Special Issue "Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. D. K. Sarkar
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Sciences, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Pavillon principal, bureau P4-3280 555, boulevard de l'Université (Chicoutimi)Saguenay (Québec) G7H 2B1, Canada
Interests: superhydrophobic coatings and surface modification for reduction of ice adhesion, drag rduction, bio-fouling as well as medical applications; energy materials
Dr. N. Saleema
Website
Guest Editor
CMQ, 3095, Rue Westinghouse, Trois-Rivières (Québec), G9A 5E1 Canada
Interests: surface treatment (physical and chemical methods) and coatings in adhesion science

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The strong adhesion of ice to almost all kinds of surfaces is an overwhelming problem in cold countries. Common examples include: scraping off ice from car windshields, skidding on icy roads, power outages due to icing on electrical cables and insulators, icing on aircraft wings and wind mills, etc. Although investigations around the world have been carried out for decades, so as to find a solution to this problem of ice adhesion, literature is relatively scarce in this field.

This Special Issue provides a forum for the basic aspects, theories, and mechanisms of adhesion and surface science in general, and deals with applications in all areas of technology. Thus, the objective here is to offer to our readers a unique Special Issue exposing the state of the art regarding ice adhesion.

Prof. D. K. Sarkar
Dr. N. Saleema
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • coatings/surfaces with reduced ice adhesion
  • anti-icing coatings and surfaces
  • super hydrophobic surfaces with reduced ice adhesion
  • frost growth on surfaces/coatings
  • bio-inspired coatings for anti-icing applications
  • nanostructured surfaces against icing

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Functionalized Coatings for the Prevention of Ice Accretion by Using Icing Wind Tunnel Tests
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070636 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Ice accretion presents serious safety issues, as airplanes are exposed to supercooled water droplets both on the ground and while flying through clouds in the troposphere. Prevention of icing is a main concern for both developers and users of aircraft. The successful solution [...] Read more.
Ice accretion presents serious safety issues, as airplanes are exposed to supercooled water droplets both on the ground and while flying through clouds in the troposphere. Prevention of icing is a main concern for both developers and users of aircraft. The successful solution of this problem implies the combination of active and passive methods and the use of advanced sensors for early detection of icing and monitoring of ice accretion and de-icing processes. This paper focuses on the development of passive solutions. These include advanced anti-icing coatings deposited by a variety of chemical methods including sol-gel, advanced paints based on polyester combined with fluorinated derivatives and applied by electrostatic spray deposition and conventional silicone-based paints modified by adding alumina nanoparticles. Water contact angle has been measured in all cases, demonstrating the hydrophobic character of the coatings. An ice accretion test has been carried out in a laboratory scale icing wind tunnel (IWT) located in a cold climate chamber. Three different studies have been undertaken: ice accretion measurement, durability of the anti-icing behavior after several icing/de-icing cycles and ice adhesion testing by means of the double lap shear test (DLST) methodology. All the studied coatings have shown significant anti-icing behavior which has been maintained, in some cases, beyond 25 cycles. Although these results are still far from any possible application for aeronautic components, they provide interesting insights for new developments and validate the laboratory scale tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Hard Quasicrystalline Coatings Deposited by HVOF Thermal Spray to Reduce Ice Accretion in Aero-Structures Components
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030290 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Weather hazards, in particular icing conditions, are an important contributing factor in aviation accidents and incidents worldwide. Many different anti-icing strategies are currently being explored to find suitable long-lasting solutions, such as surface engineering, which can contribute to reduce ice accumulation. Quasicrystals (QCs) [...] Read more.
