Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactive Coatings and Biointerfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 47864

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food safety is a global issue with major impact on human health. Occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne diseases, due to pathogen-contaminated food is further exacerbated by those strains that have become resistant to most of the commonly available antibacterial agents. Moreover, the consumers’ perception that the use of chemicals can be harmful is also promoting the use of natural substances.

Antimicrobial coating for medical application is among the pylon-generating segment but, globally, the market for antimicrobial coating for food and beverage has been increasing due to food industry, the key drivers for the market. Food antimicrobial coating market in non-healthcare markets is about US$225 million and is going on to reach US$500 million by the 2022. Packaged food market size is expected to garner $3.03 trillion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 4.5% during the forecast period 2015 - 2020.

The recent market research analysis identifies the growing demand for packaged food as one of the key growth factors for the global antimicrobial coatings market. This growing preference among the consumers toward packaged foods is compelling vendors to use antimicrobial coatings to retain the shelf life of the products. The extensive use of antimicrobial coatings can help in reducing food wastage. As a result, the use of antimicrobial coatings is used in the food and beverages industry to coat the containers used for storing, shipping, and packaging. In addition, to reduce pollution, the governments of various countries are also encouraging the use of materials that are environmental-friendly.

Emerging research shows polysaccharides (e.g. fibers, β-glucan), bacteriocins, essential oils, spice extracts, enzymes, proteins and lipids as all natural antimicrobials with unrealized potential in food industry applications, such as biofilms and coatings for ready-to-eat products, fish, fruits and vegetables.

This Special Issue of Coatings is intended to provide a forum for original research articles as well as critical reviews on current advances in the field of antimicrobial coatings and biofilms. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to:

- Characterization and development of bioactive and antimicrobial coatings/films/packaging

- Coatings and biofilms applications

- Innovative coatings formulations

- Coatings application in food industry, food packaging, and medical industry

Prof. Dr. Dan Cristian Vodnar
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Trends in Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm
by Dan Cristian Vodnar and Bernadette-Emőke Teleky
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020255 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
In modern society, the growing use of plastic packaging has innumerable and unquestionable consequences [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)

