Carbon Nanotube Sensors

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019) | Viewed by 35130

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Superconducting and Other Innovative Materials and Devices Institute—National Research Council (SPIN-CNR), Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
Interests: graphene; 2D materials; electronic properties; field effect transistors; photodetectors; contact resistance; field emission from nanostructures
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Dear Colleagues,

Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted enormous attention due to their extraordinary electronic properties, their high surface-to-volume ratios and their excellent mechanical properties. The development of CNT-based sensors is also necessarily based on fundamental knowledge of the structure/property relationship. Moreover, supporting substrates/platforms can contribute to enhanced detection performance. Several aspects are relevant to CNT property exploitation, such as efficient and controlled growth (on desired substrates), control of alignment, dispersion of CNTs in solution or matrix, durability of sensor, scalability, etc.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect recent activities about the fabrication, characterization and modelling of CNT-based sensors and actuators. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Synthesis of high quality CNTs for sensing applications
  • Design, fabrication, and characterization of CNT-based sensors
  • CNT field effect transistors
  • Metal contacts on CNTs
  • Composite materials
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Biosensors and chemical sensors
  • Gas sensors
  • Strain and pressure sensors
  • Flow sensors
  • Mass sensors and pH sensors
Dr. Filippo Giubileo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • CNT synthesis
  • Field effect transistor
  • Contact resistance
  • Composite materials
  • Sensor design and characterization
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Biosensors
  • Chemical sensors
  • Gas sensors
  • Strain sensors
  • Pressure sensors
  • Flow sensors
  • Mass sensors
  • pH sensors

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 1706 KiB  
Article
Sensors Based on Amino Group Surface-Modified CNTs
by Natalia Boroznina, Irina Zaporotskova, Sergey Boroznin and Evgeniy Dryuchkov
Chemosensors 2019, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7010011 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
This article discusses the possibility of the fabrication of a highly sensitive sensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes surface modified with functional amino groups (-NH2). The sensor potential for detection of alkali (sodium, lithium, and potassium) metals was investigated. The results [...] Read more.
This article discusses the possibility of the fabrication of a highly sensitive sensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes surface modified with functional amino groups (-NH2). The sensor potential for detection of alkali (sodium, lithium, and potassium) metals was investigated. The results of computer simulation of the interaction process between the sensor and an arbitrary surface of the modified tube containing atoms of the studied metals are presented. The calculations were carried out within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) method using the molecular cluster model. It has been proved that surface-modified ammonium carbon nanotubes show high sensitivity for the metal atoms under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube Sensors)
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13 pages, 1994 KiB  
Article
Raman Spectroscopy as an Assay to Disentangle Zinc Oxide Carbon Nanotube Composites for Optimized Uric Acid Detection
by Shawtik C. Das, Raja R. Pandey, Tuphan Devkota and Charles C. Chusuei
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040065 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4507
Abstract
Refluxed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and attached to carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWNTs) via sonication. Practical optimization of electrocatalysts using sonication to disentangle a carbon nanotube composite for monitoring uric acid (UA) is shown. Monitoring UA is important [...] Read more.
Refluxed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and attached to carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWNTs) via sonication. Practical optimization of electrocatalysts using sonication to disentangle a carbon nanotube composite for monitoring uric acid (UA) is shown. Monitoring UA is important for the management of medical disorders. Selection of sonication time is a crucial step in producing the desired composite. We report, for the first time, the practical use of Raman spectroscopy to tune the sonication involved in tethering ZnO NPs to the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) surface. Maximum current for detecting UA, using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry, correlated with the highest sp2-hybridized carbon signal, as seen in the integrated Raman G band peak areas denoting maximum COOH-MWNT disentanglement. An array of ZnO/COOH-MWNT composites were prepared ranging from 60 to 240 min sonication times. Optimum sonication (150 min) corresponded with both maximum measured current and MWNT disentanglement. The sensor was able to quantitatively and selectively measure UA at clinically relevant concentrations (100–900 μM) with rapid current response time (< 5 s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube Sensors)
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12 pages, 2461 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Study of Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Biocatalyst: Thermal Degradation after Long-Term Storage
by Marcelinus Christwardana and Domenico Frattini
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040053 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3744
Abstract
The thermal degradation related to stability in long-term storage of a carbon nanotube-based biosensor has been investigated. The effect of storage temperature on detachment and denaturation of glucose oxidase (GOx) biocatalyst has been proved. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) as [...] Read more.
The thermal degradation related to stability in long-term storage of a carbon nanotube-based biosensor has been investigated. The effect of storage temperature on detachment and denaturation of glucose oxidase (GOx) biocatalyst has been proved. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) as entrapping polymer to attract more GOx to form a durable and layered CNT/PEI/GOx structure is used for long-term storage to minimize GOx detachment from the structure and minimize the possibility of enzyme and protein denaturation. After 120 days, the glucose response of the CNT/PEI/GOx biosensor stored under 4°C is preserved up to 66.7% of its initial value, while under a 25 °C storage the response is maintained up to 41.7%. The enzyme coverage activity of CNT/PEI/GOx stored at 4 °C and 25 °C has decreased by 31.1% and 51.4%, respectively. Denaturation and detachment of GOx are the common causes of thermal degradation in biosensors under improper storage temperatures, but the presence of PEI in the structure can slow-down these phenomena. Moreover, the electrons transfer constant of CNT/PEI/GOx biocatalyst stored at 4 °C and 25 °C were 7.5 ± 0.5 s−1 and 6.6 ± 0.3 s−1, respectively, indicating that also electrons mobility is damaged by detachment and denaturation of enzyme protein and the detection of glucose from the glucose oxidation reaction (GOR) is compromised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube Sensors)
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12 pages, 10675 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a Novel Polypyrrole (PPy) Conductive Polymer Coated Patterned Vertical CNT (pvCNT) Dry ECG Electrode
by Mohammad Abu-Saude and Bashir I. Morshed
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030027 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7400
Abstract
Conventional electrode-based technologies, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG), capture physiological signals using an electrolyte solution or gel that evaporates shortly after exposure, resulting in a decrease in the quality of the signal. Previously, we reported a novel dry impedimetric electrode using patterned vertically-aligned [...] Read more.
Conventional electrode-based technologies, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG), capture physiological signals using an electrolyte solution or gel that evaporates shortly after exposure, resulting in a decrease in the quality of the signal. Previously, we reported a novel dry impedimetric electrode using patterned vertically-aligned Carbon NanoTubes (pvCNT) for biopotential measurement applications. The mechanical adhesion strength of the pvCNT electrode to the substrate was weak, hence, we have improved this electrode using a thin coating of the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) that strengthens its mechanical properties. Multiwall CNTs were grown vertically on a circular stainless-steel disc (⌀ = 10 mm) substrate of 50 µm thickness forming patterned pillars on a square base (100 µm × 100 µm) with an inter-pillar spacing of 200 µm and height up to 1.5 mm. The PPy coating procedure involves applying 10 µL of PPy mixed with 70% ethyl alcohol solution and rapid drying at 300 °C using a hot air gun at a distance of 10 cm. A comparative study demonstrated that the coated pvCNT had higher impedance compared to a non-coated pvCNT but lower impedance compared to the standard gel electrode. The PPy-coated pvCNT had comparable signal capture quality but stronger mechanical adhesion to the substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube Sensors)
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Review

