Special Issue "Environmental Catalysis for Water Remediation"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Juan García Rodríguez Website E-Mail
Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac. Ciencias Quim, Dept Ingn Quim, Grp Catalisis & Proc Separac CyPS, Avda Complutense S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: Adsorption processes; Catalytic wet air oxidation; Synthesis and characterization of carbon materials; Wastewater treatments
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Silvia Álvarez-Torrellas Website E-Mail
Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac. Ciencias Quim, Dept Ingn Quim, Grp Catalisis & Proc Separac CyPS, Avda Complutense S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
Interests: Adsorption processes, Heterogeneous Catalysis, Modelling, Nanostructured Carbon Materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is a basic resource that is necessary for all living beings on the planet. However, the scarcity and contamination of water means that millions of people have limited access to it. Water pollution may occur through the introduction of chemicals into water bodies as a result of various human activities. Any amount of chemicals pollutes the water, regardless of the harm they may pose to human health and the environment.

The focus of this Special Issue is to provide a general overview of the main concepts and current advances in the environmental catalysis field, including the use of catalytic processes as alternative treatment methods for aqueous pollutants, such as pesticides, herbicides and numerous industrial chemicals, with regard to water remediation. Original research papers and short reviews addressing the synthesis and characterization of new heterogeneous catalysts, the influences of different operating parameters and reactor types, the reaction kinetics and the mechanisms and identification of intermediates are invited for submission.

Prof. Dr. Juan García Rodríguez
Prof. Dr. Silvia Alvarez-Torrellas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • catalytic processes
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • wastewater treatment
  • toxic-refractory wastewaters
  • synthesis of catalysts
  • reaction kinetics and mechanisms
  • identification of intermediates
  • low cost catalysts
  • activity and stability of heterogeneous catalysts

