Special Issue "Functional Ceramic Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Bozena Pietrzyk
SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
Interests: materials science; surface engineering; coatings; ceramics; biomaterials; composite coatings; photocatalytic coatings; nanomaterials; protective coatings; deposition methods; sol-gel
Dr. Sebastian Miszczak

Guest Editor
Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
Interests: thin films; coatings; sol-gel; ceramics; materials engineering; materials characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The properties of materials result, not only from structure and physico-chemical characteristics, but also from the properties of their surfaces. One of the ways of modifying material surface properties is by using deposition of coatings. Coatings can significantly change functionalities and applications of substrate materials.

Ceramics are an important group of coating materials with a wide range of controllable properties, such as electrical conductivity, photocatalytic and catalytic behavior, hardness, biocompatibility, surface energy, corrosion resistance, etc. Ceramic coatings contribute to the development of useful functionalities of materials, which are key factors for the advancement of science and technology. 

Understanding of the relationship between the structure and the properties of ceramic coatings and thin films is essential for further development of new applications of materials. An adjustment in structure and morphology of a coating or thin film, in order to modify its properties, can be used to add new functionalities and improved behavior of materials and devices.

The scope of the Special Issue “Functional Ceramic Coatings” is the presentation of innovative methods in fabrication, characterization and properties of ceramic coatings and thin films with an emphasis on influence of structure and morphology on their properties and potential applications.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

- New deposition processes including: liquid-based deposition, magnetron sputtering, PVD, CVD and their derivatives (such as PECVD, ALD, PLD, etc.), as well as hybrid methods.

- Ceramic coatings and thin films for functional application such as optical, electrical, tribological, catalytical/photocatalytical, magnetic, antibacterial, biomedical, protective, etc.

- Characterization methods to determine the properties of ceramic coatings and thin films