Research

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13 pages, 3739 KiB  
Article
Silver-Containing Thin Films on Transparent Polymer Foils for Antimicrobial Applications
by Catalin Vitelaru, Anca C. Parau, Adrian E. Kiss, Iulian Pana, Mihaela Dinu, Lidia R. Constantin, Alina Vladescu, Lavinia E. Tonofrei, Cristina S. Adochite, Sarah Costinas, Liliana Rogozea, Mihaela Badea and Mihaela E. Idomir
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020170 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2787
Abstract
The increasing occurrence of infections caused by pathogens found on objects of everyday use requires a variety of solutions for active disinfection. Using active materials that do not require daily maintenance has a potential advantage for their acceptance. In this contribution, transparent films, [...] Read more.
The increasing occurrence of infections caused by pathogens found on objects of everyday use requires a variety of solutions for active disinfection. Using active materials that do not require daily maintenance has a potential advantage for their acceptance. In this contribution, transparent films, with silver as the main antimicrobial agent and a total thickness of a few tens of nm, were deposited on flexible self-adhesive polymer foils used as screen protectors. TiO2 and SiO2 were used as transparent matrix to embed the Ag nanoparticles, ensuring also their mechanical protection and controlled growth. HiPIMS (High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering) was used for the sputtering of the Ag target and fine control of the Ag amount in the layer, whereas TiO2 and SiO2 were sputtered in RF (Radio Frequency) mode. The thin film surface was investigated by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), providing information on the topography of the coatings and their preferential growth on the textured polymer foil. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) revealed the presence of specific Ag peaks in an amorphous oxide matrix. UV-Vis-NIR (Ultraviolet-Visible-Near Infrared) spectroscopy revealed the presence of nanostructured Ag, characterized by preferential absorption in the 400 to 500 nm spectral range. The antimicrobial properties were assessed using an antimicrobial test with the Escherichia coli strain. The highest efficiency was observed for the Ag/SiO2 combination, in the concentration range of 104–105 CFU/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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15 pages, 3649 KiB  
Article
Non-Destructive Monitoring of P. fluorescens and S. epidermidis Biofilm under Different Media by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Other Corroborative Techniques
by Marco Consumi, Kamila Jankowska, Gemma Leone, Claudio Rossi, Alessio Pardini, Eric Robles, Kevin Wright, Anju Brooker and Agnese Magnani
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100930 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
In the present study, the early stage of bacteria biofilm formation has been studied as a function of different nutrients. Infrared spectra of Pseudomonas fluorescens (PF) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), on germanium ATR crystal, were collected under deionized water H2O, phosphate [...] Read more.
In the present study, the early stage of bacteria biofilm formation has been studied as a function of different nutrients. Infrared spectra of Pseudomonas fluorescens (PF) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), on germanium ATR crystal, were collected under deionized water H2O, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and PBS with glucose (PBS-G). In H2O, protein bands of PF increased while, no difference in PBS and PBS-G were observed until 135 min. SE strain showed a low sensitivity to PBS composition starting to expose proteins on surfaces after 120 min. SE shows a low polysaccharides increase in H2O while, in bare and enriched PBS their intensity increases after 120 and 75 min. in PBS and PBS-G respectively. PF exhibits a peculiar behavior in H2O where the saccharide bands increased strongly after 100 min, while under all the other conditions, the intensity of polysaccharide bands increased up to the plateau probably because the layer of the biofilm exceeded the penetration capability of FTIR technique. All data suggest that, under lack of nutrients, both the bacteria tend to firmly anchor themselves to the support using proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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24 pages, 30628 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Properties and In Vitro Antifungal Evaluation of Samarium Doped Hydroxyapatite Coatings
by Steluta Carmen Ciobanu, Simona Liliana Iconaru, Daniela Predoi, Alina Mihaela Prodan and Mihai Valentin Predoi
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090827 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and samarium doped hydroxyapatite, Ca10−xSmx(PO4)6(OH)2, xSm = 0.05, (5SmHAp), coatings were prepared by sol-gel process using the dip coating method. The stability of 5SmHAp suspension was evaluated by ultrasound [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and samarium doped hydroxyapatite, Ca10−xSmx(PO4)6(OH)2, xSm = 0.05, (5SmHAp), coatings were prepared by sol-gel process using the dip coating method. The stability of 5SmHAp suspension was evaluated by ultrasound measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to examine the optical characteristics of HAp and 5SmHAp nanoparticles in suspension and coatings. The FTIR analysis revealed the presence of the functional groups specific to the structure of hydroxyapatite in the 5SmHAp suspensions and coatings. The morphology of 5SmHAp nanoparticles in suspension was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphology of nanoparticle in suspension and the morphology of the surface on the coating. The SEM and TEM studies on 5SmHAp nanoparticles in suspension showed that our samples consist of nanometric particles with elongated morphology. The SEM micrographs of HAp and 5SmHAp coatings pointed out that the coatings are continuous and homogeneous. The surface morphology of the 5SmHAp coatings was also assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies. The AFM results emphasized that the coatings presented the morphology of a uniformly deposited layer with no cracks and fissures. The crystal structure of 5SmHAp coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface composition of 5SmHAp coating was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD and XPS analysis shown that the Sm3+ ions have been incorporated into the 5SmHAp synthesized material. The antifungal properties of the 5SmHAp suspensions and coatings were studied using Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (C. albicans) fungal strains. The quantitative results of the antifungal assay showed that colony forming unity development was inhibited from the early phase of adherence in the case of both suspensions and coatings. Furthermore, the adhesion, cell proliferation and biofilm formation of the C. albicans were also investigated by AFM, SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) techniques. The results highlighted that the C. albicans adhesion and cell development was inhibited by the 5SmHAp coatings. Moreover, the data also revealed that the 5SmHAp coatings were effective in stopping the biofilm formation on their surface. The toxicity of the 5SmHap was also investigated in vitro using HeLa cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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14 pages, 2091 KiB  
Article
FTIR Characterization of the Development of Antimicrobial Catheter Coatings Loaded with Fluoroquinolones
by Dorota Kowalczuk
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090818 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3383
Abstract
The purpose of this paper was to present the development of antimicrobial coatings for different urinary catheters. Antimicrobial catheter coatings were prepared by immobilizing fluoroquinolones either with the use of linkers (covalent binding) or by activating the polymer matrix with iodine/bromine (noncovalent binding). [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper was to present the development of antimicrobial coatings for different urinary catheters. Antimicrobial catheter coatings were prepared by immobilizing fluoroquinolones either with the use of linkers (covalent binding) or by activating the polymer matrix with iodine/bromine (noncovalent binding). The possibility of the deposition of antimicrobial agent(s) following bromine activation on latex, polyurethane, and silicone was evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), used to monitor the changes in the catheter’s molecular structure occurring over the course of its multi-stage modification, confirmed the presence of fluoroquinolones in the catheter matrix as well as site-specific reactions. The amounts of drugs embedded in the catheter matrix were determined by the HPLC method. Stability of the drug binding was checked by examining the drug release. The new antimicrobial coatings obtained with the participation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics have the potential to protect the patient against infections during catheterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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9 pages, 1113 KiB  
