Special Issue "Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 April 2023 | Viewed by 15481

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Toshiyuki Kawai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
Interests: total hip arthroplasty; hip dysplasia; hip–spine syndrome; spinopelvic mobility; titanium metal; bone healing; angiogenesis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Implantable materials are becoming more and more important as an alternative to repair, assist or replace defective parts of the body, such as dental, orthopedic, and cardiac implants. The properties of the materials have to match the mechanical stress applied to the implant. Implanted materials will be in direct contact with viable tissues in the body, which can cause an adverse reaction. Ideal implant material should be biocompatible, nontoxic, noncarniogenic, nonpyrogenic and nonallergenic. Further, the implants should have strength, durability, and show resistance to fatigue or corrosion. Modern technologies have enabled various surface modifications, including coating with ceramics, an extracellular matrix, growth factors to improve their biocompatibility, antibacterial property, or to promote differentiation of stem cells.

This Special Issue of Coatings will cover original research articles and review papers. The topics of interest include but are not limited to the development and application of surface coating for dental, orthopedic, and cardiac implants. This Special Issue will provide understanding of the current trends in those fields.

We look forward to receiving your contribution.

Prof. Toshiyuki Kawai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • osseointegration
  • antibacterial property
  • surface modification
  • cell adhesion
  • orthopaedic devices
  • dental implants
  • vascular grafts

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Novel Technology for Enamel Remineralization in Artificially Induced White Spot Lesions: In Vitro Study
Coatings 2022, 12(9), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12091285 - 02 Sep 2022
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The enamel white spot lesion is a common complication of orthodontic treatment with a high prevalence. This research aims to create an artificially induced white spot lesion, evaluate three different commercial products in terms of visual appeal, mineral reestablishment, and roughness, and determine [...] Read more.
The enamel white spot lesion is a common complication of orthodontic treatment with a high prevalence. This research aims to create an artificially induced white spot lesion, evaluate three different commercial products in terms of visual appeal, mineral reestablishment, and roughness, and determine which material can recover the initial structure. We created an artificially induced white spot lesion in extracted teeth. The materials used in the study were peptide p11-4 (CurodontTM Repair, Credentis AG), bioactive glass toothpaste (Biomin F, BioMin Technologies Limited), and local fluoridation (Tiefenfluorid, Humanchemie) in conjunction with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). To objectively assess the surface, the roughness, mineral content, and esthetic were measured. The roughness increased with a median difference of −0.233 µm in the bioactive glass group; the color parameter delta L decreased dramatically with a median difference of 5.9–6.7; and the cervical third increased the Ca-P mineral content above the starting stage. Each material contributed significantly to enamel consolidation, with peptide therapy providing the most encouraging results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA)-Coated Anti-Platelet Adhesive Surfaces to Mimic Native Blood Vessels through HUVECs Attachment, Migration, and Monolayer Formation
Coatings 2022, 12(6), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12060869 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) antithrombogenic surface play a major role in mimicking the inner surface of native blood vessels. In this study, we extensively investigated the behavior of cell–polymer and cell–cell interactions by [...] Read more.
Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) antithrombogenic surface play a major role in mimicking the inner surface of native blood vessels. In this study, we extensively investigated the behavior of cell–polymer and cell–cell interactions by measuring adhesion strength using single-cell force spectroscopy. In addition, the attachment and migration of HUVECs on PMEA-analogous substrates were detected, and the migration rate was estimated. Moreover, the bilateral migration of HUVECs between two adjacent surfaces was observed. Furthermore, the outer surface of HUVEC was examined using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Hydration was found to be an indication of a healthy glycocalyx layer. The results were compared with the hydration states of individual PMEA-analogous polymers to understand the adhesion mechanism between the cells and substrates in the interface region. HUVECs could attach and spread on the PMEA surface with stronger adhesion strength than self-adhesion strength, and migration occurred over the surface of analogue polymers. We confirmed that platelets could not adhere to HUVEC monolayers cultured on the PMEA surface. FM-AFM images revealed a hydration layer on the HUVEC surfaces, indicating the presence of components of the glycocalyx layer in the presence of intermediate water. Our findings show that PMEA can mimic original blood vessels through an antithrombogenic HUVEC monolayer and is thus suitable for the construction of artificial small-diameter blood vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Drug-Releasing Gelatin Coating Reinforced with Calcium Titanate Formed on Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Designed for Osteoporosis Bone Repair
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020139 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Ti–6Al–4V alloy has been widely used in the orthopedic and dental fields owing to its high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. However, this alloy has a poor bone-bonding capacity, and its implantation often causes loosening. Osteoporosis increases with the aging of the population, and [...] Read more.