- New trends in ceramic coatings and films

Dr. Bozena Pietrzyk
Dr. Sebastian Miszczak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Deposition of Titanium Dioxide Coating by the Cold-Spray Process on Annealed Stainless Steel Substrate
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100991 - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
The surface of most metals is covered with thin native oxide films. It has generally been believed that to achieve bonding, the oxide covering the surface of metallic particles or metal substrates must be broken and removed by adiabatic shear instability (ASI), whether [...] Read more.
The surface of most metals is covered with thin native oxide films. It has generally been believed that to achieve bonding, the oxide covering the surface of metallic particles or metal substrates must be broken and removed by adiabatic shear instability (ASI), whether induced at the particle–substrate interface or at the particle–particle interface. The aim of the present research is to investigate the correlation between the remaining oxide amorphous layer and substrate-deformation with the adhesion strength of cold-sprayed TiO2 coatings towards the bonding mechanism involved. Relevant experiments were executed using stainless steel (SUS 304), subjected to various annealing temperatures and cold-sprayed with TiO2 powder. The results indicate an increasing trend of coating adhesion strength with increasing annealed substrate temperature. The influence of substrate plastic deformation and atomic intermixing at the remaining amorphous oxide layer is discussed as the factors contributing to the increasing adhesion strength of cold-sprayed TiO2 coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Al2O3 + Graphene Low-Friction Composite Coatings Prepared By Sol–Gel Method
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090858 - 04 Sep 2020
Abstract
In this work, Al2O3 + graphene coatings were prepared using the sol–gel method. The aim of the study was preliminary determination of the influence of size and amount of graphene nanoplatelets on morphology, chemical structure, and basic tribological properties of [...] Read more.
In this work, Al2O3 + graphene coatings were prepared using the sol–gel method. The aim of the study was preliminary determination of the influence of size and amount of graphene nanoplatelets on morphology, chemical structure, and basic tribological properties of Al2O3 + graphene composite coatings. Two types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplatelets with different lateral size and thickness were used to prepare the coatings. To characterize them, scanning electron microscope (SEM), glow discharged optical emission spectrometer (GDOES), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), reflectance spectrometer, and ball-on-disk tribological tests were used. It was found that the presence of graphene in the Al2O3 + graphene coatings did not fundamentally change the chemical transformation of ceramic Al2O3 matrix. Morphology examinations of coatings containing larger graphene nanoplatelets revealed a tendency to their parallel arrangement in relation to the coated surface. The tribological properties of Al2O3 + graphene coatings turned out to be strongly dependent on the size of graphene nanoplatelets as well as on the heat treatment temperature. The friction coefficient as low as 0.11 and good durability were obtained for the Al2O3 + graphene coating with larger nanoplatelets and heat-treated at 500 °C. The results of conducted research indicate the potential use of Al2O3 + graphene composite coatings prepared by the sol–gel method as low-friction ceramic coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
Open AccessArticle
Thin SiNC/SiOC Coatings with a Gradient of Refractive Index Deposited from Organosilicon Precursor
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080794 - 17 Aug 2020
Abstract
In this work, optical coatings with a gradient of the refractive index are described. Its aim was to deposit, using the RF PECVD method, films of variable composition (ranging from silicon carbon-oxide to silicon carbon-nitride) for a smooth change of their optical properties [...] Read more.
In this work, optical coatings with a gradient of the refractive index are described. Its aim was to deposit, using the RF PECVD method, films of variable composition (ranging from silicon carbon-oxide to silicon carbon-nitride) for a smooth change of their optical properties enabling a production of the filter with a refractive index gradient. For that purpose, two organosilicon compounds, namely tetramethyldisilazane and hexamethyldisilazane, were selected as precursor compounds. The results reveal better optical properties of the materials obtained from the latter source. Depending on whether deposited in pure oxygen atmosphere or under conditions of pure nitrogen, the refractive index of the coatings amounted to 1.65 and to 2.22, respectively. By using a variable composition N2/O2 gas mixture, coatings of intermediate magnitudes of “n” were acquired. The optical properties were investigated using both UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The chemical structure of the coatings was studied with the help of Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Finally, atomic force microscopy was applied to examine their surface topography. As the last step, a “cold mirror” type interference filter with a gradient of refractive index was designed and manufactured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Deposition Mechanism and Thickness Control of CVD SiC Coatings on NextelTM440 Fibers
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040408 - 20 Apr 2020
Abstract
SiC coatings were successfully synthesized on NextelTM440 fibers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using methyltrichlorosilane as the original SiC source at 1373 K. After deposited, the fibers were fully surrounded by uniform coatings with some bulges. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray [...] Read more.
SiC coatings were successfully synthesized on NextelTM440 fibers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using methyltrichlorosilane as the original SiC source at 1373 K. After deposited, the fibers were fully surrounded by uniform coatings with some bulges. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results indicated that the coatings were composed of β-SiC and free carbon. Moreover, thickness control of the coatings could be carried out by adjusting the deposition time. The coating thickness rose exponentially, and the exterior of the coatings became looser as the deposition time increased. The thickness of about 1.5 µm was obtained after depositing for 4 h. The coating thickness was also theoretically calculated, and the result agreed well with the measured thickness. Finally, the related deposition mechanism is discussed and a deposition model is built. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Observation and Nanoindentation Size Effect Characterization for Micron-/Nano-Grain TBCs
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040345 - 02 Apr 2020
Abstract
Microstructure observation and mechanical properties characterization for micron-/nano-grain thermal barrier coatings were investigated in this article. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrated that both micron-grain coating and nano-grain coating had micrometer-sized columnar grain structures; while the nano-grain coating had the initial nanostructures of the [...] Read more.
