Special Issue "Advanced Coatings for Buildings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Inês Flores-Colen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: innovative and sustainable materials; thermal mortars and superinsulating solutions; waste-based materials; performance and durability; pathology and retrofitting
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anibal C. Maury-Ramirez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad El Bosque, Decanatura Facultad de Ingeniería, Av. Cra 9 No. 131 A - 02, Bogotá, Colombia
Interests: green walls and roofs; photocatalytic materials; nanomaterials; recycling in concrete
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Hideyuki Kanematsu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology (KOSEN), Suzuka College, Mie, Japan
Interests: biofilm engineering; environmental friendly surface engineering; creative engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New trends in protective coatings designed for buildings are needed and include technical, economical, and sustainable approaches on the development of new coating solutions.

Multiperformance protective coatings are increasing and are used in building applications (both in new construction and in rehabilitation) to improve durability and to comply with sustainability requirements.

The study of modern protective coatings is based on the interrelation between scientific and engineering disciplines by means of advanced techniques for materials characterization.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide recent research works on advanced protective coatings for buildings based on multidisciplinary knowledge in this field and to benefit scientists, practitioners, and other professionals who are interested in the development of new and sustainable protective coatings solutions for buildings.

In particular, the topics of interest include but are not limited to

  • Nanomaterials-based protective coatings;
  • Multifunctional coatings;
  • Bio-based protective coatings;
  • Smart protective coatings;
  • Sustainable protective coatings;
  • Low-embodied energy protective coatings;
  • Ecotoxicity on protective coatings;
  • Durable protective coatings;
  • Recycled protective coatings.

Prof. Dr. Inês Flores-Colen
Prof. Dr. Anibal C. Maury-Ramirez
Prof. Dr. Hideyuki Kanematsu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Advanced Coatings for Buildings
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080728 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Based on five Special Issues in Coatings, this e-book contains a series of fifteen articles demonstrating actual perspectives and new trends in advanced coatings in buildings. Innovative materials and multiperformance solutions provide a basis, contributing also to better protection of buildings’ surfaces [...] Read more.
Based on five Special Issues in Coatings, this e-book contains a series of fifteen articles demonstrating actual perspectives and new trends in advanced coatings in buildings. Innovative materials and multiperformance solutions provide a basis, contributing also to better protection of buildings’ surfaces during the service life, and users’ wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Evaluation of Semi-Intensive Green Roofs with Drainage Layers Made Out of Recycled and Reused Materials
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060525 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Green roof systems represent an opportunity to mitigate the effect of natural soil loss due to the development of urban infrastructure, which significantly affects natural processes such as the hydrological water cycle. This technology also has the potential to reduce the indoor building [...] Read more.
Green roof systems represent an opportunity to mitigate the effect of natural soil loss due to the development of urban infrastructure, which significantly affects natural processes such as the hydrological water cycle. This technology also has the potential to reduce the indoor building temperature and increase the durability of waterproof membranes, reduce run-off water and heat island effects, create meeting places, and allow the development of biological species. However, despite the described benefits, the use of this technology is still limited due to the costs and the environmental impact from using non-renewable building materials. Therefore, this article presents the hydraulic and thermal analysis of different semi-intensive green roofs using recycled (rubber and high density polyethylene (HDPE) trays) and reused materials (polyethylene (PET) bottles) in their drainage layers. Then, three roof systems were evaluated and compared to traditional drainage systems made with natural stone aggregates. Results showed that some systems are more useful when the goal is to reduce temperature, while others are more effective for water retention. Additionally, this study presents evidence of the potential of reducing the dead loads and costs of green roofs by using recycled and reused materials in drainage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Effect of Hygrothermal Aging on Hydrophobic Treatments Applied to Building Exterior Claddings
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040363 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Hydrophobic materials are among the most commonly used coatings for building exterior cladding. In fact, these products are easily applied to an existing surface, significantly reduce water absorption and have a minimal impact on the aesthetic properties. On the other hand, although these [...] Read more.