Ti–6Al–4V alloy has been widely used in the orthopedic and dental fields owing to its high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. However, this alloy has a poor bone-bonding capacity, and its implantation often causes loosening. Osteoporosis increases with the aging of the population, and bisphosphonate drugs such as alendronate and minodronate (MA) are used for the medical treatment. Reliable and multifunctional implants showing both bone bonding and drug releasing functions are desired. In this study, we developed a novel organic-inorganic composite layer consisting of MA-containing gelatin and calcium-deficient calcium titanate (cd–CT) with high bone-bonding and scratch resistance on Ti–6Al–4V alloy. The alloy with the composite layer formed apatite within 7 days in a simulated body fluid and exhibited high scratch resistance of an approximately 50 mN, attributable to interlocking with cd ± CT. Although the gelatin layer almost completely dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline within 6 h, its dissolution rate was significantly suppressed by a subsequent thermal crosslinking treatment. The released MA was estimated at more than 0.10 μmol/L after 7 days. It is expected that the Ti alloy with the MA-containing gelatin and cd–CT composite layer will be useful for the treatment of osteoporosis bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Bone Density around Titanium Dental Implants Coating Tested/Coated with Chitosan or Melatonin: An Evaluation via Microtomography in Jaws of Beagle Dogs
Coatings 2021, 11(7), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11070777 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Peri-implant bone density plays an important role in the osseointegration of dental implants. The aim of the study was to evaluate via micro-CT, in Hounsfield units, the bone density around dental implants coated with chitosan and melatonin and to compare it with the [...] Read more.
Peri-implant bone density plays an important role in the osseointegration of dental implants. The aim of the study was to evaluate via micro-CT, in Hounsfield units, the bone density around dental implants coated with chitosan and melatonin and to compare it with the bone density around implants with a conventional etched surface after 12 weeks of immediate post-extraction placement in the jaws of Beagle dogs. Six dogs were used, and 48 implants were randomly placed: three groups—melatonin, chitosan, and control. Seven 10 mm × 10 mm regions of interest were defined in each implant (2 in the crestal zone, 4 in the medial zone, and 1 in the apical zone). A total of 336 sites were studied with the AMIDE tool, using the Norton and Gamble classification to assess bone density. The effect on bone density of surface coating variables (chitosan, melatonin, and control) at the crestal, medial, and apical sites and the implant positions (P2, P3, P4, and M1) was analyzed at bivariate and multivariate levels (linear regression). Adjusted effects on bone density did not indicate statistical significance for surface coatings (p = 0.653) but did for different levels of ROIs (p < 0.001) and for positions of the implants (p = 0.032). Micro-CT, with appropriate software, proved to be a powerful tool for measuring osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Attachment and Growth of Fibroblast Cells on Poly (2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) Analog Polymers as Coating Materials
Coatings 2021, 11(4), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11040461 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
The regulation of adhesion and the subsequent behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface of biomaterials is important for successful tissue regeneration and wound healing by implanted biomaterials. We have synthesized poly(ω-methoxyalkyl acrylate)s (PMCxAs; x indicates the number of methylene carbons [...] Read more.
