Special Issue "Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Child Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Paul R. Carney
Website
Guest Editor
Pediatric Neurology and Epilepsy, Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, 170 Manning Drive, CB# 7025 , NC 27599-7025, Chapel Hill, USA
Interests: children’s health; pediatric sleep medicine; pediatric epilepsy; biomedical engineering
Dr. James D. Geyer
Website
Guest Editor
Alabama Neurology and Sleep Medicine; Director, Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Alabama, Neurology and Sleep Medicine and the University of Alabama, 35401, United States
Interests: sleep medicine; behavioral sleep medicine; epilepsy; bioengineering; advanced diagnostic systems; children’s health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sleep medicine is a relatively new field of medicine. Sleep disorders are often overlooked in children, and are frequently poorly managed when they are recognized. At least 20 percent of children have sleep disorders. Pediatricians, family physicians, and nurse practitioners report considerable difficulty in managing even the most common sleep conditions. In the last decade, significant advances have been made for a number of conditions such as sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and primary disorders of sleepiness. Since medical practices are strained by a demanding and fast-paced schedule, practitioners must have access to current evaluations and treatment recommendations to increase their confidence in the management of sleep disorders in children.

This Special Issue will begin with a review of normal sleep and sleep development. Both reviews and original research will be considered for publication. Examples could include manuscripts that discuss normal sleep, sleep-related breathing disorders, restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, parasomnias and narcolepsy, as well as their therapies, the inter-relationships between sleep and common disease states, traditional and advanced diagnostic systems. This Special Issue will provide a review of the field of pediatric sleep medicine and provide resources for further education and training programs for medical professionals.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Paul Carney
Dr. James Geyer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sleep medicine
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Central sleep apnea
  • Restless legs
  • Parasomnias
  • Circadian rhythm disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Behavioral sleep medicine
  • Epilepsy and sleep
  • Sleep and Pulmonary disease
  • Narcolepsy
  • Polysomnography
  • Advanced diagnostics
  • Ontogeny of sleep
  • Normal sleep

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Devices for Ambulatory Monitoring of Sleep-Associated Disorders in Children with Neurological Diseases
Children 2018, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5010003 - 25 Dec 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Good sleep quality is essential for a child’s wellbeing. Early sleep problems have been linked to the later development of emotional and behavioral disorders and can negatively impact the quality of life of the child and his or her family. Sleep-associated conditions are [...] Read more.
Good sleep quality is essential for a child’s wellbeing. Early sleep problems have been linked to the later development of emotional and behavioral disorders and can negatively impact the quality of life of the child and his or her family. Sleep-associated conditions are frequent in the pediatric population, and even more so in children with neurological problems. Monitoring devices can help to better characterize sleep efficiency and sleep quality. They can also be helpful to better characterize paroxysmal nocturnal events and differentiate between nocturnal seizures, parasomnias, and obstructive sleep apnea, each of which has a different management. Overnight ambulatory detection devices allow for a tolerable, low cost, objective assessment of sleep quality in the patient’s natural environment. They can also be used as a notification system to allow for rapid recognition and prompt intervention of events like seizures. Optimal monitoring devices will be patient- and diagnosis-specific, but may include a combination of modalities such as ambulatory electroencephalograms, actigraphy, and pulse oximetry. We will summarize the current literature on ambulatory sleep devices for detecting sleep disorders in children with neurological diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle
Sleep Disorders in a Sample of Adopted Children: A Pilot Study
Children 2017, 4(9), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4090077 - 29 Aug 2017
Abstract
Sleep disorders occur in up to 25% of children and are more prevalent in children who have attention problems and attachment issues. Research shows that foster children display sleep problems, but limited knowledge exists on sleep problems in adopted children. This pilot study [...] Read more.
Sleep disorders occur in up to 25% of children and are more prevalent in children who have attention problems and attachment issues. Research shows that foster children display sleep problems, but limited knowledge exists on sleep problems in adopted children. This pilot study aimed to identify the types of sleep disorders in adopted children and associated psychosocial factors. Parents of adopted children in Ontario, Canada, ages 2–10 years were asked to complete questionnaires evaluating demographic measures, sleep history, and the presence of behavioral problems. Insomnias and parasomnias were reported in adopted children and were associated with attention problems. This pilot study emphasizes the need for further research on the underlying factors governing the relationship between poor sleep and behavioral problems in adopted children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment on Lipids in Obese Children
Children 2017, 4(6), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4060044 - 01 Jun 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact [...] Read more.
Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in children. The objective of the study was to examine the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in 24 obese children. Methods: Seventeen children were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and five underwent adenotonsillectomy. Mean apnea hypopnea index prior to treatment was 13.0 + 12.1 and mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.0 + 10.6 kg/m2. Results: Treatment of OSA was associated with improvement in total cholesterol (mean change = −11 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean change = –8.8 mg/dL, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Obese children should be routinely screened for OSA, as treatment of OSA favorably influences lipids and therefore decreases their cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Sleep Disturbances in Newborns
Children 2017, 4(10), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100090 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 20
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environment, and the amplitude integrated EEG can be a useful tool in evaluating sleep, and sleep disturbances, in neonates. Finally, there are protective factors for infant sleep that are still being studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessReview
Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological Diseases
Children 2017, 4(10), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100084 - 22 Sep 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly [...] Read more.
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessReview
Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders
Children 2017, 4(9), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4090082 - 12 Sep 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric [...] Read more.
Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessReview
Assessment of Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Children 2017, 4(8), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4080072 - 08 Aug 2017
Cited by 22
Abstract
Sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are significantly more prevalent than found in typically developing (TD) children. Given the detrimental impact of poor sleep on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning, it is imperative to screen and assess for sleep disturbances [...] Read more.
Sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are significantly more prevalent than found in typically developing (TD) children. Given the detrimental impact of poor sleep on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning, it is imperative to screen and assess for sleep disturbances in this population. In this paper, we describe the screening and assessment process, as well as specific measures commonly used for assessing sleep in children with ASD. Advantages and limitations for use in children with ASD are discussed. While subjective measures, such as parent-report questionnaires and sleep diaries, are the most widely used, more objective measures such as actigraphy, polysomnography, and videosomnography provide additional valuable information for both diagnostic purposes and treatment planning. These objective measures, nonetheless, are limited by cost, availability, and feasibility of use with children with ASD. The current review provides an argument for the complementary uses of both subjective and objective measures of sleep specifically for use in children with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessReview
DSM-5 Changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Comorbid Sleep Issues
Children 2017, 4(8), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4080062 - 27 Jul 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite significant comorbidity, the previous diagnostic criteria prohibited the simultaneous diagnosis of both disorders. Sleep problems are highly prevalent in both disorders; however, these have been studied [...] Read more.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite significant comorbidity, the previous diagnostic criteria prohibited the simultaneous diagnosis of both disorders. Sleep problems are highly prevalent in both disorders; however, these have been studied independently for ADHD and ASD. In the context of revised criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) that allows combined diagnosis of ADHD and ASD, this short review presents an overview of relationship between sleep problems, ADHD and ASD, as well as conceptualizing the shared pathophysiology. The practical considerations for clinical management of sleep problems in combination with ADHD and ASD are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)

Other

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Open AccessCase Report
A Potential Novel Mechanism for Vagus Nerve Stimulator-Related Central Sleep Apnea
Children 2017, 4(10), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100086 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in [...] Read more.
The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom VNS activation induced tachypnea and post-hyperventilation central apnea. Following adjustment of VNS settings, the post-hyperventilation CSA resolved. Polysomnography may assist with management when patients with epilepsy develop sleep disruption after VNS placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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