Communication
Copper-Silver Alloy Coated Door Handles as a Potential Antibacterial Strategy in Clinical Settings
by Nicole Ciacotich, Lasse Kvich, Nicholas Sanford, Joseph Wolcott, Thomas Bjarnsholt and Lone Gram
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080790 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3900
Abstract
Coating surfaces with a copper-silver alloy in clinical settings can be an alternative or complementary antibacterial strategy to other existing technologies and disinfection interventions. A newly developed copper-silver alloy coating has a high antibacterial efficacy against common pathogenic bacteria in laboratory setups, and [...] Read more.
Coating surfaces with a copper-silver alloy in clinical settings can be an alternative or complementary antibacterial strategy to other existing technologies and disinfection interventions. A newly developed copper-silver alloy coating has a high antibacterial efficacy against common pathogenic bacteria in laboratory setups, and the purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial efficacy of this copper-silvery alloy in real-world clinical settings. Two field trials were carried out at a private clinic and a wound care center. Door handles coated with the copper-silver alloy had a lower total aerobic plate count (1.3 ± 0.4 Log CFU/cm2 and 0.8 ± 0.3 Log CFU/cm2, CFU stands for Colony Forming Units) than the reference uncoated material on-site (2.4 ± 0.4 Log CFU/cm2 for the stainless steel and 1.7 ± 0.4 Log CFU/cm2 for the satin brass). The copper-silver alloy did not selectively reduce specific bacterial species. This study points to the possibility of a successful long-term implementation of the copper-silver alloy coating as an antibacterial strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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11 pages, 1273 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Streptococcus Mutans Adhesion to the Surface of Biomimetically-Modified Orthodontic Archwires
by Santiago Arango-Santander, Carolina Gonzalez, Anizac Aguilar, Alejandro Cano, Sergio Castro, Juliana Sanchez-Garzon and John Franco
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030201 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2790
Abstract
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on the surfaces of dental and orthodontic biomaterials is primary responsible for oral diseases and biomaterial deterioration. A number of alternatives to reduce bacterial adhesion to biomaterials, including surface modification using a variety of techniques, has been proposed. [...] Read more.
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on the surfaces of dental and orthodontic biomaterials is primary responsible for oral diseases and biomaterial deterioration. A number of alternatives to reduce bacterial adhesion to biomaterials, including surface modification using a variety of techniques, has been proposed. Even though surface modification has demonstrated a reduction in bacterial adhesion, information on surface modification and biomimetics to reduce bacterial adhesion to a surface is scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to assess bacterial adhesion to orthodontic archwires that were modified following a biomimetic approach. The sample consisted of 0.017 × 0.025, 10 mm-long 316L stainless steel and NiTi orthodontic archwire fragments. For soft lithography, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp was obtained after duplicating the surface of Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott leaves. Topography transfer to the archwires was performed using silica sol. Surface hydrophobicity was assessed by contact angle and surface roughness by atomic force microscopy. Bacterial adhesion was evaluated using Streptococcus mutans. The topography of the Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott leaf was successfully transferred to the surface of the archwires. Contact angle and roughness between modified and unmodified archwire surfaces was statistically significant. A statistically significant reduction in Streptococcus mutans adhesion to modified archwires was also observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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18 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Active Packaging—Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Films Enriched with Tomato By-Products Extract
by Katalin Szabo, Bernadette-Emoke Teleky, Laura Mitrea, Lavinia-Florina Călinoiu, Gheorghe-Adrian Martău, Elemer Simon, Rodica-Anita Varvara and Dan Cristian Vodnar
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020141 - 4 Feb 2020
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 7890
Abstract
Active films were prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with itaconic acid (Ia), and with chitosan (Ch), enriched with tomato processing by-products extract (TBE) in order to develop new bioactive formulations for food packaging. The effects of two biopolymers (Ch, Ia) and of [...] Read more.
Active films were prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with itaconic acid (Ia), and with chitosan (Ch), enriched with tomato processing by-products extract (TBE) in order to develop new bioactive formulations for food packaging. The effects of two biopolymers (Ch, Ia) and of the incorporated TBE—containing phenolic compounds and carotenoids—were studied regarding the physical and antimicrobial properties of films; in addition, their influence on the total phenolic content, viscosity, and flow behavior on the film-forming solutions was investigated. The results showed increased physical properties (diameter, thickness, density, weight) of the films containing the TBE versus their control. TBE and Ch conferred significant antimicrobial effects to PVA films toward all the tested microorganisms, whereas the best inhibition was registered against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of <0.078 mg DW/mL. The Ia-PVA films also exhibited some antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (2.5 mg DW/mL). The total phenolic content of the film-forming solutions presented the highest values for the TBE and Ch-added PVA samples (0.208 mg gallic acid/100 mL film-forming solution). These results suggest that the PVA + Ch film containing TBE can be used for the development of intelligent and active food packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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15 pages, 14599 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Formula Analysis of Anti-Biofouling Titania–Polyurea Spray Coating with Nano/Micro-Structure
by Yuanzhe Li, Boyang Luo, Claude Guet, Srikanth Narasimalu and Zhili Dong
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090560 - 2 Sep 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5932
Abstract
This paper proposes the preparation and formula analysis of anti-biofouling Titania–polyurea (TiO2–SPUA) spray coating, which uses nano-scale antibacterial and photocatalytic agents, titanium dioxide, to construct regularly hydrophobic surface texture on the polyurea coating system. Through formulating analysis of anti-biofouling performance, it [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the preparation and formula analysis of anti-biofouling Titania–polyurea (TiO2–SPUA) spray coating, which uses nano-scale antibacterial and photocatalytic agents, titanium dioxide, to construct regularly hydrophobic surface texture on the polyurea coating system. Through formulating analysis of anti-biofouling performance, it is found the causal factors include antibacterial TiO2, surface wettability and morphology in order of their importance. The most optimized formula group is able to obtain uniform surface textures, high contact angle (91.5°), low surface energy (32.5 mJ/m2), and strong hardness (74 A). Moreover, this newly fabricated coating can effectively prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and biofilm from enriching on the surface, and there is no toxins release from the coating itself, which makes it eco-friendly, even after long-time exposure. These studies provide insights to the relative importance of physiochemical properties of Titania–polyurea spray coatings for further use in marine, as well as bio medical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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Review

