Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st Coatings and Interfaces Web Conference (CIWC-1)"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi

Guest Editor
Istituto di Chimica dei Composti OrganoMetallici (ICCOM-CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
Interests: electrodeposition of materials for renewable energy production; surface engineering; corrosion and corrosion protection; thermal barriers coatings; electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); X-ray techniques for surface structure and composition (XPS, XRF, XRD); electroless deposition of metals and cermet’s; simulation and modelling of complex electrochemical systems
Prof. Dr. Massimo Innocenti
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
Interests: electrodeposition; energy; electrocatalysis; fuel cells
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Vasileios Koutsos
Website
Guest Editor
Head of Research Institute, Institute for Materials and Processes, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Sanderson Building, The King's Buildings, Robert Stevenson Road, EDINBURGH EH9 3FB, UK
Interests: self-assembly of polymers and nanoparticles on surfaces and interfaces; mechanics of materials with emphasis on soft materials (polymers, rubbers, colloids); nanomaterials; nanostructures; nanocomposites; thin films, coatings; adhesion; tribology and contact mechanics
Prof. Dr. Ludmila B. Boinovich
Website
Guest Editor
Lab. on Surface Forces, A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 31 Leninsky prospect, 119071 Moscow, Russia
Interests: superhydrophobicity; superhydrophilicity; anti-icing coatings; anti-corrosion coatings; electroinsulating coatings; surface modification; wetting
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Prof. Dr. James E. Krzanowski
Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Hampshire, Kingsbury Hall, 33 Academic Way, Durham, NH 03824, USA
Interests: nitrides; carbides; sputter deposition; ion-assisted deposition; wear; friction; tool coatings
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Prof. Dr. Andriy Voronov
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA
Interests: olymer synthesis and self-assembly; responsive polymer materials including biomaterials and bio-based renewable materials for biomedical and biotechnological applications
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Dr. James Kit-hon Tsoi
Website
Guest Editor
Dental Materials Science, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong
Interests: nanocoating for dental biomaterials; anti-bacterial coating; process of clinical coating
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Prof. Dr. Maria Cristina Tanzi
Website
Guest Editor
Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "G. Natta", INSTM Local Unit Politecnico di Milano, 20131 Milano, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; polymers; scaffolds; hydrogels, surface modification; mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties; Infrared Spectroscopy; biocompatibility; cell-material interactions
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers from the Proceedings of the 1st Coatings and Interfaces Web Conference (CIWC-1), held from 15–29 March 2019 on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

Through CIWC-1, we aim to promote and advance the exciting and rapidly changing field of surfaces, coatings, and interfaces. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Coatings and surfaces for corrosion, wear, and erosion mitigation;
  • Coatings and interfaces for energy applications;
  • Biocoating and biomaterial surfaces and interfaces;
  • Coating deposition and surface modification technologies;
  • Coatings, surfaces, and interfaces for food safety and preservation;
  • Coatings, surfaces, and interfaces for cultural heritage;
  • Advances in coatings and surface characterization.

Selected papers which have attracted the most interest on the web, or that provided a particularly innovative contribution, have been gathered for publication. These papers have been subjected to peer review, and are published with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications. We hope this Conference Series will grow rapidly in the future and become recognized as a new way and venue by which to present new developments related to the field of coatings and interfaces.

Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi
Prof. Dr. Massimo Innocenti
Prof. Dr. Vasileios Koutsos
Prof. Dr. Ludmila B. Boinovich
Prof. Dr. James E. Krzanowski
Prof. Dr. Andriy Voronov
Dr. James Kit-hon Tsoi
Prof. Dr. Maria Cristina Tanzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Resistance of Anodic Layers Grown on 304L Stainless Steel at Different Anodizing Times and Stirring Speeds
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110706 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
Different chemical and physical treatments have been used to improve the properties and functionalities of steels. Anodizing is one of the most promising treatments, due to its versatility and easy industrial implementation. It allows the growth of nanoestructured oxide films with interesting properties [...] Read more.