Microstructure observation and mechanical properties characterization for micron-/nano-grain thermal barrier coatings were investigated in this article. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrated that both micron-grain coating and nano-grain coating had micrometer-sized columnar grain structures; while the nano-grain coating had the initial nanostructures of the agglomerated powders reserved by the unmelted particles. The mechanical properties (hardness and modulus) of micron-/nano-grain coatings were characterized by using nanoindentation tests. The measurements indicated that the nano-grain coating possessed larger hardness and modulus than the micron-grain coating; which was related to the microstructure of coatings. Nanoindentation tests showed that the measured hardness increased strongly with the indent depth decreasing; which was frequently referred to as the size effect. The nanoindentation size effect of hardness for micron-/nano-grain coatings was effectively described by using the trans-scale mechanics theory. The modeling predictions were consistent with experimental measurements; keeping a reasonable selection of the material parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Frictional MoS2/WS2/FineLPN Hybrid Layers on Nodular Iron
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030293 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The paper presents the new concept of low frictional hybrid composite coatings on nodular cast iron. The structure of it is multilayer and consists of MoS2 and/or WS2 nanoinclusions embedded in the iron nitrides’ zone and relatively deep hard diffusion zone. [...] Read more.
The paper presents the new concept of low frictional hybrid composite coatings on nodular cast iron. The structure of it is multilayer and consists of MoS2 and/or WS2 nanoinclusions embedded in the iron nitrides’ zone and relatively deep hard diffusion zone. It offers a low friction coefficient as well as high wear resistance of coated parts. The details of technology as well as the mechanism of layer’s growth have been presented and discussed. The presented technology may be an interesting alternative for chromium-based galvanic coatings of piston rings made of nodular iron using Cr6+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Titanium Dioxide Coatings Doubly-Doped with Ca and Ag Ions as Corrosion Resistant, Biocompatible, and Bioactive Materials for Medical Applications
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020169 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a multifunctional biomedical coating that is highly corrosion resistant, biocompatible, and reveals the bioactive properties. For that purpose, titanium dioxide coatings doubly-doped with Ca and Ag ions were deposited by dip-coating onto M30NW biomedical steel. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop a multifunctional biomedical coating that is highly corrosion resistant, biocompatible, and reveals the bioactive properties. For that purpose, titanium dioxide coatings doubly-doped with Ca and Ag ions were deposited by dip-coating onto M30NW biomedical steel. The influence of different ratios of Ca and Ag dopants on morphology, surface structure, corrosion resistance, bioactivity, wettability, and biological properties of TiO2-based sol-gel coatings was studied and discussed. Comprehensive measurements were performed including atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), corrosion tests, immersion test, contact angle, as well as biological evaluation. The obtained results confirmed that anatase-based coatings containing Ca and Ag ions, independently of their molar ratio in the coating, are anticorrosive, hydrophilic, and bioactive. The results of the biological evaluation indicated that investigated coatings are biocompatible and do not reduce the proliferation ability of the osteoblasts cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Sliding Wear Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ternary Coatings from Blends of Single Oxides
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010042 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Al2O3, Cr2O3, and TiO2 are most commonly used oxide materials for thermal spray coating solutions. Each oxide shows unique properties comprising behavior in the spray process, hardness, corrosion, and wear resistance. In order to [...] Read more.
Al2O3, Cr2O3, and TiO2 are most commonly used oxide materials for thermal spray coating solutions. Each oxide shows unique properties comprising behavior in the spray process, hardness, corrosion, and wear resistance. In order to exploit the different advantages, binary compositions are often used, while ternary compositions are not studied yet. Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) of ternary compositions in the Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 system was studied using blends of plain powders with different ratios and identical spray parameters. Coatings from the plain oxides were studied for comparison. For these powder blends, different deposition rates were observed. The microstructure, roughness, porosity, hardness, and wear resistance were investigated. The formation of the splats from particles of each oxide occurs separately, without interaction between the particles. The exception are the chromium oxide splats, which contained some amounts of titanium. The predominant oxide present in each blend has a decisive influence on the properties of the coatings. While TiOx causes a low coating porosity, the wear resistance can be increased by adding Cr2O3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ti(C, N) as Barrier Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070432 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Metals and their alloys are materials that have long been used in stomatological prosthetics and orthodontics. The side effects of their application include reactions of the body such as allergies. Their source can be corrosion products as well as metal ions released in [...] Read more.
Metals and their alloys are materials that have long been used in stomatological prosthetics and orthodontics. The side effects of their application include reactions of the body such as allergies. Their source can be corrosion products as well as metal ions released in the corrosion process, which penetrate the surrounding tissue. In order to prevent the harming effect of metal alloys, intensive research has been performed to purify metal prosthetic restorations by way of modifying their surface. The study presents the investigation results of Ti(C, N)-type coatings applied to alloy Ni–Cr by means of the magnetronic method. Five coatings differing in the nitrogen and carbon content were investigated. The studies included the determination of the coatings’ chemical composition, construction, as well as the amount of ions released into the environment: distilled water, 0.9% NaCl and artificial saliva. The performed investigations showed that, in reference to an alloy without a coating, each coating constitutes a barrier reducing the amount of ions transferred into the examined solutions. So, Ti(C, N)-type coatings can be considered for biomedical applications as protective coatings of non-precious metal alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Properties of Zn Doped Hydrophobic SiO2 Coatings Produced by Sol-Gel Method