Weather hazards, in particular icing conditions, are an important contributing factor in aviation accidents and incidents worldwide. Many different anti-icing strategies are currently being explored to find suitable long-lasting solutions, such as surface engineering, which can contribute to reduce ice accumulation. Quasicrystals (QCs) are metallic materials, but with similar properties to those of ceramic materials, such as low thermal and electrical conductivities, and high hardness. In particular, QCs that have low surface energy are commercially used as coatings to replace polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), also known as Teflon, on frying pans, as they do not scratch easily. PTFE exhibits excellent anti-wetting and anti-icing properties and therefore QCs appear as good candidates to be employed as ice-phobic coatings. Al-based QCs have been applied by High Velocity Oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray on typically used aeronautic materials, such as Ti and Al alloys, as well as steels. The coatings have been characterized and evaluated, including the measurement of hardness, roughness, wetting properties, ice accretion behavior in an icing wind tunnel (IWT), and ice adhesion by a double lap shear test. The coatings were studied, both as-deposited, as well as after grinding, in order to study the effect of the surface roughness and morphology on the ice accretion and adhesion properties. The QC coating was compared with PTFE and two polyurethane (PU)-based commercial paints, one of them known to have anti-icing properties, and the results indicate an ice accretion reduction relative to these two materials, and ice adhesion lower than bare AA6061-T6, or the PU paint in the ground version of one of the two QCs. Since the QC coatings are hard (GPa Vickers hardness > 5), a durable behavior is expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Simple Anti-Ice Aluminum Coating: Synthesis and In-Lab Comparison with a Superhydrophobic Hierarchical Surface
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020111 - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
A simple process to obtain a slippery surface with anti-ice and ice-phobic properties has been developed and characterized in laboratory. The coating is realized by growing a nanostructured pseudo-boehmite on an aluminum substrate and applying an environmentally compatible final functionalization consisting of a [...] Read more.
A simple process to obtain a slippery surface with anti-ice and ice-phobic properties has been developed and characterized in laboratory. The coating is realized by growing a nanostructured pseudo-boehmite on an aluminum substrate and applying an environmentally compatible final functionalization consisting of a fluorine-free oligomeric short-chain alkylfunctional silane. The resulting surface is conceptually similar to a slippery liquid infused porous surface (SLIP) material, but the porous infrastructure is inorganic and the process to generate it is very simple, rapid and economic. The coating performance in terms of hydrophobicity at room and low temperatures, ice nucleation temperature and ice adhesion forces were assessed in laboratory. Moreover, hydrophobicity persistence was tested after prolonged immersion in acid, basic and saline solutions while the durability of ice-phobic behavior was assessed by repeated shear stress tests. Results are compared with those of a superhydrophobic hierarchical aluminum surface obtained with a fluorinated siloxane. The novel coating shows very good anti-ice properties and relevant durability, with some differences from the fluorinated surface. The novel slippery coating process is promising for industrial applications, also taking into account its environmental compatibility, simplicity and low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Icing Performance of a Coating Based on Nano/Microsilica Particle-Filled Amino-Terminated PDMS-Modified Epoxy
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120771 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Coatings with anti-icing performance possess hydrophobicity and low ice adhesion strength, which delay ice formation and make ice removal easier. In this paper, the anti-icing performance of nano/microsilica particle-filled amino-terminated PDMS (A-PDMS)-modified epoxy coatings was investigated. In the process, the influence of the [...] Read more.
Coatings with anti-icing performance possess hydrophobicity and low ice adhesion strength, which delay ice formation and make ice removal easier. In this paper, the anti-icing performance of nano/microsilica particle-filled amino-terminated PDMS (A-PDMS)-modified epoxy coatings was investigated. In the process, the influence of the addition of A-PDMS on the hydrophobicity and ice adhesion strength was investigated. Furthermore, the influences of various weight ratios of nanosilica/microsilica (Rn/m) on the hydrophobicity and ice adhesion strength of the coating were investigated. Hydrophobicity was evaluated by contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) tests. Ice adhesion strength was measured by a centrifugal adhesion test. The addition of A-PDMS markedly increased hydrophobicity and decreased ice adhesion. The size combination of particles obviously affects hydrophobicity but has little effect on ice adhesion. Finally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to reveal the anti-icing mechanism of the coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Interlaboratory Study of Ice Adhesion Using Different Techniques
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100678 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Low ice adhesion surfaces are a promising anti-icing strategy. However, reported ice adhesion strengths cannot be directly compared between research groups. This study compares results obtained from testing the ice adhesion strength on two types of surfaces at two different laboratories, testing two [...] Read more.