Hydrophobic materials are among the most commonly used coatings for building exterior cladding. In fact, these products are easily applied to an existing surface, significantly reduce water absorption and have a minimal impact on the aesthetic properties. On the other hand, although these products have a proven effectiveness, their long-term durability to weathering has not yet been systematically studied and completely understood. For these reasons, this study aims to correlate the effect of artificial aging on the moisture transport properties of hydrophobic treatments when applied on building exterior claddings. Three hydrophobic products (an SiO2-TiO2 nanostructured dispersion; a silane/oligomeric siloxane; and a siloxane) were applied on samples of limestone and of a cement-based mortar. The moisture transport properties (water absorption, drying, water vapor permeability) of untreated and treated specimens were characterized. Furthermore, the long-term durability of the specimens was evaluated by artificial aging, that is, hygrothermal cycles (freeze–thaw and hot–cold). All treatments have significant hydrophobic effectiveness and improve the long term-durability of the treated specimens. However, the results showed that the three hydrophobic products have different effectiveness and durability, with the SiO2-TiO2 nanostructured dispersion being the most durable treatment on limestone, and the siloxane the most suitable for cementitious mortar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Geopolymer Mortar Based on Metakaolin Supplemented with TiO2 and CuO Particles Using Glass Waste as Fine Aggregate
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020157 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Metakaolin-based geopolymer cements were produced by alkaline activation with a potassium hydroxide and potassium silicate solution. To produce the geopolymer composites, 10 wt.% titanium oxide (TiO2) and 5 wt.% copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were used. The geopolymer mortar was prepared using [...] Read more.
Metakaolin-based geopolymer cements were produced by alkaline activation with a potassium hydroxide and potassium silicate solution. To produce the geopolymer composites, 10 wt.% titanium oxide (TiO2) and 5 wt.% copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were used. The geopolymer mortar was prepared using glass waste as fine aggregate. The raw materials and materials produced were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Likewise, the geopolymer samples were characterized to determine their physical properties, including their density, porosity, and absorption. The photocatalytic activity of the materials was evaluated by activating the nanoparticles in a chamber with UV–Vis light during 24 h; then, different tests were performed to determine the growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in nutrient agar for times of up to 24 h. The study results showed that a geopolymer mortar containing glass waste as fine aggregate (GP-G) exhibited a water absorption 56.73% lower than that of the reference geopolymer paste without glass (GP). Likewise, glass particles allowed the material to have a smoother and more homogeneous surface. The pore volume and density of the GP-G were 37.97% lower and 40.36% higher, respectively, than those of the GP. The study with bacteria showed that, after 24 h in the culture media, the GP-G mortars exhibited a high inhibition capacity for the growth of P. aeruginosa from solutions of 10−4 mL and in solutions of 10−6 mL for E. coli and S. aureus. These results indicate the possibility of generating antibacterial surfaces by applying geopolymer composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Fire Protection Performance and Thermal Behavior of Thin Film Intumescent Coating
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080483 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
This paper presents the heat release characteristics, char formation and fire protection performance of thin-film intumescent coatings that integrate eggshell (ES) as an innovative and renewable flame-retardant bio-filler. A cone calorimeter was used to determine the thermal behavior of the samples in the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the heat release characteristics, char formation and fire protection performance of thin-film intumescent coatings that integrate eggshell (ES) as an innovative and renewable flame-retardant bio-filler. A cone calorimeter was used to determine the thermal behavior of the samples in the condensed phase in line with the ISO 5660-1 standard. The fire resistance of the coatings was evaluated using a Bunsen burner test to examine the equilibrium temperature and formation of the char layer. The fire propagation test was also conducted according to BS 476: Part 6. On exposure, the samples X, Y, and Z were qualified to be Class 0 materials due to the indexes of fire propagation being below 12. Samples Y and Z reinforced with 3.50 wt.% and 2.50 wt.% of ES bio-filler, respectively, showed a significant improvement in reducing the heat release rate, providing a more uniform and thicker char layer. As a result, the addition of bio-filler content has proven to be efficient in stopping the fire propagation as well as reducing the total heat released and equilibrium temperature of the intumescent coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Coating of Polyetheretherketone Films with Silver Nanoparticles by a Simple Chemical Reduction Method and Their Antibacterial Activity
Coatings 2019, 9(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020091 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
The coating of polymeric substrate polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out by a wet chemical route at room temperature. The coating process was developed from the Tollens reagent and D-glucose as reducing agent. The resulting composite exhibited antimicrobial activity. The [...] Read more.
