Special Issue "Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Chemical Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2021) | Viewed by 14024

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Emilia Witkowska Nery
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: low-cost sensors and paper-based devices; electronic tongue systems; electrode arrays; electroanalysis
Dr. Martin Jonsson-Niedziolka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: low-cost sensors and paper-based devices; liquid–liquid electrochemistry; ITIES; bioelectrochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Two decades ago, paper-based devices were a niche research field, with few groups working mainly on point-of-care or low-cost applications and batteries. The golden days of paper-based electrophoresis and chromatography on paper were for many long forgotten. Now the literature is rich, with more than 1000 publications on the topic, and paper has become the main research theme for numerous scientific groups. 

Classic examples of applications are nitrocellulose lateral flow assays similar to the pregnancy test and dipsticks derived from litmus paper. Apart from those, paper is used as part of high-tech microfluidic systems (e.g., as a passive pump), for prototyping, teaching, and for disposable sensors.

This Special Issue aims to provide a forum for the latest developments in the field, including but not limited to:

  • Methods of cellulose modification;
  • Integration of paper parts in sensor platforms fabricated from other materials;
  • Paper microfluidic systems and MEMS;
  • Paper-based sensors and biosensors;
  • Paper-based devices as educational tools;
  • Applications of the above systems.
Dr. Emilia Witkowska Nery
Dr. Martin Jönsson-Niedziółka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Paper-based analytical device (PAD)
  • Electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD)
  • Microfluidic paper analytical devices (uPAD)
  • Lab-on-paper
  • Paper-based electrochemical device (PED)
  • Low-cost sensors
  • Point-of-care tests (POCT)
  • Flexible sensors