Different chemical and physical treatments have been used to improve the properties and functionalities of steels. Anodizing is one of the most promising treatments, due to its versatility and easy industrial implementation. It allows the growth of nanoestructured oxide films with interesting properties able to be employed in different industrial sectors. The present work studies the influence of the anodizing time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min), as well as the stirring speed (0, 200, 400, and 600 rpm), on the morphology and the corrosion resistance of the anodic layers grown in 304L stainless steel. The anodic layers were characterized morphologically, compositionally, and electrochemically, in order to determine the influence of the anodization parameters on their corrosion behavior in a 0.6 mol L−1 NaCl solution. The results show that at 45 and 60 min anodizing times, the formation of two microstructures is favored, associated with the collapse of the nanoporous structures at the metal-oxide interphace. However, both the stirring speed and the anodizing time have a negligeable effect on the corrosion behavior of the anodized 304L SS samples, since their electrochemical values are similar to those of the non-anodized ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Modification of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Means of Low Pressure Glow-Discharge Treatments with Nitrogen
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100604 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
When low temperature nitriding of austenitic stainless steels is carried out, it is very important to remove the surface passive layer for obtaining homogeneous incorporation of nitrogen. In the glow-discharge nitriding technique this surface activation is performed by cathodic sputtering pre-treatment, which can [...] Read more.
When low temperature nitriding of austenitic stainless steels is carried out, it is very important to remove the surface passive layer for obtaining homogeneous incorporation of nitrogen. In the glow-discharge nitriding technique this surface activation is performed by cathodic sputtering pre-treatment, which can heat also the samples up to nitriding temperature. This preliminary study investigates the possibility of producing modified surface layers on austenitic stainless steels by performing low pressure glow-discharge treatments with nitrogen, similar to cathodic sputtering, so that surface activation, heating and nitrogen incorporation can occur in a single step having a short duration (up to about 10 min). Depending on treatment parameters, it is possible to produce different types of modified surface layers. One type, similar to that obtained with low temperature nitriding, consists mainly of S phase and it shows improved surface hardness and corrosion resistance in 5% NaCl solution in comparison with the untreated steel. Another type has large amounts of chromium nitride precipitates, which cause a marked hardness increase but a poor corrosion resistance. These surface treatments influence also water wetting properties, so that the apparent contact angle values become >90°, indicating a hydrophobic behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Tribological Behavior of Rolling Bearings by Applying a Multilayer ZrN/ZrCN Coating
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070434 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper focuses on the tribological behaviour of ZrN/ZrCN coating on bearing steel substrates DIN 17230, 100Cr6/1.3505. Coatings are applied at room temperature processes by means of Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE), a kind of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique. In order to achieve [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the tribological behaviour of ZrN/ZrCN coating on bearing steel substrates DIN 17230, 100Cr6/1.3505. Coatings are applied at room temperature processes by means of Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE), a kind of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique. In order to achieve a satisfactory compromise between coating-substrate adhesion and the surface roughness requirement of the bearing rings, a polish post-processing is proposed. Different polish post-processing times and conditions are applied. The coated and polished bearing rings are tested under real friction torque test protocols. These tests show that the application of the coating does not entail a significant improvement in friction performance of the bearing. However, fatigue tests in real test bench are pending to evaluate the possible improvement in bearing life time. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Corrosion Resistance Test of Electroplated Gold and Palladium Using Fast Electrochemical Analysis
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060405 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
Noble metal coatings are commonly employed to improve corrosion resistance of metals in the electronic and jewellery industry. The corrosion resistance of electroplated goods is currently determinate with long, destructive and almost subjective interpretation corrosion tests in artificial atmosphere. In this study we [...] Read more.
Noble metal coatings are commonly employed to improve corrosion resistance of metals in the electronic and jewellery industry. The corrosion resistance of electroplated goods is currently determinate with long, destructive and almost subjective interpretation corrosion tests in artificial atmosphere. In this study we present the application of electrochemical analysis to obtain fast and numerical information of the antiaging coating. We performed open circuit potential (OCP) and corrosion current measurement; we employed also the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), commonly applied to organic or passivated metal with high-impedance, to find the best option for noble low-impedance coating analysis. For comparison, traditional standardized tests (damp heat ISO 17228, salt spray ISO 9227 and sulphur dioxide ISO 4524) were also performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cavitation Erosion and Sliding Wear Mechanisms of AlTiN and TiAlN Films Deposited on Stainless Steel Substrate
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050340 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The resistance to cavitation erosion and sliding wear of stainless steel grade AISI 304 can be improved by using physical vapor deposited (PVD) coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the cavitation erosion and sliding wear mechanisms of magnetron-sputtered AlTiN and [...] Read more.