The coating of polymeric substrate polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out by a wet chemical route at room temperature. The coating process was developed from the Tollens reagent and D-glucose as reducing agent. The resulting composite exhibited antimicrobial activity. The PEEK films were coated with a single layer and two layers of silver nanoparticles in various concentrations. The crystallographic properties of the polymer and the silver nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) show the interaction between the silver nanoparticles with the polymeric substrate. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed the obtaining of metallic nanoparticles with average sizes of 25 nm. It was possible to estimate the amount of silver deposited on PEEK with the help of thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology and shape of the AgNPs uniformly deposited on the PEEK films was ascertained by the techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), evidencing the increase in the amount of silver by increasing the concentration of the metal precursor. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the films coated with Ag in Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Bacillus licheniformis was evaluated, evidencing that the concentration of silver is crucial in the cellular replication of the bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Biofilm Formation of a Polymer Brush Coating with Ionic Liquids Compared to a Polymer Brush Coating with a Non-Ionic Liquid
Coatings 2018, 8(11), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8110398 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methancryloylethy)-N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide polymer (DEMM-TFSI) brush coated specimens (substrate: glasses) and a liquid ion type of polymer brush coating were investigated for their antifouling effect on biofilms. Biofilms were produced by two kinds of bacteria, E. coli and S. epidermidis. They were [...] Read more.
N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methancryloylethy)-N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide polymer (DEMM-TFSI) brush coated specimens (substrate: glasses) and a liquid ion type of polymer brush coating were investigated for their antifouling effect on biofilms. Biofilms were produced by two kinds of bacteria, E. coli and S. epidermidis. They were formed on specimens immersed into wells (of 12-well plates) that were filled with culture liquids and bacteria. The biofilm formation was observed. Also, brush coated specimens and glass substrates were investigated in the same way. DEMM polymer brush coated specimens formed more biofilm than PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) polymer brush coated specimens and glass substrates. A greater amount of polarized components of biofilms was also observed for DEMM polymer brush coated specimens. The polar characteristics could be attributed to the attraction capability of bacteria and biofilms on DEMM polymer brush coated specimens. When considering the ease of removing biofilms by washing it with water, the ionic liquid type polymer brush (coated specimens) could be used for antifouling applications. If an initial antifouling application is needed, then the polar characteristics could be adjusted (design of the components and concentrations of ionic liquids, etc.) to solve the problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Anti-Fouling Ceramic Coating for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Steel Boiler Systems
Coatings 2018, 8(10), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8100353 - 02 Oct 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Boilers are systems used mainly to generate steam in industries and waste-to-energy facilities. During operation, heat transfer loss occurs because a fouling layer with low thermal conductivity is deposited on the external surfaces of the boiler tube system, which contributes to the overall [...] Read more.
Boilers are systems used mainly to generate steam in industries and waste-to-energy facilities. During operation, heat transfer loss occurs because a fouling layer with low thermal conductivity is deposited on the external surfaces of the boiler tube system, which contributes to the overall poor energy efficiency of waste-to-energy power plants. To overcome the fouling problem, a ceramic coating was developed and applied to carbon steel with a simple and inexpensive coating method. Anti-fouling testing, thermal conductivity measurement, and microstructure observation were performed to evaluate the performance of the coating. All evaluated properties of the coating were found to be excellent. The developed ceramic coating can be applied to boiler tubes in a real facility to protect them from the fouling problem and improve their energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Size Distribution of Contamination Particulate on Porcelain Insulators
Coatings 2018, 8(10), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8100339 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The characteristics of contamination on the insulation medium surface play an important role in the surface flashover, especially size distribution of contaminated particles. After measuring the size of contaminated particles on the porcelain insulator surface, obvious size distribution characteristics of particles were found. [...] Read more.
The characteristics of contamination on the insulation medium surface play an important role in the surface flashover, especially size distribution of contaminated particles. After measuring the size of contaminated particles on the porcelain insulator surface, obvious size distribution characteristics of particles were found. To study the reason for these statistical characteristics, the movement of particles was analyzed in detail combining with fluid mechanics and collision dynamics. Furthermore, an adhesion model was established in this paper. In addition, the influences of different factors on the adhesion were studied. The results showed that the size of adhered particles on the porcelain insulator surface was easy to focus on a specific range, and the influences of relative humidity and wind speed were remarkable. However, the influences of electric field type, electric field strength, and aerodynamic shape were relatively weak. This research was significant and valuable to the study of artificial contamination simulation experiments, and the influence of particles size distribution on pollution flashover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Fouling Release Coatings Based on Polydimethylsiloxane with the Incorporation of Phenylmethylsilicone Oil
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050153 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
In this study, phenylmethylsilicone oil (PSO) with different viscosity was used for research in fouling release coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface properties and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated, while the leaching behavior of PSO from the coatings was studied. [...] Read more.
