Special Issue "Pediatric Fractures—Volume II"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Orthopedics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2023 | Viewed by 2095

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christiaan J. A. van Bergen
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amphia, PO Box 90150, 4800 RK Breda, The Netherlands
2. Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center – Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Interests: pediatric orthopedics; fractures; trauma; cartilage; sports
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Joost W. Colaris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Interests: pediatric orthopedics; fractures; trauma; cartilage; sports

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fractures are extremely common in children. The fracture risk in boys is 40%, and is 28% in girls. Although many pediatric fractures are frequently regarded as “innocent” or “forgiving”, typical complications do occur in this precious population, including premature physeal closure and post-traumatic deformity, which may cause life-long disability.

Despite the high incidence of pediatric injuries, there is still much debate regarding the optimal treatment regimes. Although non-operative and surgical treatment techniques have developed enormously during the past several decades, current management is still more eminence-based rather than evidence-based because of the limited scientific evidence. For example, the recently developed comprehensive Dutch clinical practice guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric fractures included almost solely “low” or “very low” level recommendations, based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. The only exceptions were some forearm fracture recommendations, which received “moderate” GRADEs. There is a clear lack of data and a need for higher-level science in pediatric trauma.

Considering the success and popularity of the previous Special Issue, “Pediatric Fractures”, published in the journal Children (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/children/special_issues/pediatric_fractures), we are now releasing a second Issue aiming to gather original research papers and review articles related to pediatric fractures, including the diagnosis, treatment, or follow-up of common fractures. Authors are also encouraged to submit papers on specific pediatric injuries, as well as vulnerable populations such as children with bone disease. We also welcome articles that discuss important advancements and novel interventions on closely related topics, including high-energy trauma, perioperative care, and complication management.

Dr. Christiaan J. A. van Bergen
Dr. Joost W. Colaris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pediatric orthopedics
  • fracture
  • trauma
  • injury
  • children
  • adolescents

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Accuracy of 3D Corrective Osteotomy for Pediatric Malunited Both-Bone Forearm Fractures
Children 2023, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10010021 - 23 Dec 2022
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Abstract
Re-displacement of a pediatric diaphyseal forearm fracture can lead to a malunion with symptomatic impairment in forearm rotation, which may require a corrective osteotomy. Corrective osteotomy with two-dimensional (2D) radiographic planning for malunited pediatric forearm fractures can be a complex procedure due to [...] Read more.
Re-displacement of a pediatric diaphyseal forearm fracture can lead to a malunion with symptomatic impairment in forearm rotation, which may require a corrective osteotomy. Corrective osteotomy with two-dimensional (2D) radiographic planning for malunited pediatric forearm fractures can be a complex procedure due to multiplanar deformities. Three-dimensional (3D) corrective osteotomy can aid the surgeon in planning and obtaining a more accurate correction and better forearm rotation. This prospective study aimed to assess the accuracy of correction after 3D corrective osteotomy for pediatric forearm malunion and if anatomic correction influences the functional outcome. Our primary outcome measures were the residual maximum deformity angle (MDA) and malrotation after 3D corrective osteotomy. Post-operative MDA > 5° or residual malrotation > 15° were defined as non-anatomic corrections. Our secondary outcome measure was the gain in pro-supination. Between 2016–2018, fifteen patients underwent 3D corrective osteotomies for pediatric malunited diaphyseal both-bone fractures. Three-dimensional corrective osteotomies provided anatomic correction in 10 out of 15 patients. Anatomic corrections resulted in a greater gain in pro-supination than non-anatomic corrections: 70° versus 46° (p = 0.04, ANOVA). Residual malrotation of the radius was associated with inferior gain in pro-supination (p = 0.03, multi-variate linear regression). Three-dimensional corrective osteotomy for pediatric forearm malunion reliably provided an accurate correction, which led to a close-to-normal forearm rotation. Non-anatomic correction, especially residual malrotation of the radius, leads to inferior functional outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Fractures—Volume II)
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Article
Stabilisation of Pathologic Proximal Femoral Fracture near the Growth Plate with Use of a Locking Plate and Transphyseal Screws
Children 2022, 9(12), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121932 - 09 Dec 2022
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Abstract
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign osseus lesion with a high pathologic fracture risk. The described treatment options are varied and inconsistent. For successful treatment results, it is essential to prevent recurrence and sufficiently stabilise the weakened bone. Lesions close to the [...] Read more.
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign osseus lesion with a high pathologic fracture risk. The described treatment options are varied and inconsistent. For successful treatment results, it is essential to prevent recurrence and sufficiently stabilise the weakened bone. Lesions close to the growth plates, especially in the femoral neck region, are challenging to stabilise in children. In this study, 27 clinics, including 11 sarcoma centres, 15 paediatric orthopaedic clinics, and one sarcoma/paediatric orthopaedic centre, were surveyed and asked about their treatment approaches for an exemplary case of ABC in the femoral neck causing a pathological fracture in a 20-month-old infant, with a response rate of 81%. The heterogeneity of treatment options described in the literature is consistent with the survey results. The most favoured approach was curettage, defect filling of any kind, and surgical stabilisation. However, the lesion stabilisation option introduced in this paper, which involves the use of transphyseal screws, was not mentioned in the survey and has not been reported in the literature. Contrary to the existing concepts, our technique offers high stability without significant growth restriction. Transphyseal screws are also suitable for the treatment of femoral neck fractures of other aetiologies in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Fractures—Volume II)
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Review