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Paper-Based Device for Sweat Chloride Testing Based on the Photochemical Response of Silver Halide Nanocrystals
Chemosensors 2021, 9(10), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9100286 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
A new method for the determination of chloride anions in sweat is described. The novelty of the method relies on the different photochemical response of silver ions and silver chloride crystals when exposed to UV light. Silver ions undergo an intense colorimetric transition [...] Read more.
A new method for the determination of chloride anions in sweat is described. The novelty of the method relies on the different photochemical response of silver ions and silver chloride crystals when exposed to UV light. Silver ions undergo an intense colorimetric transition from colorless to dark grey-brown due to the formation of nanosized Ag while AgCl exhibits a less intense color change from white to slightly grey. The analytical signal is obtained as mean grey value of color intensity on the paper surface and is expressed as the absolute difference between the signal of the blank (i.e., in absence of chloride) and the sample (i.e., in the presence of chloride). The method is simple to perform (addition of sample, incubation in the absence of light, irradiation, and offline measurement in a flatbed scanner), does not require any special signal processing steps (the color intensity is directly measured from a constant window on the paper surface without any imager processing) and is performed with minimum sample volume (2 μL). The method operates within a large chloride concentration range (10–140 mM) with good detection limits (2.7 mM chloride), satisfactory recoveries (95.2–108.7%), and reproducibility (<9%). Based on these data the method could serve as a potential tool for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis through the determination of chloride in human sweat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices)
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Article
Development of a High-Throughput Low-Cost Approach for Fabricating Fully Drawn Paper-Based Analytical Devices Using Commercial Writing Tools
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070178 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
This work reports the development and optimization of a rapid and low-cost pen-on-paper plotting approach for the fabrication of paper-based analytical devices (PADs) using commercial writing stationery. The desired fluidic patterns were drawn on the paper substrate with commercial marker pens using an [...] Read more.
This work reports the development and optimization of a rapid and low-cost pen-on-paper plotting approach for the fabrication of paper-based analytical devices (PADs) using commercial writing stationery. The desired fluidic patterns were drawn on the paper substrate with commercial marker pens using an inexpensive computer-controlled x–y plotter. For the fabrication of electrochemical PADs, electrodes were further deposited on the devices using a second x–y plotting step with commercial writing pencils. The effect of the fabrication parameters (type of paper, type of marker pen, type of pencil, plotting speed, number of passes, single- vs. double-sided plotting), the chemical resistance of the plotted devices to different solvents and the structural rigidity to multiple loading cycles were assessed. The analytical utility of these devices is demonstrated through application in optical sensing of total phenols using reflectance calorimetry and in electrochemical sensing of paracetamol and ascorbic acid. The proposed manufacturing approach is simple, low cost, flexible, rapid and fit-for-purpose and enables the fabrication of sub-“one-dollar” PADs with satisfactory mechanical and chemical resistance and good analytical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices)
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Article
A Paper-Based Potentiometric Platform for Determination of Water Hardness
Chemosensors 2021, 9(5), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9050096 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
A novel paper-based potentiometric platform for the simple and fast monitoring of water hardness is presented. First, potentiometric ion-selective electrodes for calcium and magnesium printed on a paper substrate were built and optimized. These sensors, which display near-Nernstian sensitivity, were used for the [...] Read more.
A novel paper-based potentiometric platform for the simple and fast monitoring of water hardness is presented. First, potentiometric ion-selective electrodes for calcium and magnesium printed on a paper substrate were built and optimized. These sensors, which display near-Nernstian sensitivity, were used for the determination of the concentration of these cations and the calculation of the water hardness. Second, the incorporation of a solid-state reference electrode allowed building an integrated paper-based potentiometric cell for the determination of the hardness of artificial and real samples (mineral waters). The validation of the results shows good ability to predict hardness in the conventional scale. Truly decentralized measurements were demonstrated by integration of a miniaturized instrument and dedicated software in a portable device. The measurements were able to be performed in just under two minutes, including a two-point calibration. Since the method is simple to use and cost-effective, it can be implemented in domestic and industrial settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices)
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Article
Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Temperature Sensors on Paper Substrate for the Integration into Natural Fiber-Reinforced Lightweight Components
Chemosensors 2021, 9(5), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9050095 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
In a unique approach to develop a “green” solution for in-situ monitoring, low-cost inkjet-printed temperature sensors on paper substrate were fully integrated into natural fiber-reinforced lightweight components for which structural health monitoring is becoming increasingly important. The results showed that the sensors remained [...] Read more.
In a unique approach to develop a “green” solution for in-situ monitoring, low-cost inkjet-printed temperature sensors on paper substrate were fully integrated into natural fiber-reinforced lightweight components for which structural health monitoring is becoming increasingly important. The results showed that the sensors remained functional after the vacuum infusion process; furthermore, the integration of the sensors improved the mechanical integrity and stability of the lightweight parts, as demonstrated by tensile testing. To verify the qualification of the printed sensors for the target application, the samples were exposed to varying temperature and humidity conditions inside of a climate chamber. The sensors showed linear temperature dependence in the temperature range of interest (−20 to 60 °C) with a TCR ranging from 1.576 × 10−3 K−1 to 1.713 × 10−3 K−1. Furthermore, the results from the tests in humid environments indicated that the used paper-based sensors could be made almost insensitive to changes in ambient humidity by embedding them into fiber-reinforced lightweight materials. This study demonstrates the feasibility of fully integrating paper-based printed sensors into lightweight components, which paves the way towards integration of other highly relevant sensing devices, such as strain and humidity sensors, for structural health monitoring of smart, sustainable, and environmentally compatible lightweight composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices)
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Article
Silver Inkjet-Printed Electrode on Paper for Electrochemical Sensing of Paraquat
Chemosensors 2021, 9(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9040061 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
The use of fully printed electrochemical devices has gained more attention for the monitoring of clinical, food, and environmental analytes due to their low cost, great reproducibility, and versatility characteristics, serving as an important technology for commercial application. Therefore, a paper-based inkjet-printed electrochemical [...] Read more.
The use of fully printed electrochemical devices has gained more attention for the monitoring of clinical, food, and environmental analytes due to their low cost, great reproducibility, and versatility characteristics, serving as an important technology for commercial application. Therefore, a paper-based inkjet-printed electrochemical system is proposed as a cost-effective analytical detection tool for paraquat. Chromatographic paper was used as the printing substrate due its sustainable and disposable characteristics, and an inkjet-printing system deposited the conductive silver ink with no further modification on the paper surface, providing a three-electrode system. The printed electrodes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry. The proposed sensor exhibited a large surface area, providing a powerful tool for paraquat detection due to its higher analytical signal. For the detection of paraquat, square-wave voltammetry was used, and the results showed a linear response range of 3.0–100 μM and a detection limit of 0.80 µM, along with the high repeatability and disposability of the sensor. The prepared sensors were also sufficiently selective against interference, and high accuracy (recovery range = 96.7–113%) was obtained when applied to samples (water, human serum, and orange juice), showing the promising applicability of fully printed electrodes for electrochemical monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices)
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Article
Dual-Modal Assay Kit for the Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of the Total Water Hardness Using a Permanent Marker Fabricated Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Device
Chemosensors 2020, 8(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8040097 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4042
Abstract
A dip-and-read microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative detection of the total hardness of water. To create well-defined hydrophobic barriers on filter paper, a regular office printer and a commercially available permanent marker pen were utilized as [...] Read more.
A dip-and-read microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative detection of the total hardness of water. To create well-defined hydrophobic barriers on filter paper, a regular office printer and a commercially available permanent marker pen were utilized as a quick and simple technique with easily accessible equipment/materials to fabricate µPAD in new or resource-limited laboratories without sophisticated equipment. After a wettability and barrier efficiency analysis on the permanent marker colors, the blue and green ink markers exhibited favorable hydrophobic properties and were utilized in the fabrication of the developed test devices. The device had five reaction and detection zones modeled after the classification given by the World Health Organization (WHO), so qualitatively it determined whether the water was ‘soft’, ‘moderately hard’, ‘hard’, or ‘very hard’ by changing color from blue to pink in about 3 min. The device was also used to introduce an alternative colorimetric reaction for quantitative analysis of the water hardness without the need for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and without compromising the simplicity and low cost of the device. The developed µPAD showed a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.02 mM, which is at least 80% less than those of commercially available test strips and other reported µPADs, and the results of the real-world samples were consistent with those of the standard titration (with EDTA). In addition, the device exhibited stability for 2 months at room and frigid condition (4 °C) and at varying harsh temperatures from 25 to 100 °C. The results demonstrate that the developed paper-based device can be used for rapid, on-site analysis of water with no interferences and no need for a pipette for sample introduction during testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Sensors and Microfluidic Devices)
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