The regulation of adhesion and the subsequent behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface of biomaterials is important for successful tissue regeneration and wound healing by implanted biomaterials. We have synthesized poly(ω-methoxyalkyl acrylate)s (PMCxAs; x indicates the number of methylene carbons between the ester and ethyl oxygen), with a carbon chain length of x = 2–6, to investigate the regulation of fibroblast cell behavior including adhesion, proliferation, migration, differentiation and collagen production. We found that PMC2A suppressed the cell spreading, protein adsorption, formation of focal adhesion, and differentiation of normal human dermal fibroblasts, while PMC4A surfaces enhanced them compared to other PMCxAs. Our findings suggest that fibroblast activities attached to the PMCxA substrates can be modified by changing the number of methylene carbons in the side chains of the polymers. These results indicate that PMCxAs could be useful coating materials for use in skin regeneration and wound dressing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Evaluation of Antithrombogenic pHPC on CoCr Substrates for Biomedical Applications
Coatings 2021, 11(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010093 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Bare metal endovascular implants pose a significant risk of causing thrombogenic complications. Antithrombogenic surface modifications, such as phenox’s “Hydrophilic Polymer Coating” (pHPC), which was originally developed for NiTi implants, decrease the thrombogenicity of metal surfaces. In this study, the transferability of pHPC onto [...] Read more.
Bare metal endovascular implants pose a significant risk of causing thrombogenic complications. Antithrombogenic surface modifications, such as phenox’s “Hydrophilic Polymer Coating” (pHPC), which was originally developed for NiTi implants, decrease the thrombogenicity of metal surfaces. In this study, the transferability of pHPC onto biomedical CoCr-based alloys is examined. Coated surfaces were characterized via contact-angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. The equivalence of the antithrombogenic effect in contact with whole human blood was demonstrated in vitro for CoCr plates compared to NiTi plates on a platform shaker and for braided devices in a Chandler loop. Platelet adhesion was assessed via scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The coating efficiency of pHPC on CoCr plates was confirmed by a reduction of the contact angle from 84.4° ± 5.1° to 36.2° ± 5.2°. The surface roughness was not affected by the application of pHPC. Platelet adhesion was significantly reduced on pHPC-coated specimens. The platelet covered area was reduced by 85% for coated CoCr plates compared to uncoated samples. Uncoated braided devices were completely covered by platelets, while on the pHPC-coated samples, very few platelets were visible. In conclusion, the antithrombogenic effect of pHPC coating can be successfully applied on CoCr plates as well as stent-like CoCr braids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Osteogenic and Antibacterial Activity of a Plasma-Sprayed CeO2 Coating on a Titanium (Ti)-Based Dental Implant
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10101007 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Peri-implantitis, often induced by oral pathogens, is one of the main reasons for the clinical failure of dental implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility, osteogeneic, and antibacterial properties of a cerium oxide (CeO2) coating containing high [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis, often induced by oral pathogens, is one of the main reasons for the clinical failure of dental implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility, osteogeneic, and antibacterial properties of a cerium oxide (CeO2) coating containing high proportions of Ce4+ valences on a titanium-based dental implant biomaterial, Ti-6Al-4V. MC3T3-E1 cells or bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded onto Ti-6Al-4V disks with or without CeO2 coating. Compared to the control, the plasma-sprayed CeO2 coating showed enhanced cell viability based on cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry assays. CCK-8, colony-forming unit test (CFU), and live-dead staining illustrated the antibacterial activity of CeO2 coating. Additionally, CeO2 coating upregulated the gene expression levels of osteogenic markers ALP, Bsp and Ocn, with a similar increase in protein expression levels of OCN and Smad 1 in both MC3T3-E1 cells and BMSCs. More importantly, the viability and proliferation of Enterococcus faecalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were significantly decreased on the CeO2-coated Ti-6Al-4V surfaces compared to non-treated Ti-6Al-4V. In conclusion, the plasma-sprayed CeO2 coating on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V exhibited strong biocompatibility, antibacterial, and osteogenic characteristics, with potential for usage in coated dental implant biomaterials for prevention of peri-implantitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Properties of Titanium Oxide Coating on MgZn Alloy by Magnetron Sputtering for Stent Application
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100999 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Constructing surface coatings is an effective way to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy bioabsorbable implants. In this present work, a titanium oxide coating with a thickness of about 400 nm was successfully prepared on a MgZn alloy surface via [...] Read more.
