Special Issue "Advanced Coating for High Temperature Applications"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Changheui Jang
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yusong, Korea
Interests: high temperature corrosion; surface modification; oxide analysis; protective coatings; diffusion coating; vapor deposition coatings; aluminizing; coatings for energy and power systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Generally, the material compatibility with the corrosive environment is one of the key factors determining the lifetime and the reliability of key components of various high temperature facilities for manufacturing, transportation, energy, and power industries. Various coatings and surface modification techniques can provide physical and chemical barriers to such aggressive environments, thus, protecting materials during service life. There are many options for coating, such as metallic or non-metallic coatings, whether the protective layer is formed before or during the service, heat resistant or corrosion resistant, and so on. Additionally, some coatings demand functional properties which can be achieved by multi-layer or gradient coatings for better temperature stability.

In this Special Issue, recent advances in advanced coatings and surface treatment for high temperature application in manufacturing, transportation, energy, and power industries are elaborated.

In particular, topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Advanced coating and surface treatment methods: metallic or non-metallic;
  • Performance of coatings in various high temperature environments;
  • Coatings for advanced thermal and solar power systems;
  • Coatings for nuclear fission and fusion reactors;
  • Long-term stability of coatings.

Prof. Dr. Changheui Jang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Corrosion Behavior of Si Diffusion Coating on an Austenitic Fe-Base Alloy in High Temperature Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide and Steam Environment
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050493 - 21 May 2020
Abstract
In order to enhance corrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) 316LN at high temperature environments, surface modification was carried out by Si deposition and subsequent heat treatment at 900 °C for 1 h. This resulted in the formation of Fe5Ni3 [...] Read more.
In order to enhance corrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) 316LN at high temperature environments, surface modification was carried out by Si deposition and subsequent heat treatment at 900 °C for 1 h. This resulted in the formation of Fe5Ni3Si2 phase on the surface region. The surface-modified alloy was exposed to high temperature S-CO2 (650 °C, 20 MPa) and steam (650 °C, 0.1 MPa) for 500 h and evaluated for its corrosion behavior in comparison to the as-received alloy. In S-CO2 environment, the as-received SS 316LN showed severe oxide spallation and thick Fe-rich oxide formation, while the surface-modified alloy formed a continuous and adherent Si- and Cr-rich oxide layer. In steam, as-received SS 316LN formed very thick duplex Fe- and Cr-rich oxide layers. On the other hand, surface-modified SS 316LN formed notably thinner oxides, which could be attributed to the formation of Si-rich oxide under outer Fe-rich oxides on the surface-modified alloy. Thus, in view of the weight changes, oxide thickness, and morphologies of the two conditions, it was found that Si diffusion coating was effective in improving the corrosion resistance of SS 316LN in both S-CO2 and steam environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating for High Temperature Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Chromium Diffusion Coating on an ODS Ferritic-Martensitic Steel and Its Oxidation Behavior in Air and Steam Environments
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050492 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
A chromium diffusion coating was applied on an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic-martensitic (ODS-FM) steel to improve oxidation resistance at high temperature. By carrying out physical vapor deposition followed by inter-diffusion heat treatment, a thin Cr-rich carbide layer was produced on the ODS-FM steel. [...] Read more.
A chromium diffusion coating was applied on an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic-martensitic (ODS-FM) steel to improve oxidation resistance at high temperature. By carrying out physical vapor deposition followed by inter-diffusion heat treatment, a thin Cr-rich carbide layer was produced on the ODS-FM steel. Both the as-received and surface-modified specimens were oxidation-tested at 650 °C in air and steam environments for 500 h. The surface-modified specimens showed improved oxidation resistance in both environments. In an air environment, both conditions exhibited a thin and continuous chromia layer, but the formation of Cr2O3 and (Mn, Cr)3O4 nodules resulted in greater weight gain for the as-received specimen. In a steam environment, weight gain increased for both the as-received and surface-modified specimen. Especially, the as-received specimen showed much greater weight gain with the formation of a thick oxide layer consisted of outer Fe-rich oxide and inner (Fe, Cr, Mn) oxide layers. On the other hand, a thin and continuous chromia layer was formed for the surface-modified specimen, which resulted in much less weight gain in a steam environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating for High Temperature Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Plasma Spray Coatings of Natural Ores From Structural, Mechanical, Thermal, and Dielectric Viewpoints
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010003 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
Various natural materials, namely ilmenite, diopside, tourmaline, olivine, garnet, and basalt, were plasma-sprayed and analyzed. This paper summarizes the various achievements of our earlier research and adds new results—mainly dielectric and optical characterizations. Plasma spraying of all of the materials was rather easy [...] Read more.
Various natural materials, namely ilmenite, diopside, tourmaline, olivine, garnet, and basalt, were plasma-sprayed and analyzed. This paper summarizes the various achievements of our earlier research and adds new results—mainly dielectric and optical characterizations. Plasma spraying of all of the materials was rather easy with a high feed-rate plasma system, which could process many kilograms of powder per hour. For easier characterizations, the coatings were detached from substrates in order to remain self-supporting. The plasma-sprayed layers that were coated from all studied materials acted as medium-permittivity and low-loss dielectrics, antireflective optical materials, and medium quality anti-abrasive barriers. Phase composition and microhardness were evaluated in addition to microstructure observations. Some coatings were amorphous and crystallized after further heating. As the melting points were well above 1000 °C, all of them could also serve as thermal barriers for aluminum alloys and similar metals. The only material that was not easily sprayed was tourmaline, which gave very porous coatings without environmental barrier or dielectric characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating for High Temperature Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Boundaries in Cone Calorimetry Testing