The resistance to cavitation erosion and sliding wear of stainless steel grade AISI 304 can be improved by using physical vapor deposited (PVD) coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the cavitation erosion and sliding wear mechanisms of magnetron-sputtered AlTiN and TiAlN films deposited with different contents of chemical elements onto a stainless steel SS304 substrate. The surface morphology and structure of samples were examined by optical profilometry, light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus) were tested using a nanoindentation tester. Adhesion of the deposited coatings was determined by the scratch test and Rockwell adhesion tests. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 (vibratory apparatus) in compliance with the stationary specimen procedure. Sliding wear tests were conducted with the use of a nano-tribo tester, i.e., ball-on-disc apparatus. Results demonstrate that the cavitation erosion mechanism of the TiAlN and AlTiN coatings rely on embrittlement, which can be attributed to fatigue processes causing film rupture and internal decohesion in flake spallation, and thus leading to coating detachment and substrate exposition. At moderate loads, the sliding wear of thin films takes the form of grooving, micro-scratching, micro-ploughing and smearing of the columnar grain top hills. Compared to the SS reference sample, the PVD films exhibit superior resistance to sliding wear and cavitation erosion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of a Polyurethane Phase Separated to Nano Size in an Epoxy Polymer
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050319 - 13 May 2019
Abstract
Epoxy resins are widely applicable in the aircraft, automobile, coating, and adhesive industries because of their good chemical resistance and excellent mechanical and thermal properties. However, upon external impact, the crack propagation of epoxy polymers weakens the overall impact resistance of these materials. [...] Read more.
Epoxy resins are widely applicable in the aircraft, automobile, coating, and adhesive industries because of their good chemical resistance and excellent mechanical and thermal properties. However, upon external impact, the crack propagation of epoxy polymers weakens the overall impact resistance of these materials. Therefore, many impact modifiers have been developed to reduce the brittleness of epoxy polymers. Polyurethanes, as impact modifiers, can improve the toughness of polymers. Although it is well known that polyurethanes (PUs) are phase-separated in the polymer matrix after curing, connecting PUs to the polymer matrix for enhancing the mechanical properties of polymers has proven to be challenging. In this study, we introduced epoxy functional groups into polyol backbones, which is different from other studies that focused on modifying capping agents to achieve a network structure between the polymer matrix and PU. We confirmed the molecular weight of the prepared PU via gel permeation chromatography. Moreover, the prepared material was added to the epoxies and the resulting mechanical and thermal properties of the materials were evaluated. Furthermore, we conducted tensile, flexural strength, and impact resistance measurements. The addition of PU to the epoxy compositions enhanced their impact strength and maintained their mechanical strength up to 10 phr of PU. Furthermore, the morphologies observed with field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy proved that the PU was phase separated in the epoxy matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Two Different Hydrophobic Topcoats for Increasing of Durability of Exterior Coating Systems on Oak Wood
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050280 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A top hydrophobic layer can increase the durability of exterior coatings applied on wood. Two hydrophobic topcoats - synthetics and waterborne acrylate resin with wax additives, were tested as top layers on twenty-four different coating systems applied on oak wood in this experiment. [...] Read more.
A top hydrophobic layer can increase the durability of exterior coatings applied on wood. Two hydrophobic topcoats - synthetics and waterborne acrylate resin with wax additives, were tested as top layers on twenty-four different coating systems applied on oak wood in this experiment. Artificial accelerated weathering lasted for six weeks. Changes of color, gloss, surface wetting were evaluated, and microscopic analyses of coated surfaces were done during weathering. The results have shown that a top hydrophobic layer increases the durability of tested coating systems in most cases. However, the effectiveness of the two tested hydrophobic topcoats turned out to be different depending on the specific coating systems used. Full article
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