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Detoxification of Cylindrospermopsin by Pyrite in Water
Catalysts 2019, 9(9), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9090699 - 21 Aug 2019
Abstract
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin released from eutrophic water. It persistently remains in the environment because its degradation under solar light is extremely low. In this study, pyrite, an abundant mineral, was investigated as a catalyst for decomposing and detoxifying CYN in [...] Read more.
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin released from eutrophic water. It persistently remains in the environment because its degradation under solar light is extremely low. In this study, pyrite, an abundant mineral, was investigated as a catalyst for decomposing and detoxifying CYN in water. A detailed examination of intermediates provided insights into the degradation pathway. Electron spin resonance spectra revealed that H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were generated at the pyrite surface while promoting the recycling of Fe(III) into Fe(II) during the degradation process. This degradation system could be uniquely efficient in the presence of relatively high levels of natural organic matter because the structure of the uracil ring is decomposed to detoxify CYN. This work confirms a new approach to selectively and effectively detoxifying CYN in water using an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and bio-compatible mineral. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Catalysis for Water Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
An External Energy Independent WO3/MoCl5 Nano-Sized Catalyst for the Superior Degradation of Crystal Violet and Rhodamine B Dye
Catalysts 2019, 9(8), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9080642 - 27 Jul 2019
Abstract
In this study, the synthesis of a novel catalyst WO3/MoCl5 was carried out by the thermal method. The method gave an entirely different product compared to previous studies that doped Mo on the surface of semiconductor metal oxides. The degradation [...] Read more.
In this study, the synthesis of a novel catalyst WO3/MoCl5 was carried out by the thermal method. The method gave an entirely different product compared to previous studies that doped Mo on the surface of semiconductor metal oxides. The degradation reaction of crystal violet (CV) and rhodamine B (RB) dye were done without any energy source. The results showed an incomparably superior result for degradation, with a reaction rate constant of 1.74 s−1 for 30 ppm CV, 1.08 s−1 for 30 ppm RB, and a higher value than 1 s−1 for both cases of 50 ppm dye solution. To the author’s knowledge, this catalyst has the highest reaction rate compared to other studies that targeted CV and RB, with an immense reaction rate increase of more than 100 times. Reusability of the three trials was verified, and the only process required was washing the catalyst after the reaction. One of the drawbacks of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), which has a degradation percent limit, has been solved, since 100% mineralization of the dye was available using this catalyst. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that W-O-Mo linkage was successfully processed while Mo-Cl linkage has retained. 1H-NMR spectroscopy results confirmed that the degradation product of the dye treated by simple MoCl5 and WO3/MoCl5 was different. Deep inspection of specific regions of NMR fields gave necessary information about the degradation product using WO3/MoCl5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Catalysis for Water Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Nimo Nanoparticles for Efficient Catalytic Hydrogen Generation from Hydrous Hydrazine
Catalysts 2019, 9(7), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9070596 - 10 Jul 2019
Abstract
Precious metal-free NiMoM (M = Pr2O3, Cu2O) catalysts have been synthesized through a simple coreduction method, without any surfactant or support material, and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). [...] Read more.
Precious metal-free NiMoM (M = Pr2O3, Cu2O) catalysts have been synthesized through a simple coreduction method, without any surfactant or support material, and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The resultant Pr2O3- or Cu2O-modified NiMo catalysts exhibit different structures, which is due to a difference in the synergistic effects of NiMo and the modifying elements. NiMoPr2O3 has an amorphous structure, with low crystallinity and uniform particle dispersion, while [email protected]2O adopts the core–shell structure, where the core and shell are synergistic with each other to promote electron transfer efficiency. The support material-free nanocatalysts Ni9Mo1(Pr2O3)0.375 and Ni4[email protected]2O are both highly efficient compared with bimetallic NiMo catalysts, in terms of hydrogen generation from hydrous hydrazine (N2H4·H2O) at 343 K, with total turnover frequencies (TOFs) of 62 h−1 and 71.4 h−1, respectively. Their corresponding activation energies (Ea) were determined to be 43.24 kJ mol−1 and 46.47 kJ mol−1, respectively. This is the first report on the use of Pr-modified NiMo and core–shell [email protected]2O catalysts, and these results may be used to promote the effective application of noble metal-free nanocatalysts for hydrogen production from hydrous hydrazine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Catalysis for Water Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Surface Chemistry and Crystallographic Parameters of TiO2 Anatase Nanocrystals on Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A
Catalysts 2019, 9(5), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9050447 - 14 May 2019
Abstract
The photocatalytic activity of a series of anatase TiO2 materials with different amounts of exposed (001) facets (i.e., 12% (TiO2-1), 38% (TiO2-3), and 63% (TiO2-3)) was tested in a batch slurry reactor towards liquid-phase bisphenol A [...] Read more.
The photocatalytic activity of a series of anatase TiO2 materials with different amounts of exposed (001) facets (i.e., 12% (TiO2-1), 38% (TiO2-3), and 63% (TiO2-3)) was tested in a batch slurry reactor towards liquid-phase bisphenol A (BPA, c0(BPA) = 10 mg/L, ccat. = 125 mg/L) degradation. Photo-electrochemical and photo-luminescence measurements revealed that with the increasing amount of exposed anatase (001) facets, the catalysts generate more electron-hole pairs and OH∙ radicals that participate in the photocatalytic mineralization of pollutants dissolved in water. In the initial stages of BPA degradation, a correlation between % exposure of (001) facets and catalytic activity was developed, which was in good agreement with the findings of the photo-electrochemical and photo-luminescence measurements. TiO2-1 and TiO2-3 solids achieved 100% BPA removal after 80 min in comparison to the TiO2-2 sample. Adsorption of BPA degradation products onto the TiO2-2 catalyst surface was found to have a detrimental effect on the photocatalytic performance in the last stage of the reaction course. Consequently, the global extent of BPA mineralization decreased with the increasing exposure of anatase (001) facets. The major contribution to the enhanced reactivity of TiO2 anatase (001) surface is the Brønsted acidity resulting from dissociative chemisorption of water on a surface as indicated by FTIR, TPD, and MAS NMR analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Catalysis for Water Remediation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimization Parameters, Kinetics, and Mechanism of Naproxen Removal by Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation with a Hybrid Iron-Based Magnetic Catalyst
Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9030287 - 20 Mar 2019
Abstract
This work presents a study of the assessment of the operating parameters of the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of naproxen (NAP) using magnetite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4/MWCNTs) as a catalyst. The effect of pH, temperature, and H2O [...] Read more.
This work presents a study of the assessment of the operating parameters of the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of naproxen (NAP) using magnetite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4/MWCNTs) as a catalyst. The effect of pH, temperature, and H2O2 dosage on CWPO process was evaluated by using the response surface model (RSM), allowing us to obtain an optimum NAP removal of 82% at the following operating conditions: pH = 5, T = 70 °C, [H2O2]0 = 1.5 mM, and [NAP]0 = 10.0 mg/L. Therefore, NAP degradation kinetics were revealed to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and an activation energy value of 4.75 kJ/mol was determined. Adsorption and using only H2O2 experiments, both considered as blank tests, showed no significant removal of the pollutant. Moreover, Fe3O4/MWCNTs material exhibited good recyclability along three consecutive cycles, finding an average NAP removal percentage close to 80% in each cycle of 3 h reaction time. In addition, the scavenging tests confirmed that the degradation of NAP was mainly governed by OH radicals attack. Two reaction sequences were proposed for the degradation mechanism according to the detected byproducts. Finally, the versatility of the catalyst was evidenced in the treatment of different environmentally relevant aqueous matrices (wastewater treatment plant effluent (WWTP), surface water (SW), and a hospital wastewater (HW)) spiked with NAP, obtaining total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies after 8 h in the following order: NAP-SW > NAP-HW > NAP-WWTP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Catalysis for Water Remediation)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Effect of surface chemistry and crystallographic parameters of TiO2 anatase nanocrystals on photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A
Author: Albin Pintar
Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of a series of anatase TiO2 materials with different amounts of exposed (001) facets (i.e. from 12 to 63 %) was tested in a batch slurry reactor towards liquid-phase bisphenol A (BPA) degradation. Photo-electrochemical and photo-luminescence measurements revealed that with the increasing amount of exposed anatase (001) facets, the catalysts generate more electron-hole pairs and OH∙ radicals that participate in the photocatalytic mineralization of pollutants dissolved in water. In the initial stages of BPA degradation, a correlation between % exposure of (001) facets and catalytic activity was developed, which was in good agreement with the findings of photo-electrochemical and photo-luminescence measurements. Adsorption of BPA degradation products onto the catalyst surface was found to have a detrimental effect on the photocatalytic performance in the last stage of the reaction course. Consequently, the global extent of BPA mineralization decreased with the increasing exposure of anatase (001) facets. The major contribution to the enhanced reactivity of TiO2 anatase (001) surface is the Brønsted acidity resulting from dissociative chemisorption of water on a surface as indicated by FTIR, TPD and MAS NMR analyses.

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