-MoN phase of hexagonal structure is a potential candidate for an ultra-incompressible and hard material and can be compared with c-BN and diamond. The predicted superconducting temperature of the metastable MoN phase of NaCl-B1-type cubic structure is the highest of all refractory carbides and nitrides. The composition of molybdenum nitride films as well as the structures and properties depend on the parameters of the process used to deposit the films. They are also strongly correlated to the electronic structure and chemical bonding. An unusual mixture of metallic, covalent and ionic bonding is found in the stoichiometric compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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Open AccessReview Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices
Coatings 2015, 5(1), 26-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5010026
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
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Abstract
Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast [...] Read more.
Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min) on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Coatings and Surface Technology—Feature Papers)
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