Topic Editors

Catalysis and Separation Processes Group (CyPS), Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación-CyPS, Dept Ingeniería Química y de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Complutense University, Avda Complutense S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain

Emerging Materials in Water and Waste Remediation Processes

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 January 2024)
Viewed by
11817

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

New and emerging pollutants present a novel global environmental quality challenge with potentially serious threats to human health and ecosystems. These contaminants mainly include chemicals found in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, industrial and household products, metals, surfactants, industrial additives, and solvents.

Water is a basic resource that is necessary for all living beings on the planet. However, the scarcity and contamination of water means that millions of people have limited access to it. Water pollution may occur through the introduction of chemicals into water bodies as a result of various human activities. Any amount of chemicals pollutes water, regardless of the harm they may pose to human health and the environment.

The aim of this Topic is to provide a general overview of the main concepts and current advances in the environmental field, including the use of catalytic processes as alternative treatment methods for aqueous and solid or gas pollutants, such as pesticides, herbicides, and numerous industrial chemicals, with regard to water remediation. Original research papers and short reviews addressing the synthesis and characterization of new heterogeneous catalysts, the influences of different operating parameters and reactor types, and the reaction kinetics and mechanisms and identification of intermediates are invited for submission.

Prof. Dr. Juan García Rodríguez
Dr. Silvia Álvarez-Torrellas
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • water remediation
  • waste remediation
  • catalytic processes
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • wastewater treatment
  • toxic-refractory wastewaters
  • synthesis of catalysts
  • reaction kinetics and mechanisms
  • identification of intermediates
  • low-cost catalysts
  • activity and stability of heterogeneous catalysts
  • environmental pollutants
  • gas pollutants
  • solid pollutants
  • utilize waste materials
  • sustainable processes
  • circular economy

