Special Issue "CO2 Capture and Valorization"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "CO2 Utilization and Conversion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Patricia Luis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Materials & Process Engineering, UCLouvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Interests: sustainability; chemical engineering; process intensification; membrane technology; CO2 capture; applied thermodynamics; life cycle assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Daria Nikolaeva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Louvain School of Engineering, Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Interests: membrane gas separation for CO2 capture and sequestration; treatment of pre-/ and post-combustion gas streams; polymeric thin-film composite membranes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tackling climate change is an urgent need that requires technological solutions applicable at a large scale. Contemporary research is advancing fast trying to transform a problem (i.e., CO2 emissions) into an opportunity to do things better (i.e., CO2 as a source of carbon). In this Special Issue, articles focusing on CO2 capture and further valorization are very much welcome, including, in particular, contributions on technologies that have already reached a demo or pilot plant scale. The main objective of this Special Issue is to show an overview of technological options that prove that CO2 is an available sustainable source of carbon to produce valuable products under realistic conditions that lead to net CO2 emission reduction.

Prof. Dr. Patricia Luis
Dr. Daria Nikolaeva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Technological progress
  • Net CO2 emission reduction
  • Mitigation
  • Capture
  • Valorization

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Threshold Line for Safe Geologic CO2 Storage Based on Field Measurement of Soil CO2 Flux
C 2021, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7020034 - 27 Mar 2021
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an established and verified technology that can implement zero emissions on a large enough scale to limit temperature rise to below 2 °C, as stipulated in the Paris Agreement. However, leakage from CCS sites must be monitored [...] Read more.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an established and verified technology that can implement zero emissions on a large enough scale to limit temperature rise to below 2 °C, as stipulated in the Paris Agreement. However, leakage from CCS sites must be monitored to ensure containment performance. Surface monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at onshore CCS sites is one method to locate and quantify CCS site leakage. Employing soil accumulation chambers, we have established baseline data for the natural flux of CO2 as a threshold alert to detect CO2 leakage flux to ensure the safety of onshore CCS sites. Within this context, we conducted on-site CO2 measurements at three different locations (A, B, and C) on the INAS test field at the Ito campus, Kyushu University (Japan). Furthermore, we developed a specific measurement system based on the closed-chamber method to continuously measure CO2 flux from soil and to investigate the correlation between CO2 flux from the soil surface and various parameters, including environmental factors and soil sample characteristics. In addition, gas permeability and the effect of different locations on soil CO2 flux are discussed in this study. Finally, we present an equation for estimating the soil CO2 flux used in the INAS field site that includes environmental factors and soil characteristics. This equation assists in defining the threshold line for an alert condition related to CO2 leakage at onshore CCS sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Valorization)
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Article
Selection of Mixed Amines in the CO2 Capture Process
C 2021, 7(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/c7010025 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 885
Abstract
In order to select the best mixed amines in the CO2 capture process, the absorption of CO2 in mixed amines was explored at the required concentrations by using monoethanolamine (MEA) as a basic solvent, mixed with diisopropanolamine (DIPA), triethanolamine [...] Read more.
In order to select the best mixed amines in the CO2 capture process, the absorption of CO2 in mixed amines was explored at the required concentrations by using monoethanolamine (MEA) as a basic solvent, mixed with diisopropanolamine (DIPA), triethanolamine (TEA), 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), and piperazine (PZ). Here, a bubble column was used as the scrubber, and a continuous operation was adopted. The Taguchi method was used for the experimental design. The conditional factors included the type of mixed amine (A), the ratio of the mixed amines (B), the liquid feed flow (C), the gas-flow rate (D), and the concentration of mixed amines (E). There were four levels, respectively, and a total of 16 experiments. The absorption efficiency (EF), absorption rate (RA), overall mass transfer coefficient (KGa), and scrubbing factor (ϕ) were used as indicators and were determined in a steady-state by the mass balance and two-film models. According to the Taguchi analysis, the importance of the parameters and the optimum conditions were obtained. In terms of the absorption efficiency (EF), the absorption rate (absorption factor) (RA/ϕ), and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KGa), the order of importance is D > E > A > B > C, D > E > C > B > A, and D > E > C > A > B, respectively, and the optimum conditions are A1B4C4D3E3, A1B3C4D4E2, A4B2C3D4E4, and A1B1C1D4E1. The optimum condition validation results showed that the optimal values of EF, RA, and KGa are 100%, 30.69 × 10−4 mol/s·L, 1.540 l/s, and 0.269, respectively. With regard to the selection of mixed amine, it was found that the mixed amine (MEA + AMP) performed the best in the CO2 capture process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Valorization)
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Article
Preparation of Synthesis Gas from CO2 for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis—Comparison of Alternative Process Configurations
C 2020, 6(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6030055 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