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26 pages, 2432 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Functional Edible Food Packaging Based on Gelatin and Chitosan
by Bianca Eugenia Ștefănescu, Carmen Socaciu and Dan Cristian Vodnar
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121815 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Nowadays, edible and eco-friendly packaging applications have been studied as an alternative to conventional/synthetic packaging due to the great interest of consumers in healthy, safe, and natural food, and of researchers in meeting the needs of consumers and producers. Various biopolymers are being [...] Read more.
Nowadays, edible and eco-friendly packaging applications have been studied as an alternative to conventional/synthetic packaging due to the great interest of consumers in healthy, safe, and natural food, and of researchers in meeting the needs of consumers and producers. Various biopolymers are being extensively explored as potential materials for food packaging. The edible biopolymers utilized so far for packaging applications include proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides. Occasionally, these biopolymers have incorporated different bioactive substances to enhance the composite films’ characteristics. Gelatin and chitosan are two of the most important biopolymers for the production of films. Different biopolymers or bioactive substances have been incorporated into the matrix to enhance the gelatin-based and chitosan-based films. By incorporating other biopolymers and bioactive compounds, the composite films’ overall physicochemical and mechanical characteristics are improved. Additionally, by incorporating bioactive compounds (polyphenolic compounds, natural extracts, and essential oils), the composite films present important biological properties, such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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24 pages, 3177 KiB  
Review
Applicability of Agro-Industrial By-Products in Intelligent Food Packaging
by Silvia Amalia Nemes, Katalin Szabo and Dan Cristian Vodnar
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060550 - 8 Jun 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 10002
Abstract
Nowadays, technological advancement is in continuous development in all areas, including food packaging, which tries to find a balance between consumer preferences, environmental safety, and issues related to food quality and control. The present paper concretely details the concepts of smart, active, and [...] Read more.
Nowadays, technological advancement is in continuous development in all areas, including food packaging, which tries to find a balance between consumer preferences, environmental safety, and issues related to food quality and control. The present paper concretely details the concepts of smart, active, and intelligent packaging and identifies commercially available examples used in the food packaging market place. Along with this purpose, several bioactive compounds are identified and described, which are compounds that can be recovered from the by-products of the food industry and can be integrated into smart food packaging supporting the “zero waste” activities. The biopolymers obtained from crustacean processing or compounds with good antioxidant or antimicrobial properties such as carotenoids extracted from agro-industrial processing are underexploited and inexpensive resources for this purpose. Along with the main agro-industrial by-products, more concrete examples of resources are presented, such as grape marc, banana peels, or mango seeds. The commercial and technological potential of smart packaging in the food industry is undeniable and most importantly, this paper highlights the possibility of integrating the by-products derived compounds to intelligent packaging elements (sensors, indicators, radio frequency identification). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Coatings and Biofilm)
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