Chemosensors for CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive) Security Applications

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2021) | Viewed by 8737

Special Issue Editor

Department of Chemical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion−Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel
Interests: sensors; nanomaterials; volatolomics; volatile organic compounds; diagnostics; breath analysis; electronic nose; GC–MS; cancer; infectious diseases; homeland security; forensics; food analysis; environmental analysis; chemical communication
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The threat of CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives) components is a major concern for global security. When devices or agents are used to cause mass disturbance and probably mass casualties, they are referred to as CBRNE incidents. One known example occurred after the 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York. Letters containing anthrax spores were sent to a number of public figures. While there were less than 30 people affected by the anthrax, including five deaths, it had a vast impact throughout the US. Mail delivery was disrupted, clerks were afraid to open mail, and reports of white powder were inspected frequently. Defense comprises passive protection, contamination avoidance, and CBRNE mitigation. There is currently a major security gap in the existing security flow that can be exploited by unwanted groups. Therefore there is an immense need for novel technological solutions that can be used for the detection and monitoring of CBRNE agents. The globalization process and open commercial goods transport has increased the need for monitoring thousands of shipments everyday worldwide. Major point-of-care systems that can be used in borderlines, airports, and seaports with high accuracy and fast response can be manifested by a variety of chemosensors.

This Special Issue will include recent developments and advances in all sensing tools developed for CBRNE detection, monitoring, and mitigation. Emphasis will be on the applications of innovative hybrid sensing modalities involving different receptor elements and different transducing solutions such as optical platforms, chemical layers, piezoelectric sensing, electrochemical, and other chemical detection systems. In addition wearable/attachable sensors are encouraged for point-of-care approaches.

Dr. Yoav Broza
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hazardous chemicals
  • biological agents
  • pathogenic agents
  • explosives
  • radioactive
  • sensors
  • nanomaterials
  • hybrid sensors
  • volatile organic compounds
  • electronic nose
  • electronic tongue
  • wearable sensors
  • spectrometry
  • ion mobility

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1829 KiB  
Article
A Simple and Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for Nitrite Detection in Small Sample Volumes
by Yudtapum Thipwimonmas, Janjira Jaidam, Kritsada Samoson, Vacharachai Khunseeraksa, Apichai Phonchai, Adul Thiangchanya, Kah Haw Chang, Ahmad Fahmi Lim Abdullah and Warakorn Limbut
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070161 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5221
Abstract
A simple, rapid, and environmentally-friendly spectrophotometric method for nitrite detection was developed. Detection was based on a redox reaction with iodide ions in an acidic condition. The reaction was evaluated by detecting the increase in absorbance of the colored product of iodine at [...] Read more.
A simple, rapid, and environmentally-friendly spectrophotometric method for nitrite detection was developed. Detection was based on a redox reaction with iodide ions in an acidic condition. The reaction was evaluated by detecting the increase in absorbance of the colored product of iodine at 362 nm wavelength. To obtain a good spectrophotometric performance, the iodide ions concentration, hydrochloric acid concentration, and reaction time were optimized. In the optimal condition, the developed spectrophotometric method provided a linear range of 0.0625 to 4.00 mg L−1 (r = 0.9985), reaction time for 10 min, a limit of detection of 25 µg L−1, and a limit of quantitation of 85 µg L−1. This method showed good repeatability (RSD < 9.21%), high sample throughput (9 samples min−1), and good accuracy (recovery = 88 ± 2 to 99.5 ± 0.4%). The method has the potential to be used in crime scene investigations as a rapid screening test for gunshot residue detection via nitrite detection. Full article
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15 pages, 2803 KiB  
Article
Fluorescent Calix[4]arene-Carbazole-Containing Polymers as Sensors for Nitroaromatic Explosives
by Patrícia D. Barata and José V. Prata
Chemosensors 2020, 8(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8040128 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
Two highly fluorescent calix[4]arene-containing phenylene-alt-ethynylene-carbazolylene polymers (Calix-PPE-CBZs) were used in the detection of explosives from the nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) family, in solution and in vapour phases. Both fluorophores exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity towards NACs detection. The quenching efficiencies in solution, [...] Read more.
Two highly fluorescent calix[4]arene-containing phenylene-alt-ethynylene-carbazolylene polymers (Calix-PPE-CBZs) were used in the detection of explosives from the nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) family, in solution and in vapour phases. Both fluorophores exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity towards NACs detection. The quenching efficiencies in solution, assessed through static Stern-Volmer constants (KSV), follow the order picric acid (PA) >> 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) > 2,4-dinitrotoluene > (2,4-DNT) > nitrobenzene (NB). These correlate very well with the NACs electron affinities, as evaluated from their lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) energies, indicating a photo-induced electron transfer as the dominant mechanism in fluorescence quenching. Moreover, and most interesting, detection of TNT, 2,4-DNT and NB vapours via thin-films of Calix-PPE-CBZs revealed a remarkably sensitive response to these analytes, comparable to state-of-the-art chemosensors. The study also analyses and compares the current results to previous disclosed data on the detection of NACs by several calix[4]arene-based conjugated polymers and non-polymeric calix[4]arenes-carbazole conjugates, overall highlighting the superior role of calixarene and carbazole structural motifs in NACs’ detection performance. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed on polymer models were used to support some of the experimental findings. Full article
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