We compare different approaches for the preparation of carbon monoxide-rich synthesis gas (syngas) for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis from carbon dioxide (CO2) using a self-consistent design and process simulation framework. Three alternative methods for suppling heat to the syngas preparation step are [...] Read more.
We compare different approaches for the preparation of carbon monoxide-rich synthesis gas (syngas) for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis from carbon dioxide (CO2) using a self-consistent design and process simulation framework. Three alternative methods for suppling heat to the syngas preparation step are investigated, namely: allothermal from combustion (COMB), autothermal from partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal from electric resistance (ER) heating. In addition, two alternative design approaches for the syngas preparation step are investigated, namely: once-through (OT) and recycle (RC). The combination of these alternatives gives six basic configurations, each characterized by distinctive plant designs that have been individually modelled and analyzed. Carbon efficiencies (from CO2 to FT syncrude) are 50–55% for the OT designs and 65–89% for the RC designs, depending on the heat supply method. Thermal efficiencies (from electricity to FT syncrude) are 33–41% for configurations when using low temperature electrolyzer, and 48–59% when using high temperature electrolyzer. Of the RC designs, both the highest carbon efficiency and thermal efficiency was observed for the ER configuration, followed by POX and COMB configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Valorization)
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Article
Why the Carbon-Neutral Energy Transition Will Imply the Use of Lots of Carbon
C 2020, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6020039 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
This paper argues that electrification and gasification go hand in hand and are crucial on our pathway to a carbon-neutral energy transition. Hydrogen made from renewable electricity will be crucial on this path but is not sufficient, mainly due to its challenges related [...] Read more.
This paper argues that electrification and gasification go hand in hand and are crucial on our pathway to a carbon-neutral energy transition. Hydrogen made from renewable electricity will be crucial on this path but is not sufficient, mainly due to its challenges related to its transport and storage. Thus, other ‘molecules’ will be needed on the pathway to a carbon-neutral energy transition. What at first sight seems a contradiction, this paper argues that carbon (C) will be an important and required chemical element in many of these molecules to achieve our carbon neutrality goal. Therefore, on top of the “Hydrogen Economy” we should work also towards a “Synthetic Hydrocarbon Economy”, implying the needs for lots of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen and embedded in products as a form of sequestration. It is crucial that this carbon is taken from the biosphere or recycled from biomass/biogas and not from fossil resources. Due to efficiency losses in capturing and converting atmospheric CO2, the production of renewable molecules will increase the overall demand for renewable energy drastically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Valorization)
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Article
A Structured Approach for the Mitigation of Natural Methane Emissions—Lessons Learned from Anthropogenic Emissions
C 2020, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6020024 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas. Natural methane emissions represent 35–50% of the global emissions budget. They are identified, measured and categorized, but, in stark contrast to anthropogenic emissions, research on their mitigation is largely absent. To explain this, 18 problems [...] Read more.
Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas. Natural methane emissions represent 35–50% of the global emissions budget. They are identified, measured and categorized, but, in stark contrast to anthropogenic emissions, research on their mitigation is largely absent. To explain this, 18 problems are identified and presented. This includes problems related to the emission characteristics, technological and economic challenges, as well as problems resulting from a missing framework. Consequently, strategies, methods and solutions to solve or circumvent the identified problems are proposed. The framework covers definitions for methane source categorization and for categories of emission types and mitigation approaches. Business cases for methane mitigation are discussed and promising mitigation technologies briefly assessed. The importance to get started with methane mitigation in the different areas is highlighted and avenues for doing so are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Valorization)
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Review

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Review
Performing Quality Assurance of Carbon Dioxide for Carbon Capture and Storage
C 2020, 6(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/c6040076 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Impurities in carbon dioxide can affect several aspects of the carbon capture and storage process, including storage capacity, rock erosion, accuracy of flow meters, and toxicity of potential leaks. There is an industry need for guidance on performing purity analysis before carbon dioxide [...] Read more.
Impurities in carbon dioxide can affect several aspects of the carbon capture and storage process, including storage capacity, rock erosion, accuracy of flow meters, and toxicity of potential leaks. There is an industry need for guidance on performing purity analysis before carbon dioxide is transported and stored. This paper reviews selected reports that specifically provide threshold amount fraction limits for impurities in carbon dioxide for the purpose of transport and storage, with rationales for these limits. A carbon dioxide purity specification is provided (including threshold amount fractions of impurities) on the basis of the findings, as well as recommendations on further work required to develop a suitable gas metrology infrastructure to support these measurements including primary reference materials, sampling methods, and instruments for performing purity analysis. These recommendations provide important guidance to operators and gas analysis laboratories for performing quality assurance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Capture and Valorization)
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