Special Issue "Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2023 | Viewed by 15259

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Liqiang Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Interests: biomedical alloys; metals; surface modification; microstructure; mechanical properties
Prof. Dr. Lechun Xie
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Automotive Components, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: titanium alloys; titanium matrix composite; additive manufacturing, surface treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Faramarz Djavanroodi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia
Interests: surface modification; bioactivity; bio-function; biomedical metal; titanium; magnesium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of metal in biomedicine is becoming more and more common, but, due to its various limitations, it is often necessary to modify its surface to obtain better performance and better clinical application. There are many technologies for surface modification of medical metals, such as laser surface modification, chemical treatment, plasma surface modification, etc., and these technologies are still being developed to meet market demand. This Special Issue will collect important contributions related to the announced topics, focusing on biomedical metals and surface modification technologies of biomedical metals.

In particular, topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Design of biomedical alloy
  • Preparation method of biomedical alloy
  • Biomedical alloy modification technology and method
  • Surface biological activity modification of biomedical alloys
  • Modification of corrosion resistance of biomedical alloys
  • Modification of wear resistance of biomedical alloys
  • Preparation of biomedical alloy surface coating
  • Evaluation of nanoscale microstructure and performance of biomedical alloys

Prof. Dr. Liqiang Wang
Prof. Dr. Lechun Xie
Prof. Dr. Faramarz Djavanroodi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomedical alloy
  • Metals
  • Modification technology
  • Preparation
  • Microstructure
  • Mechanical properties
  • Osseointegration
  • Antibacterial properties
  • Surface coating
  • Clinical application