Constructing surface coatings is an effective way to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy bioabsorbable implants. In this present work, a titanium oxide coating with a thickness of about 400 nm was successfully prepared on a MgZn alloy surface via a facile magnetron sputtering route. The surface features were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the contact angle method. The corrosion behavior and biocompatibility were evaluated. The results indicated that the amorphous TiO2 coating with a flat and dense morphology was obtained by magnetron-sputtering a titanium oxide target. The corrosion current density decreased from 1050 (bare MgZn alloy) to 49 μA/cm2 (sample with TiO2 coating), suggesting a significant increase in corrosion resistance. In addition, the TiO2 coating showed good biocompatibilities, including significant reduced hemolysis and platelet adhesion, and increased endothelial cell viability and adhesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Article
Nanostructured Titanium for Improved Endothelial Biocompatibility and Reduced Platelet Adhesion in Stent Applications
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090907 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Although coronary stents have improved the early and long-term consequences of arterial lesions, the prevention of restenosis and late stent thrombosis is key to prevent a new obstruction of the vessel. Here we aimed at improving the tissue response to stents through surface [...] Read more.
Although coronary stents have improved the early and long-term consequences of arterial lesions, the prevention of restenosis and late stent thrombosis is key to prevent a new obstruction of the vessel. Here we aimed at improving the tissue response to stents through surface modification. For that purpose, we used two different approaches, the use of nanostructuration by electrochemical anodization and the addition of a quercitrin (QR) coating to the Ti surface. Four surfaces (Ti, NN, TiQR and NNQR) were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and contact angle analysis and QR content was evaluated by fluorescent staining. Cell adhesion, cytotoxicity, metabolic activity and nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated on primary human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVECs). Platelet adhesion, hemolysis rate and Staphylococcus epidermidis CECT 4184 adhesion at 30 min were analyzed. Nanostructuration induced an increase on surface roughness, and QR coating decreased the contact angle. All surfaces were biocompatible, with no hemolysis rate and lower platelet adhesion was found in NN surfaces. Finally, S. epidermidis adhesion was lower on TiQR surfaces compared to Ti. In conclusion, our results suggest that NN structuration could improve biocompatibility of bare metal stents on endothelial cells and reduce platelet adhesion. Moreover, QR coating could reduce bacterial adhesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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Review

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Review
Role of Melatonin in Bone Remodeling around Titanium Dental Implants: Meta-Analysis
Coatings 2021, 11(3), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11030271 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
The theory, known as the “brain-bone axis” theory, involves the central nervous system in bone remodeling. The alteration of the nervous system could lead to abnormal bone remodeling. Melatonin produced by the pineal gland is a hormone that is characterized by its antioxidant [...] Read more.
The theory, known as the “brain-bone axis” theory, involves the central nervous system in bone remodeling. The alteration of the nervous system could lead to abnormal bone remodeling. Melatonin produced by the pineal gland is a hormone that is characterized by its antioxidant properties. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the role of melatonin in the growth of new bone around titanium dental implants in vivo. A manual search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted to identify scientific studies published until November 2020. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and animal studies where melatonin was used with titanium implants. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality was assessed using the Jadad scale and SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. Our meta-analysis revealed that the use of melatonin during implant placement improves bone-to-implant contact percentages in animals (difference of means, random effects: 9.59 [95% CI: 5.53–13.65]), reducing crestal bone loss in humans (difference in means, random effects: −0.55 [95% CI: 1.10–0.00]). In animals, titanium implants using melatonin increase bone-to-implant contact surface 2–6 weeks after their placement and reduce crestal bone loss in humans following six months. The results of this meta-analysis should be taken with caution, due to the small samples and the large heterogeneity among studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Coatings for Implantable Devices)
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