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Review
Indications and Timing of Guided Growth Techniques for Pediatric Upper Extremity Deformities: A Literature Review
Children 2023, 10(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020195 - 20 Jan 2023
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Abstract
Osseous deformities in children arise due to progressive angular growth or complete physeal arrest. Clinical and radiological alignment measurements help to provide an impression of the deformity, which can be corrected using guided growth techniques. However, little is known about timing and techniques [...] Read more.
Osseous deformities in children arise due to progressive angular growth or complete physeal arrest. Clinical and radiological alignment measurements help to provide an impression of the deformity, which can be corrected using guided growth techniques. However, little is known about timing and techniques for the upper extremity. Treatment options for deformity correction include monitoring of the deformity, (hemi-)epiphysiodesis, physeal bar resection, and correction osteotomy. Treatment is dependent on the extent and location of the deformity, physeal involvement, presence of a physeal bar, patient age, and predicted length inequality at skeletal maturity. An accurate estimation of the projected limb or bone length inequality is crucial for optimal timing of the intervention. The Paley multiplier method remains the most accurate and simple method for calculating limb growth. While the multiplier method is accurate for calculating growth prior to the growth spurt, measuring peak height velocity (PHV) is superior to chronological age after the onset of the growth spurt. PHV is closely related to skeletal age in children. The Sauvegrain method of skeletal age assessment using elbow radiographs is possibly a simpler and more reliable method than the method by Greulich and Pyle using hand radiographs. PHV-derived multipliers need to be developed for the Sauvegrain method for a more accurate calculation of limb growth during the growth spurt. This paper provides a review of the current literature on the clinical and radiological evaluation of normal upper extremity alignment and aims to provide state-of-the-art directions on deformity evaluation, treatment options, and optimal timing of these options during growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Fractures—Volume II)
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Review
Fracture through Pre-Existing Tarsal Coalition: A Narrative Review
Children 2023, 10(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10010072 - 29 Dec 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Tarsal coalitions are abnormal fibrous or bony connections between the tarsal bones of the foot. While not always symptomatic, coalitions can cause pain, alterations in forefoot and hindfoot morphology, and alterations in foot and ankle biomechanics. Previous research has described the association of [...] Read more.
Tarsal coalitions are abnormal fibrous or bony connections between the tarsal bones of the foot. While not always symptomatic, coalitions can cause pain, alterations in forefoot and hindfoot morphology, and alterations in foot and ankle biomechanics. Previous research has described the association of tarsal coalitions with fractures of the lower extremity. Multiple reports of acute fracture in the presence of tarsal coalition have been presented, as have reports of stress fractures of the foot and ankle with concomitant coalition, insidious in onset and thought to be related to aberrancies in foot and ankle biomechanics. The purpose of this review is to discuss the biomechanics seen in tarsal coalitions and to describe reports of fracture occurring concomitantly with tarsal coalitions. We will discuss diagnostic options and treatment approaches in the setting of fracture with preexisting tarsal coalition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Fractures—Volume II)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Differential diagnosis of infantile and childhood fractures
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