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Catalysts
catalysts
3.9 6.3 2011 14.3 Days CHF 2700
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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16 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Toxic Metals Using Hydrous Ferric Oxide Nanoparticles Embedded in Hybrid Ion-Exchange Resins
by Zizikazi Sodzidzi, Zebron Phiri, Jemal Fito Nure, Titus A. M. Msagati and Lueta-Ann de Kock
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051168 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem caused by the release of acidic, toxic, and sulfate-rich water from mining sites. This study aimed to develop novel adsorbents for the removal of chromium (Cr(VI)), cadmium (Cd(II)), and lead (Pb(II)) from simulated and [...] Read more.
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem caused by the release of acidic, toxic, and sulfate-rich water from mining sites. This study aimed to develop novel adsorbents for the removal of chromium (Cr(VI)), cadmium (Cd(II)), and lead (Pb(II)) from simulated and actual AMD using hybrid ion-exchange resins embedded with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Two types of resins were synthesized: anionic exchange resin (HAIX-HFO) for Cr(VI) removal and cationic exchange resin (HCIX-HFO) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. The resins were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of HFO particles. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted under acidic and sulfate-enhanced conditions to evaluate the adsorption capacity and kinetics of the resins. It was found that both resins exhibited high adsorption efficiencies and fast adsorption rates for their respective metal ions. To explore the potential adsorption on actual AMD, HCIX-HFO demonstrated significant removal of some metal ions. The saturated HCIX-HFO resin was regenerated using NaCl, and a high amount of the adsorbed Cd(II) and Pb(II) was recovered. This study demonstrates that HFO-embedded hybrid ion-exchange resins are promising adsorbents for treating AMD contaminated with heavy metals. Full article
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19 pages, 5296 KiB  
Article
Dewatered Sludge Decorated with Nanoparticles for Alum Sludge Conditioning towards the Concept of “End-of-Waste”
by Hossam A. Nabwey and Maha A. Tony
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(21), 2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13212903 - 5 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
The circular economy concept is leading environmental engineering in the search for “End-of-Waste” criteria. Untreated waste residue results from drinking water treatment plants, causing severe environmental issues, and its reuse is essential. In this regard, this investigation introduces the beneficial reuses [...] Read more.
The circular economy concept is leading environmental engineering in the search for “End-of-Waste” criteria. Untreated waste residue results from drinking water treatment plants, causing severe environmental issues, and its reuse is essential. In this regard, this investigation introduces the beneficial reuses of alum sludge cake to close the loop between sludge waste generation and reuse. Considering alum sludge as a resource for dewatering instead of its categorization as a waste reflects an “End-of-Waste” approach. Alum sludge cake was thermally calcined at 400 °C and named thermally treated alum sludge cake (TAS-cake). In this study, TAS-cake decorated with magnetite with a percent weight of 5 to 1%, respectively, was labeled as TAS-cake@Fe-(5-1). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and morphologies were applied to characterize the hybrid composite. A Fenton-based hybrid composite was applied to extrude water from alum sludge for 7 min of conditioning time. Furthermore, the factorial design based on response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the operational variables. TAS-cake@Fe-(5-1) and hydrogen peroxide revealed 1.2 g/L and 740 mg/L doses at pH 3.0, showing pronounced performance and revealing the highest capillary suction time (CST) reduction, which reached 53%. A temperature increase also showed a pronounced enhancement effect on the sludge dewaterability that reached 72% when 55 °C was applied. Thus, such a novel conditioner is a promising candidate for alum sludge conditioning. Full article
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12 pages, 3957 KiB  
Article
Algae-Enhanced Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibrous Membrane for High-Performance Short-Chain PFAS Remediation from Water
by Shobha Mantripragada, Dongyang Deng and Lifeng Zhang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(19), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13192646 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
As a short-chain PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance), GenX was produced in recent years to replace traditional long-chain PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). However, GenX turns out to be more toxic than people originally thought, posing health risks as a persistent environmental [...] Read more.
As a short-chain PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance), GenX was produced in recent years to replace traditional long-chain PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). However, GenX turns out to be more toxic than people originally thought, posing health risks as a persistent environmental pollutant. In this research, for the first time, we incorporated chlorella, a single-celled green freshwater microalga that grows worldwide, with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in equal amounts in electrospun nanofibers and studied the capability of the electrospun PAN/Algae bicomponent nanofibrous membrane (ES(PAN/Algae)) to bind and remove GenX from water. The incorporation of algae demonstrated a synergistic effect and significantly improved the GenX removal efficiency of the nanofibrous membrane. The maximum GenX removal capacity reached 0.9 mmol/g at pH 6, which is significantly higher than that of most of the reported GenX adsorbents as well as activated carbon. The GenX removal mechanism was investigated and discussed by using water contact angle, zeta potential, FTIR, and XPS techniques. This research demonstrated the potential to make highly efficient adsorbent/filter materials from common and economic materials to practically remediate short-chain PFASs from various water bodies. Full article
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20 pages, 6208 KiB  
Article
The Statistical Error Optimization of Dye Sorption Equilibria for the Precise Prediction of Adsorption Isotherms on Activated Graphene
by Hridam Deb, K. Hasan, Md Zahidul Islam, Lv Kai, Shujuan Yang, Yong Zhang and Juming Yao
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8106; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148106 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
The adsorption equilibrium of methyl blue (MB) at different temperatures was optimized using activated graphene (AG) as an adsorbent. The experimental data were compared using five linear and nonlinear adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich–Peterson (R-P), Sips, and Toth, to estimate the best [...] Read more.
The adsorption equilibrium of methyl blue (MB) at different temperatures was optimized using activated graphene (AG) as an adsorbent. The experimental data were compared using five linear and nonlinear adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich–Peterson (R-P), Sips, and Toth, to estimate the best fit of the equilibrium data. Five distinct error functions were utilized to conduct nonlinear regression for the adsorption equilibrium: SSE, ARE, HYBRID, MPSD, and EABS. These functions offered a wide range of residuals for comparison. For a more accurate prediction of the isotherm model, two statistical techniques—SNE and CND—were applied. By using these techniques in conjunction, a more objective analysis of the error and deviation between the observed and predicted data was achieved, ultimately leading to improved accuracy in the error analysis. The sorption results demonstrated the highest MB removal of 691.89 mg g−1, which amounted to 98.32% within 120 min. The error analysis findings indicated that the SSE and HYBRID functions produced the smallest error residuals. Based on the “goodness of fit” criterion, the models in this study were ranked as R-P > Toth > Langmuir > Sips > Freundlich. Among these models, the R-P isotherm demonstrated the best fit for the data, exhibiting the lowest variance in residuals. Its CND value ranged between 0.0025 and 0.0048, which further supports its superior fit compared to the other models. The combination of multiple error functions and statistical methods allowed for a comprehensive and objective assessment of the nonlinear regression models. The results highlight the importance of using various techniques to improve the accuracy of error analysis and identify the best-fitting isotherms for adsorption. Full article