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100629 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
Bench-scale cone calorimetry is often used to evaluate the fire performance of intumescent-type coatings. During the tests, the coating geometry inflates. These thick, block-shaped specimens expose their perimeter side surfaces to both the heat source and the surroundings, unlike the typical thin, plate-shaped [...] Read more.
Bench-scale cone calorimetry is often used to evaluate the fire performance of intumescent-type coatings. During the tests, the coating geometry inflates. These thick, block-shaped specimens expose their perimeter side surfaces to both the heat source and the surroundings, unlike the typical thin, plate-shaped samples used in flammability tests. We assessed the thermal boundaries of block-shaped specimens using plain steel solids with several thicknesses. The heat transmitted through the exposed boundaries in convection and radiation modes was determined by four sub-defining functions: non-linear irradiance, convective loss, and radiant absorption into and radiant emission from solids. The individual functions were methodically derived and integrated into numerical calculations. The predictions were verified by physical measurements of the metals under different heating conditions. The results demonstrate that (1) considering absorptivity, being differentiated from emissivity, led to accurate predictions of time-temperature relationships for all stages from transient, through steady, and to cooling states; (2) the determined values for the geometric view factor and the fluid dynamic coefficient of convection can be generalized for engineering applications; (3) the proposed process provides a practical solution for the determination of optical radiative properties (absorptivity and emissivity) for use in engineering; and (4) the heat transmitted through the side surfaces of block specimens should be included in energy balance, particularly in the quantification of a heat loss mechanism. This paper outlines a comprehensive heat transfer model for cone calorimetry testing, providing insights into the mechanism of complex heat transmission generated on the test samples and quantifying their individual contributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating for High Temperature Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
High Temperature Oxidation Behaviors of CrNx and Cr-Si-N Thin Films at 1000 °C
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090540 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The high temperature oxidation performance of nitride thin films has become an important issue when they are used as protective coatings on dry cutting tools or on die casting molds. In this study, the high temperature oxidation behaviors of CrNx and Cr-Si-N [...] Read more.
The high temperature oxidation performance of nitride thin films has become an important issue when they are used as protective coatings on dry cutting tools or on die casting molds. In this study, the high temperature oxidation behaviors of CrNx and Cr-Si-N thin films were investigated at 1000 °C for 6 h in ambient air. The CrNx and Cr-Si-N thin films were prepared by a bipolar asymmetric pulsed direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. Cr-Si-N films with silicon content ranging from 3.9 to 12.2 at.% were deposited by adjusting the Si target power. A thermogravimeter was adopted to study the oxidation kinetics of thin films. The weight gains were measured to calculate the parabolic rate constants of thin films. X-ray diffraction, X-ray mapping, and Auger electron spectroscopy were employed to study the microstructure and elemental redistributions of oxidized thin films. The as-deposited CrNx and Cr-Si-N thin films consisted of CrN and Cr2N mixed phases. The faceted Cr2O3 surface oxides, porous inner oxide layer, and oxygen-containing CrSi2 phases were found for the CrN film after oxidation test. On the other hand, the Cr-Si-N film containing 12.2 at.% Si showed a dense surface oxide layer and a thick and compact nitride layer, which indicates its best oxidation resistance. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Cr-Si-N thin films was improved by increasing Si content, due to the amorphous matrix contained nanocomposite microstructure and the formation of amorphous silicon oxide to retard the diffusion paths of oxygen, chromium, silicon, and nitrogen. The lowest parabolic rate constant of 1.48 × 10–2 mg2/cm4/h was obtained for the 12.2 at.% Si contained Cr-Si-N thin films, which provided the best oxidation resistance at 1000 °C for 6 h in this work. It should be noted that the residual tensile stress of thin film had a detrimental effect on the adhesion property during the oxidation test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating for High Temperature Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication
Physicochemical Properties of Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia In-Flight Particles during Supersonic Atmospheric Plasma Spray
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070431 - 08 Jul 2019
Abstract
In order to achieve better knowledge of the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying (SAPS) process, an experimental study was carried out to elaborate the physicochemical properties of particles in-flight during the SAPS process. One type of commercially available agglomerated [...] Read more.
In order to achieve better knowledge of the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying (SAPS) process, an experimental study was carried out to elaborate the physicochemical properties of particles in-flight during the SAPS process. One type of commercially available agglomerated and sintered yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) powder was injected into the SAPS plasma jet and collected by the shock chilling method. The YSZ particles’ in-flight physicochemical properties during the SAPS process, including melting state, morphology, microstructure, particle size distribution, element composition changes, and phase transformation, have been systematically analyzed. The melting state, morphology, and microstructure of the collected particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size distribution was measured by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer (LDPSA). Element compositions were quantitatively analyzed by an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA). Additionally, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used to analyze the phase transformation. The results showed that the original YSZ powder injected into the SAPS plasma jet was quickly heated and melted from the outer layer companied with breakup and collision-coalescence. The outer layer of the collected particles containing roughly hexagonal shaped grains exhibited a surface texture with high sphericity and the inside was dense with a hollow structure. The median particle size had decreased from 45.65 to 42.04 μm. In addition to this, phase transformation took place, and the content of the zirconium (Zr) and yttrium (Y) elements had decreased with the evaporation of ZrO2 and Y2O3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating for High Temperature Applications)
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