In this study, phenylmethylsilicone oil (PSO) with different viscosity was used for research in fouling release coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface properties and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated, while the leaching behavior of PSO from the coatings was studied. Subsequently, the antifouling performance of the coatings was investigated by the benthic diatom adhesion test. The results showed that the coatings with high-viscosity PSO exhibited high levels of hydrophobicity and PSO leaching, while the high PSO content significantly decreased the elastic modulus of the coatings and prolonged the release time of PSO. The antifouling results indicated that the incorporation of PSO into coatings enhanced the antifouling performance of the coating by improving the coating hydrophobicity and decreasing the coating elastic modulus, while the leaching of PSO from the coatings improved the fouling removal rate of the coating. This suggests a double enhancement effect on the antifouling performance of fouling release coatings based on PDMS with PSO incorporated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
SiO2@TiO2 Coating: Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Photocatalytic Evaluation
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8040120 - 24 Mar 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5436
Abstract
Use of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been widely investigated individually in coatings technology, but their combined properties promote compatibility for different innovative applications. For example, the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 coatings, when exposed to [...] Read more.
Use of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been widely investigated individually in coatings technology, but their combined properties promote compatibility for different innovative applications. For example, the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 coatings, when exposed to UV light, have interesting environmental applications, such as air purification, self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. However, as reported in different pilot projects, serious durability problems, associated with the adhesion between the substrate and TiO2, have been evidenced. Thus, the aim of this work is to synthesize SiO2 together with TiO2 to increase the durability of the photocatalytic coating without affecting its photocatalytic potential. Therefore, synthesis using sonochemistry, synthesis without sonochemistry, physical characterization, photocatalytic evaluation, and durability of the SiO2, SiO2@TiO2 and TiO2 coatings are presented. Results indicate that using SiO2 improved the durability of the TiO2 coating without affecting its photocatalytic properties. Thus, this novel SiO2@TiO2 coating shows potential for developing long-lasting, self-cleaning and air-purifying construction materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Bacterial Biofilm Characterization and Microscopic Evaluation of the Antibacterial Properties of a Photocatalytic Coating Protecting Building Material
Coatings 2018, 8(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8030093 - 05 Mar 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3022
Abstract
Use of photocatalytic paint-like coatings may be a way to protect building materials from microbial colonization. Numerous studies have shown the antimicrobial efficiency of TiO 2 photocatalysis on various microorganisms. However, few have focused on easy-to-apply solutions and on photocatalysis under low irradiance. [...] Read more.
Use of photocatalytic paint-like coatings may be a way to protect building materials from microbial colonization. Numerous studies have shown the antimicrobial efficiency of TiO 2 photocatalysis on various microorganisms. However, few have focused on easy-to-apply solutions and on photocatalysis under low irradiance. This paper focuses on (a) the antibacterial properties of a semi-transparent coating formulated using TiO 2 particles and (b) the microscopic investigations of bacterial biofilm development on TiO 2 -coated building materials under accelerated growth conditions. Results showed significant antibacterial activity after few hours of testing. The efficiency seemed limited by the confinement of the TiO 2 particles inside the coating binder. However, a pre-irradiation with UV light can improve efficiency. In addition, a significant effect against the formation of a bacterial biofilm was also observed. The epifluorescence approach, in which fluorescence is produced by reflect rather than transmitted light, could be applied in further studies of microbial growth on coatings and building materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Simple Coatings to Render Polystyrene Protein Resistant
Coatings 2018, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8020055 - 01 Feb 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Non-specific protein adsorption is detrimental to the performance of many biomedical devices. Polystyrene is a commonly used material in devices and thin films. Simple reliable surface modification of polystyrene to render it protein resistant is desired in particular for device fabrication and orthogonal [...] Read more.