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Microstructural and Mechanical Properties Characterization of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Ti-Matrix Composites
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020120 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The 0.1–0.7 wt.% graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced Ti-matrix composites (TMCs) were prepared by the hot-pressed sintering method. The effects of GO content on the mechanical properties of TMCs were investigated. The microstructure of TMCs was analyzed. The results show that the microstructure of Ti [...] Read more.
The 0.1–0.7 wt.% graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced Ti-matrix composites (TMCs) were prepared by the hot-pressed sintering method. The effects of GO content on the mechanical properties of TMCs were investigated. The microstructure of TMCs was analyzed. The results show that the microstructure of Ti and TMCs is equiaxed α. The average grain size of TMCs decreases with GO increasing. GO can react with Ti to form TiC at high temperatures. Meanwhile, GO is also presented in the matrix. The hardness of TMCs is higher than that of pure Ti. The maximum hardness is 320 HV, which is 43% higher than that of pure Ti. The yield strength of Ti-0.5 wt.% GO sintered at 1373 K is 1324 MPa, 77% more than pure Ti. The strengthening mechanism of TMCs is the fine-grained strengthening and the reinforcement that bear the stress from the matrix. The friction coefficient of Ti-0.3 wt.% GO sintered at 1373 K comes up to 0.50, which is reduced by 0.2 compared with pure Ti. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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Article
Characterization and In Vitro Studies of Low Reflective Magnetite (Fe3O4) Thin Film on Stainless Steel 420A Developed by Chemical Method
Coatings 2021, 11(9), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11091145 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Stainless steel has been the most demanded material for surgical utensil manufacture due to superior mechanical properties, sufficient wear, and corrosion resistance. Surgical grade 420A stainless steel is extensively used for producing sophisticated surgical instruments. Since these instruments are used under bright light [...] Read more.
Stainless steel has been the most demanded material for surgical utensil manufacture due to superior mechanical properties, sufficient wear, and corrosion resistance. Surgical grade 420A stainless steel is extensively used for producing sophisticated surgical instruments. Since these instruments are used under bright light conditions prevalent in operation theatres, the reflection from the material is significant which causes considerable strain to the eye of the surgeon. Surgical instruments with lower reflectance will be more efficient under these conditions. A low reflective thin -film coating has often been suggested to alleviate this inadmissible difficulty. This paper reports the development of an optimum parametric low reflective magnetite coating on the surface of SS 420A with a black color using chemical hot alkaline conversion coating technique and its bioactivity studies. Coating process parameters such as coating time, bath temperature, and chemical composition of bath are optimized using Taguchi optimization techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to identify the composition of elements and the chemical condition of the developed coating. Surface morphological studies were accomplished with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). When coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), compositional information can also be collected simultaneously. Invitro cytotoxicity tests, corrosion behavior, the effect of sterilization temperature on adhesion property, and average percentage reflectance (R) of the developed coating have also been evaluated. These results suggest adopting the procedure for producing low reflective conversion coatings on minimally invasive surgical instruments produced from medical grade 420A stainless steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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Article
Preparation and Properties of Multilayer Ca/P Bio-Ceramic Coating by Laser Cladding
Coatings 2021, 11(8), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11080891 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
In order to enhance the bioactivity and wear resistance of titanium (Ti) and its alloy for use as an implant surface, a multilayer Ca/P (calcium/phosphorus) bio-ceramic coating on a Ti6Al4V alloy surface was designed and prepared by a laser cladding technique, using the [...] Read more.
In order to enhance the bioactivity and wear resistance of titanium (Ti) and its alloy for use as an implant surface, a multilayer Ca/P (calcium/phosphorus) bio-ceramic coating on a Ti6Al4V alloy surface was designed and prepared by a laser cladding technique, using the mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder and Ti powder as a cladding precursor. The main cladding process parameters were 400 W laser power, 3 mm/s scanning speed, 2 mm spot diameter and 30% lapping rate. When the Ca/P ceramic coating was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF), ion exchange occurred between the coating and the immersion solution, and hydroxyapatite (HA) was induced and deposited on its surface, which indicated that the Ca/P bio-ceramic coating had good bioactivity. The volume wear of Ca/P ceramic coating was reduced by 43.2% compared with that of Ti6Al4V alloy by the pin-disc wear test, which indicated that the Ca/P bio-ceramic coating had better wear resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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Article
Preparation and Degradation Characteristics of MAO/APS Composite Bio-Coating in Simulated Body Fluid
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060667 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
In this work, ZK60 magnesium alloy was employed as a substrate material to produce ceramic coatings, containing Ca and P, by micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) was used to prepare the hydroxyapatite layer (HA) on the MAO coating to obtain a [...] Read more.
In this work, ZK60 magnesium alloy was employed as a substrate material to produce ceramic coatings, containing Ca and P, by micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) was used to prepare the hydroxyapatite layer (HA) on the MAO coating to obtain a composite coating for better biological activity. The coatings were examined by various means including an X-ray diffractometer, a scanning electron microscope and an energy spectrometer. Meanwhile, an electrochemical examination, immersion test and tensile test were used to evaluate the in vitro performance of the composite coatings. The results showed that the composite coating has a better corrosion resistance. In addition, this work proposed a degradation model of the composite coating in the simulated body fluid immersion test. This model explains the degradation process of the MAO/APS coating in SBF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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Review