Low ice adhesion surfaces are a promising anti-icing strategy. However, reported ice adhesion strengths cannot be directly compared between research groups. This study compares results obtained from testing the ice adhesion strength on two types of surfaces at two different laboratories, testing two different types of ice with different ice adhesion test methods at temperatures of −10 and −18 °C. One laboratory used the centrifuge adhesion test and tested precipitation ice and bulk water ice, while the other laboratory used a vertical shear test and tested only bulk water ice. The surfaces tested were bare aluminum and a commercial icephobic coating, with all samples prepared in the same manner. The results showed comparability in the general trends, surprisingly, with the greatest differences for bare aluminum surfaces at −10 °C. For bulk water ice, the vertical shear test resulted in systematically higher ice adhesion strength than the centrifugal adhesion test. The standard deviation depends on the surface type and seems to scale with the absolute value of the ice adhesion strength. The experiments capture the overall trends in which the ice adhesion strength surprisingly decreases from −10 to −18 °C for aluminum and is almost independent of temperature for a commercial icephobic coating. In addition, the study captures similar trends in the effect of ice type on ice adhesion strength as previously reported and substantiates that ice formation is a key parameter for ice adhesion mechanisms. Repeatability should be considered a key parameter in determining the ideal ice adhesion test method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Reversible Switching of Icing Properties on Pyroelectric Polyvenylidene Fluoride Thin Film Coatings
Coatings 2015, 5(4), 724-736; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5040724 - 20 Oct 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
In this work a new approach for ice repellent coatings is presented. It was shown that the coatings cause a decrease or increase in the freezing temperature of water depending on the alignment of an external electric field. For this coating the commonly [...] Read more.
In this work a new approach for ice repellent coatings is presented. It was shown that the coatings cause a decrease or increase in the freezing temperature of water depending on the alignment of an external electric field. For this coating the commonly used pyroelectric polymer polyvenylidene fluoride was deposited as a thin film on glass. The samples were dip-coated and subsequently thermally-treated at 140 °C for 1 h. All samples were found to cause a reduction of the icing temperature of water on their surface in comparison to uncoated glass. On several samples an external electric field was applied during this thermal treatment. The field application was found to cause a remarkable reduction of the icing temperature where a maximum lowering of the freezing temperature of 3 K compared to uncoated glass could be achieved. The actual achieved reduction of the icing temperature was observed to depend on the polarity of the field applied during the thermal treatment. Furthermore, a repetition of the thermal treatment under oppositely directed electric fields led to a switchable freezing behavior of water according to the direction of the applied field. With an increasing number of cycles of switching of the icing property a slight training effect towards lower freezing temperatures was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
From Extremely Water-Repellent Coatings to Passive Icing Protection—Principles, Limitations and Innovative Application Aspects
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010066 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The severe environmental conditions in winter seasons and/or cold climate regions cause many inconveniences in our routine daily-life, related to blocked road infrastructure, interrupted overhead telecommunication, internet and high-voltage power lines or cancelled flights due to excessive ice and snow accumulation. With the [...] Read more.