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060362 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bacteria existing on the surfaces of various materials can be both a source of infection and an obstacle to the proper functioning of structures. Increased resistance to colonization by microorganisms can be obtained by applying antibacterial coatings. This paper describes the influence of [...] Read more.
Bacteria existing on the surfaces of various materials can be both a source of infection and an obstacle to the proper functioning of structures. Increased resistance to colonization by microorganisms can be obtained by applying antibacterial coatings. This paper describes the influence of surface wettability and amount of antibacterial additive (Zn) on bacteria settlement on modified SiO2-based coatings. The coatings were made by sol-gel method. The sols were prepared on the basis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), modified with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and the addition of zinc nitrate or zinc acetate. Roughness and surface wettability tests, as well as study of the chemical structure of the coatings were carried out. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were checked by examining their susceptibility to colonization by Escherichia coli. It was found that the addition of zinc compound reduced the susceptibility to colonization by E. coli, while in the studied range, roughness and hydrophobicity did not affect the level of bacteria adhesion to the coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Sol-Gel Derived Calcium Hydroxyapatite Coatings Fabricated on Patterned Rough Stainless Steel Surface
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050334 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Sol-gel derived calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; CHA) thin films were deposited on stainless steel substrates with transverse and longitudinal patterned roughness employing a spin-coating technique. Each layer in the preparation of CHA multilayers was separately annealed [...] Read more.
Sol-gel derived calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; CHA) thin films were deposited on stainless steel substrates with transverse and longitudinal patterned roughness employing a spin-coating technique. Each layer in the preparation of CHA multilayers was separately annealed at 850 °C in air. Fabricated CHA coatings were placed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 2, 3, and 4 weeks and investigated after withdrawal. For the evaluation of obtained and treated with SBF coatings, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, XPS spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, and contact angle measurements were used. The tribological properties of the CHA coatings were also investigated in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Silicon-Modified Al Powders (SiO2@Al) on Anti-oxidation Performance of Al2O3-SiO2 Ceramic Coating for Carbon Steel at High Temperature
Coatings 2019, 9(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9030167 - 04 Mar 2019
Abstract
In this paper, silicon-modified Al powders (SiO2@Al) were prepared by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolysis under alkaline conditions. Using SiO2@Al as additives, a new Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic coating (ASMA) was formed on carbon steel to prevent [...] Read more.
In this paper, silicon-modified Al powders (SiO2@Al) were prepared by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolysis under alkaline conditions. Using SiO2@Al as additives, a new Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic coating (ASMA) was formed on carbon steel to prevent carbon steel from oxidization at 1250 °C for 120 min. Compared with the Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic coating without additive (AS), ASMA showed a remarkably better anti-oxidation performance, especially during the temperature-rise period. According to the characterization conducted by TG-DTA, XRD and SEM-EDS, it was found that the metallic Al in ASMA melted at 660 °C and reacted with SiO2 on its surface, which generated local high temperature and accelerated the sintering of ceramic raw materials. The mullite and hercynite formed in ASMA also played a major role for enhancing the anti-oxidation performance of ceramic coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical and Biological Activity Analysis of Low-Density Polyethylene Substrate Modified by Multi-Layer Coatings Based on DLC Structures, Obtained Using RF CVD Method
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8040135 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this paper, the surface properties and selected mechanical and biological properties of various multi-layer systems based on diamond-like carbon structure deposited on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrate were studied. Plasma etching and layers deposition (incl. DLC, N-DLC, Si-DLC) were carried out using the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the surface properties and selected mechanical and biological properties of various multi-layer systems based on diamond-like carbon structure deposited on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrate were studied. Plasma etching and layers deposition (incl. DLC, N-DLC, Si-DLC) were carried out using the RF CVD (radio frequency chemical vapor deposition) method. In particular, polyethylene with deposited N-DLC and DLC layers in one process was characterized by a surface hardness ca. seven times (up to ca. 2.3 GPa) higher than the unmodified substrate. Additionally, its surface roughness was determined to be almost two times higher than the respective plasma-untreated polymer. It is noteworthy that plasma-modified LDPE showed no significant cytotoxicity in vitro. Thus, based on the current research results, it is concluded that a multilayer system (based on DLC coatings) obtained using plasma treatment of the LDPE surface can be proposed as a prospective solution for improving mechanical properties while maintaining biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Deposition of Photocatalytic TiO2 Coating by Modifying the Solidification Pathway in Plasma Spraying
Coatings 2017, 7(10), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7100169 - 13 Oct 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings with plasma spraying is attractive for large-scale applications due to its low cost and simplicity, but it is still a challenge to obtain a TiO2 coating with high anatase content. The solidification pathway of inflight [...] Read more.
The deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings with plasma spraying is attractive for large-scale applications due to its low cost and simplicity, but it is still a challenge to obtain a TiO2 coating with high anatase content. The solidification pathway of inflight melted particles was investigated in the present paper, and TiO2 coatings with enhanced photocatalytic activity were obtained without a significant loss of the microhardness. The coating microstructure, phase composition, and crystallite size were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Photocatalytic performance was evaluated by decomposing an aqueous solution of methylene blue. Results showed that the anatase content in TiO2 coating was augmented to 19.9% from 4%, and the time constant of the activity was increased to 0.0046 h−1 from 0.0017 h−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramic Coatings)
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