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16 pages, 4979 KiB  
Article
Efficient Electrochemical Oxidation of Chloramphenicol by Novel Reduced TiO2 Nanotube Array Anodes: Kinetics, Reaction Parameters, Degradation Pathway and Biotoxicity Forecast
by Pengqi Wang, Guangyi Chu, Guangfei Gao, Fengchun Li, Yi Ren, Yue Ding, Yawei Gu, Wenqiang Jiang and Xuan Zhang
Materials 2023, 16(11), 3971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16113971 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
The key component of electrochemical advanced oxidation technology are high-efficiency anodes, and highly efficient and simple-to-prepare materials have generated a lot of interest. In this study, novel self-supported Ti3+-doped titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (R-TNTs) anodes were successfully prepared by a two-step [...] Read more.
The key component of electrochemical advanced oxidation technology are high-efficiency anodes, and highly efficient and simple-to-prepare materials have generated a lot of interest. In this study, novel self-supported Ti3+-doped titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (R-TNTs) anodes were successfully prepared by a two-step anodic oxidation and straightforward electrochemical reduction technique. The electrochemical reduction self-doping treatment produced more Ti3+ sites with stronger absorption in the UV-vis region, a band gap reduction from 2.86 to 2.48 ev, and a significant increase in electron transport rate. The electrochemical degradation effect of R-TNTs electrode on chloramphenicol (CAP) simulated wastewater was investigated. At pH = 5, current density of 8 mA cm−2, electrolyte concentration of 0.1 M sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), initial CAP concentration of 10 mg L−1, CAP degradation efficiency exceeded 95% after 40 min. In addition, molecular probe experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tests revealed that the active species were mainly •OH and SO4, among which •OH played a major role. The CAP degradation intermediates were discovered using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and three possible degradation mechanisms were postulated. In cycling experiments, the R-TNTs anode demonstrated good stability. The R-TNTs prepared in this paper were an anode electrocatalytic material with high catalytic activity and stability, which could provide a new approach for the preparation of electrochemical anode materials for difficult-to-degrade organic compounds. Full article
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13 pages, 2347 KiB  
Article
Recyclable Magnesium-Modified Biochar Beads for Efficient Removal of Phosphate from Wastewater
by Biao Hu, Nina Yan, Zhiyu Zheng, Lei Xu, Hongde Xie and Jingwen Chen
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13060966 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Although ball milling is effective for biochar modification with metal oxides for efficient phosphate removal, the recyclability of the adsorbent as well as the precursors for modification, still need to be optimized. Herein, a magnesium-modified biochar was first prepared with the precursor of [...] Read more.
Although ball milling is effective for biochar modification with metal oxides for efficient phosphate removal, the recyclability of the adsorbent as well as the precursors for modification, still need to be optimized. Herein, a magnesium-modified biochar was first prepared with the precursor of MgCl2·6H2O through the solvent-free ball milling method. After that, recyclable biochar beads were fabricated with the introduction of sodium alginate and Fe3O4. The beads were proved to have excellent adsorption performance for phosphate with a saturated capacity of 53.2 mg g−1, which is over 12 times higher than that of pristine biochar beads. Although the particle size reduction, surface area, and O-containing group increments after milling are beneficial for adsorption, the remarkable promotion in performance should mainly result from the appropriate formation of magniferous crystals on biochar, which greatly accelerates the electrostatic interactions as well as precipitation for adsorption. The beads also exhibited excellent magnetism-driven recyclability, which greatly avoids secondary contamination and broadens the application field of the adsorbent. Full article
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9 pages, 2603 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Hydrogarnet/Poly(Lactic Acid) Composite Adsorbents for Humic Substance Removal
by Shogo Minowa and Hirotaka Maeda
Materials 2023, 16(1), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010336 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Humic substances are constituents of organic matter that require removal from water environments because of their adverse ecological and sanitation effects. A mixture of hydrogarnet and poly(lactic acid) dissolved in chloroform was electrospun to prepare a composite as a adsorbent for humic substance [...] Read more.
Humic substances are constituents of organic matter that require removal from water environments because of their adverse ecological and sanitation effects. A mixture of hydrogarnet and poly(lactic acid) dissolved in chloroform was electrospun to prepare a composite as a adsorbent for humic substance removal. Here, humic acid was used as the model substance for evaluating the adsorbent’s water remediation efficiency. Despite the hydrogarnet particles being embedded in its poly(lactic acid) fibers, the composites demonstrated a higher humic acid removal ability than the pure poly(lactic acid) sample prepared using an electrospinning process. Pores were introduced to the fiber surfaces of the composite by controlling the relative humidity during electrospinning, thus enhancing their humic acid removal ability (4.6 ± 2.4 mg/g), compared to the composite consisting of the fibers without pores (1.2 ± 0.9 mg/g). Full article
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23 pages, 4977 KiB  
Review
A Review on Cement-Based Composites for Removal of Organic/Heavy Metal Contaminants from Water
by Vishvendra Pratap Singh, Rahul Vaish and El Sayed Yousef
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111398 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
Building materials are traditionally known for their mechanical and structural properties. As environmental pollution has risen as a huge global issue, functional building materials with environmental remediation capabilities are the demand for the present time. In this context, cement and concrete with photocatalytic [...] Read more.
Building materials are traditionally known for their mechanical and structural properties. As environmental pollution has risen as a huge global issue, functional building materials with environmental remediation capabilities are the demand for the present time. In this context, cement and concrete with photocatalytic and adsorbent additives were explored for air and water remediation. The usage of functional building materials for self-cleaning and air cleaning is well documented and reviewed in earlier reports. This article gives an overview of the functional building material composites used for water remediation. Numerous different approaches, such as photocatalysis, adsorption, and antimicrobial disinfection, are discussed. Among all, photocatalysis for the degradation of organic compounds and antimicrobial effect has been the most studied method, with TiO2 being the first choice for a photocatalyst. Furthermore, some reports illustrate the impact of photocatalytic filler on hydration and mechanical properties, which is important in case these are used in construction. Adsorption was most preferred for heavy metal removal from the water. This article rationalizes the current status and future scope of cement-based functional composites for water cleaning and discusses their use in water cleaning facilities or regular construction. Full article
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