The severe environmental conditions in winter seasons and/or cold climate regions cause many inconveniences in our routine daily-life, related to blocked road infrastructure, interrupted overhead telecommunication, internet and high-voltage power lines or cancelled flights due to excessive ice and snow accumulation. With the tremendous and nature-inspired development of physical, chemical and engineering sciences in the last few decades, novel strategies for passively combating the atmospheric and condensation icing have been put forward. The primary objective of this review is to reveal comprehensively the major physical mechanisms regulating the ice accretion on solid surfaces and summarize the most important scientific breakthroughs in the field of functional icephobic coatings. Following this framework, the present article introduces the most relevant concepts used to understand the incipiency of ice nuclei at solid surfaces and the pathways of water freezing, considers the criteria that a given material has to meet in order to be labelled as icephobic and clarifies the modus operandi of superhydrophobic (extremely water-repellent) coatings for passive icing protection. Finally, the limitations of existing superhydrophobic/icephobic materials, various possibilities for their unconventional practical applicability in cryobiology and some novel hybrid anti-icing systems are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Other

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Open AccessCommentary
On Modulating Interfacial Structure towards Improved Anti-Icing Performance
Coatings 2016, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6010003 - 14 Jan 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
The design of anti-icing surfaces presents an interface with high causal density that has been challenging to quantify in terms of individual contributions of various interactions and environmental factors. In this commentary, we highlight the role of interfacial water structure as uniquely expressing [...] Read more.
The design of anti-icing surfaces presents an interface with high causal density that has been challenging to quantify in terms of individual contributions of various interactions and environmental factors. In this commentary, we highlight the role of interfacial water structure as uniquely expressing the physico-chemical aspects of ice accretion. Recent work on the topic that focuses on control of interfacial structure is discussed along with results by our research group on wettability of chemically modified surfaces and the role of ions in modulating interfacial structure. Suggestions for systematic studies to understand the fundamental interactions at play in ice adhesion at interfaces are made especially in the under-explored areas of cooperative hydrogen bonding and the role of solvated counterions. Insights expected from such studies would contribute to design of robust anti-icing hierarchies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Science Inspired by Nature – From Extremely Non-wettable Plants to Passive Icephobic Coatings
Authors: Karekin Esmerian et al.
Abstract: The severe environmental conditions in winter seasons and/or cold climate regions cause many inconveniences in our routine daily-life, related to blocked road infrastructure, interrupted overhead telecommunication, internet and high-voltage power lines or cancelled flights due to excessive ice and snow accumulation. With the tremendous and nature-inspired development of physical, chemical and engineering sciences in the last few decades, novel strategies for passively combating the atmospheric and condensation icing have been put forward. The primary objective of this review is to reveal comprehensively the major physical mechanisms regulating the ice accretion on solid surfaces and summarize the most important scientific breakthroughs in the field of anti-icing coatings. Following this framework, the present article introduces the most relevant concepts used to understand the incipiency of ice nuclei at solid surfaces and the pathways of water freezing, considers the criteria that a given material has to meet in order to be labelled as icephobic and clarifies the modus operandi of superhydrophobic coatings for passive icing protection. Finally, the limitations of existing superhydrophobic/icephobic materials, various possibilities for their unconventional practical applicability and some novel hybrid anti-icing systems are discussed in detail.

Title: Comparative laboratory characterization of super-hydrophobic and slippery anti-ice coatings for prospective overhead power lines applications
Authors: M. Balordi, A. Cammi, C. Chemelli, G. Santucci De Magistris
Abstract: Overhead power lines located in cold regions are threatened by ice and snow accretion that can cause severe components and structures damages and black-outs. Anti-ice coatings could mitigate the occurrence of failures, provided that coatings meet appropriate functionalities, applicability and durability properties and the specific requirements of application on electric conductors and guard wires.
In this work a super-hydrophobic (SHP) and a slippery surfaces are prepared on aluminum and compared. The SHP was obtained applying a fluorinated siloxane (FAS) on a hierarchical substrate, while the slippery sample was made by coating a nanostructured substrate with a oligomeric short chain alkylfunctional silane.
The coatings are characterized in laboratory in terms of static and dynamic contact angles, both at room and low temperatures. Ice adhesion is determined by shear stress measurements. Hydrophobic properties are tested in acid, basic and corrosive environment while the durability of anti-ice behaviour is assessed by repeated shear stress tests.
Results are discussed in terms of ice adhesion reduction efficacy, durability and environmental compatibility,  aiming at evaluating the applicability on overhead power lines components.
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