Non-specific protein adsorption is detrimental to the performance of many biomedical devices. Polystyrene is a commonly used material in devices and thin films. Simple reliable surface modification of polystyrene to render it protein resistant is desired in particular for device fabrication and orthogonal functionalisation schemes. This report details modifications carried out on a polystyrene surface to prevent protein adsorption. The trialed surfaces included Pluronic F127 and PLL-g-PEG, adsorbed on polystyrene, using a polydopamine-assisted approach. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) results showed only short-term anti-fouling success of the polystyrene surface modified with F127, and the subsequent failure of the polydopamine intermediary layer in improving its stability. In stark contrast, QCM-D analysis proved the success of the polydopamine assisted PLL-g-PEG coating in preventing bovine serum albumin adsorption. This modified surface is equally as protein-rejecting after 24 h in buffer, and thus a promising simple coating for long term protein rejection of polystyrene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Article
Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Added TiO2 Particles: Physicomechanical Characteristics
Coatings 2017, 7(12), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7120233 - 15 Dec 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
The effect of the TiO2 addition on the physicomechanical properties of a geopolymer system based on metakaolin (MK) and hydroxide and potassium silicate as activators is presented in this article. Three different liquid-solid systems (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) and two titanium additions [...] Read more.
The effect of the TiO2 addition on the physicomechanical properties of a geopolymer system based on metakaolin (MK) and hydroxide and potassium silicate as activators is presented in this article. Three different liquid-solid systems (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) and two titanium additions were investigated (5% and 10% of the cement content). The flowability, setting time, and mechanical strength of the geopolymer mixtures and their microstructural characteristics were evaluated using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was concluded that a percentage of up to 10% TiO2 does not affect the mechanical properties of the geopolymer, although it does reduce the fluidity and setting times of the mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Review

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Review
State-of-the-Art Green Roofs: Technical Performance and Certifications for Sustainable Construction
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010069 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Green roof systems, a technology which was used in major ancient buildings, are currently becoming an interesting strategy to reduce the negative impact of traditional urban development caused by ground impermeabilization. Only regarding the environmental impact, the application of these biological coatings on [...] Read more.
Green roof systems, a technology which was used in major ancient buildings, are currently becoming an interesting strategy to reduce the negative impact of traditional urban development caused by ground impermeabilization. Only regarding the environmental impact, the application of these biological coatings on buildings has the potential of acting as a thermal, moisture, noise, and electromagnetic barrier. At the urban scale, they might reduce the heat island effect and sewage system load, improve runoff water and air quality, and reconstruct natural landscapes including wildlife. In spite of these significant benefits, the current design and construction methods are not completely regulated by law because there is a lack of knowledge of their technical performance. Hence, this review of the current state of the art presents a proper green roof classification based on their components and vegetation layer. Similarly, a detailed description from the key factors that control the hydraulic and thermal performance of green roofs is given. Based on these factors, an estimation of the impact of green roof systems on sustainable construction certifications is included (i.e., LEED—Leadership in Energy and Environment Design, BREEAM—Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method, CASBEE—Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency, BEAM—Building Environmental Assessment Method, ESGB—Evaluation Standard for Green Building). Finally, conclusions and future research challenges for the correct implementation of green roofs are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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Review
Cellulose Aerogels for Thermal Insulation in Buildings: Trends and Challenges
Coatings 2018, 8(10), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8100345 - 28 Sep 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3480
Abstract
Cellulose-based aerogels hold the potential to become a cost-effective bio-based solution for thermal insulation in buildings. Low thermal conductivities (<0.025 W·m−1·K−1) are achieved through a decrease in gaseous phase contribution, exploiting the Knudsen effect. However, several challenges need to [...] Read more.
Cellulose-based aerogels hold the potential to become a cost-effective bio-based solution for thermal insulation in buildings. Low thermal conductivities (<0.025 W·m−1·K−1) are achieved through a decrease in gaseous phase contribution, exploiting the Knudsen effect. However, several challenges need to be overcome: production energy demand and cost, moisture sensitivity, flammability, and thermal stability. Herein, a description and discussion of current trends and challenges in cellulose aerogel research for thermal insulation are presented, gathered from studies reported within the last five years. The text is divided into three main sections: (i) an overview of thermal performance of cellulose aerogels, (ii) an identification of challenges and possible solutions for cellulose aerogel thermal insulation, and (iii) a brief description of cellulose/silica aerogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Buildings)
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