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17 pages, 3173 KiB  
Review
Advances on Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes
by Luca Camilli and Maurizio Passacantando
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040062 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 119 | Viewed by 8297
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes have been attracting considerable interest among material scientists, physicists, chemists, and engineers for almost 30 years. Owing to their high aspect ratio, coupled with remarkable mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes have found application in diverse fields. In this review, [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes have been attracting considerable interest among material scientists, physicists, chemists, and engineers for almost 30 years. Owing to their high aspect ratio, coupled with remarkable mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes have found application in diverse fields. In this review, we will cover the work on carbon nanotubes used for sensing applications. In particular, we will see examples where carbon nanotubes act as main players in devices sensing biomolecules, gas, light or pressure changes. Furthermore, we will discuss how to improve the performance of carbon nanotube-based sensors after proper modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube Sensors)
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10 pages, 1112 KiB  
Review
Chemical Sensing Applications of Carbon Nanotube-Deposited Optical Fibre Sensors
by Yung Chuen Tan
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040055 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4048
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes are unique one-dimensional materials which can experience a modification in their optical properties as the chemical composition of their ambient environment varies. One of the ways to interrogate these variations in optical properties is through the use of optical fibres. As [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes are unique one-dimensional materials which can experience a modification in their optical properties as the chemical composition of their ambient environment varies. One of the ways to interrogate these variations in optical properties is through the use of optical fibres. As such, their integration with optical fibre technology would potentially allow for the development of devices for various chemical sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube Sensors)
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Other

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6 pages, 2075 KiB  
Letter
Gold Nanoparticle Conjugated Water Soluble Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes
by Tamoghna Bhattacharyya
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030036 - 01 Sep 2018
Viewed by 3236
Abstract
The poor solubility and dispersibility of carbon nanotubes in both aqueous and organic solvents restrict their applications in biological science. Herein, a simple and cheap method for synthesizing and purification of water soluble multiwall carbon nanotubes from coal combustion fly ash and characterization [...] Read more.
The poor solubility and dispersibility of carbon nanotubes in both aqueous and organic solvents restrict their applications in biological science. Herein, a simple and cheap method for synthesizing and purification of water soluble multiwall carbon nanotubes from coal combustion fly ash and characterization of this water soluble multiwall carbon nanotubes after conjugation with gold nanoparticles has been described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotube Sensors)
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