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Review
A Review of Effects of Femtosecond Laser Parameters on Metal Surface Properties
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101596 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
As a laser technology, the femtosecond laser is used in biomedical fields due to its excellent performance—its ultrashort pulses, high instantaneous power, and high precision. As a surface treatment process, the femtosecond laser can prepare different shapes on metal surfaces to enhance the [...] Read more.
As a laser technology, the femtosecond laser is used in biomedical fields due to its excellent performance—its ultrashort pulses, high instantaneous power, and high precision. As a surface treatment process, the femtosecond laser can prepare different shapes on metal surfaces to enhance the material’s properties, such as its wear resistance, wetting, biocompatibility, etc. Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) are a common phenomenon that can be observed on almost any material after irradiation by a linearly polarized laser. In this paper, the current research state of LIPSSs in the field of biomedicine is reviewed. The influence of laser parameters (such as laser energy, pulse number, polarization state, and pulse duration) on the generation of LIPSSs is discussed. In this paper, the applications of LIPSSs by femtosecond laser modification for various purposes, such as in functional surfaces, the control of surface wettability, the surface colonization of cells, and the improvement of tribological properties of surfaces, are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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Review
β-Ti Alloys for Orthopedic and Dental Applications: A Review of Progress on Improvement of Properties through Surface Modification
Coatings 2021, 11(12), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11121446 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Ti and Ti alloys have charming comprehensive properties (high specific strength, strong corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility) that make them the ideal choice in orthopedic and dental applications, especially in the particular fabrication of orthopedic and dental implants. However, these alloys present some [...] Read more.
Ti and Ti alloys have charming comprehensive properties (high specific strength, strong corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility) that make them the ideal choice in orthopedic and dental applications, especially in the particular fabrication of orthopedic and dental implants. However, these alloys present some shortcomings, specifically elastic modulus, wear, corrosion, and biological performance. Beta-titanium (β-Ti) alloys have been studied as low elastic modulus and low toxic or non-toxic elements. The present work summarizes the improvements of the properties systematically (elastic modulus, hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, antibacterial property, and bone regeneration) for β-Ti alloys via surface modification to address these shortcomings. Additionally, the shortcomings and prospects of the present research are put forward. β-Ti alloys have potential regarding implants in biomedical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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Review
Toward Bactericidal Enhancement of Additively Manufactured Titanium Implants
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060668 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Implant-associated infections (IAIs) are among the most intractable and costly complications in implant surgery. They can lead to surgery failure, a high economic burden, and a decrease in patient quality of life. This manuscript is devoted to introducing current antimicrobial strategies for additively [...] Read more.
Implant-associated infections (IAIs) are among the most intractable and costly complications in implant surgery. They can lead to surgery failure, a high economic burden, and a decrease in patient quality of life. This manuscript is devoted to introducing current antimicrobial strategies for additively manufactured (AM) titanium (Ti) implants and fostering a better understanding in order to pave the way for potential modern high-throughput technologies. Most bactericidal strategies rely on implant structure design and surface modification. By means of rational structural design, the performance of AM Ti implants can be improved by maintaining a favorable balance between the mechanical, osteogenic, and antibacterial properties. This subject becomes even more important when working with complex geometries; therefore, it is necessary to select appropriate surface modification techniques, including both topological and chemical modification. Antibacterial active metal and antibiotic coatings are among the most commonly used chemical modifications in AM Ti implants. These surface modifications can successfully inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, and bacterial apoptosis, leading to improved antibacterial properties. As a result of certain issues such as drug resistance and cytotoxicity, the development of novel and alternative antimicrobial strategies is urgently required. In this regard, the present review paper provides insights into the enhancement of bactericidal properties in AM Ti implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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Review
Innovative Surface Modification Procedures to Achieve Micro/Nano-Graded Ti-Based Biomedical Alloys and Implants
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060647 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4291
Abstract
Due to the growing aging population of the world, and as a result of the increasing need for dental implants and prostheses, the use of titanium and its alloys as implant materials has spread rapidly. Although titanium and its alloys are considered the [...] Read more.
Due to the growing aging population of the world, and as a result of the increasing need for dental implants and prostheses, the use of titanium and its alloys as implant materials has spread rapidly. Although titanium and its alloys are considered the best metallic materials for biomedical applications, the need for innovative technologies is necessary due to the sensitivity of medical applications and to eliminate any potentially harmful reactions, enhancing the implant-to-bone integration and preventing infection. In this regard, the implant’s surface as the substrate for any reaction is of crucial importance, and it is accurately addressed in this review paper. For constructing this review paper, an internet search was performed on the web of science with these keywords: surface modification techniques, titanium implant, biomedical applications, surface functionalization, etc. Numerous recent papers about titanium and its alloys were selected and reviewed, except for the section on forthcoming modern implants, in which extended research was performed. This review paper aimed to briefly introduce the necessary surface characteristics for biomedical applications and the numerous surface treatment techniques. Specific emphasis was given to micro/nano-structured topographies, biocompatibility, osteogenesis, and bactericidal effects. Additionally, gradient, multi-scale, and hierarchical surfaces with multifunctional properties were discussed. Finally, special attention was paid to modern implants and forthcoming surface modification strategies such as four-dimensional printing, metamaterials, and metasurfaces. This review paper, including traditional and novel surface modification strategies, will pave the way toward designing the next generation of more efficient implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification Technology of Biomedical Metals)
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