Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 5364

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194, Japan
Interests: cancer prevention; gastroenterological disease
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and the major leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Eastern Asia and Africa in particular have the highest prevalence of HCC, while its incidence and mortality in the United States and Europe are also increasing. Risk factors for HCC include persistent infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), excess alcohol consumption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH), obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Due to the prevention of HBV/HCV infections and control of chronic viral hepatitis, the underlying etiology of HCC is changing from hepatitis viruses, and the proportion of cases caused by NAFLD/NASH has recently been rising. It is important to accurately grasp current epidemiological trends and to establish optimal surveillance for HCC. In addition, studies to elucidate the mechanisms involved in liver carcinogenesis and to develop the methods for preventing HCC are required.

In this Special Issue, we will publish original research and review articles focusing on the epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention of HCC as well as mechanism of liver carcinogenesis.

Prof. Dr. Masahito Shimizu
Dr. Yohei Shirakami
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • hepatitis B virus or HBV
  • hepatitis C virus or HCV
  • hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC
  • liver carcinogenesis
  • liver cirrhosis
  • liver fibrosis
  • NAFLD
  • NASH
  • prevention
  • surveillance
  • tumor markers
  • viral hepatitis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Changing Epidemiological Trends of Hepatobiliary Carcinomas in Austria 2010–2018
by Florian Hucke, Matthias Pinter, Miriam Hucke, Simona Bota, Dajana Bolf, Monika Hackl and Markus Peck-Radosavljevic
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133093 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Using national registries, we investigated the epidemiological trends of hepatobiliary carcinomas in Austria between 2010 and 2018 and compared them to those reported for the periods of 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. In total, 12,577 patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 7146), intrahepatic [...] Read more.
Using national registries, we investigated the epidemiological trends of hepatobiliary carcinomas in Austria between 2010 and 2018 and compared them to those reported for the periods of 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. In total, 12,577 patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 7146), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1858), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1649), gallbladder carcinoma (n = 1365), and ampullary carcinoma (n = 559), between 2010 and 2018, were included. The median overall survival of all patients was 9.0 months. The best median overall survival was observed in patients with ampullary carcinoma (28.5 months) and the worst median overall survival was observed in patients with intrahepatic carcinoma (5.6 months). The overall survival significantly improved in all entities over the period 2010–2018 as compared with over the periods of 2000–2009 and 1990–1999. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates remained stable for most entities in both, men and women; only in gallbladder carcinoma, the incidence and mortality rates significantly decreased in women, whereas, in men, the incidence rates remained stable and mortality rates showed a decreasing trend. We showed that age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were stable in most entities, except in gallbladder carcinoma. The overall survival improved in almost all entities as compared with those during 1990–2009. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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13 pages, 953 KiB  
Article
Hepatitis C Virus Elimination Using Direct Acting Antivirals after the Radical Cure of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Suppresses the Recurrence of the Cancer
by Ryoko Kuromatsu, Tatsuya Ide, Shusuke Okamura, Yu Noda, Naoki Kamachi, Masahito Nakano, Tomotake Shirono, Shigeo Shimose, Hideki Iwamoto, Reiichiro Kuwahara, Teruko Arinaga-Hino, Takashi Niizeki, Yuki Zaizen, Hiroshi Takaki, Miki Shirachi, Hironori Koga and Takuji Torimura
Cancers 2022, 14(9), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092295 - 04 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
It remains unclear whether hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients can be suppressed by the elimination of the virus using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) after radical HCC treatment. We evaluated the sustained inhibitory effect of DAAs on HCC recurrence after [...] Read more.
It remains unclear whether hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients can be suppressed by the elimination of the virus using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) after radical HCC treatment. We evaluated the sustained inhibitory effect of DAAs on HCC recurrence after curative treatment. This multicenter retrospective study included 190 HCV-positive patients after radical treatment for early-stage HCC. Patients were classified into the DAA treatment group (n = 70) and the non-DAA treatment group (n = 120) after HCC treatment. After propensity score matching (PSM), 112 patients were assessed for first and second recurrences using the Kaplan–Meier method and analyzed using a log-rank test. The first recurrence rates at 1 and 3 years were 3.6% and 42.1% in the DAA treatment group and 21.7% and 61.9% in the non-DAA treatment group, respectively (p = 0.0026). Among 85 patients who received radical treatment, the second recurrence rate at 3 years was 2.2% in the DAA treatment group and 33.9% in the non-DAA treatment group (p = 0.0128). In HCV-positive patients with early-stage HCC, the first and second recurrences were suppressed by DAA therapy after radical treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of DAA therapy on HCC recurrence was sustained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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9 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
Higher Accumulation of Visceral Adipose Tissue Is an Independent Risk Factor for Hepatocellular Carcinoma among Viral Hepatitis Patients with Non-Cirrhotic Livers
by Kenji Imai, Koji Takai, Takao Miwa, Toshihide Maeda, Tatsunori Hanai, Yohei Shirakami, Atsushi Suetsugu and Masahito Shimizu
Cancers 2021, 13(23), 5980; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235980 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic livers among viral hepatitis patients. A total of 333 HCC cases, including 69 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related and 264 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related, were divided into cirrhotic (Fibrosis-4 [FIB-4] index [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic livers among viral hepatitis patients. A total of 333 HCC cases, including 69 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related and 264 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related, were divided into cirrhotic (Fibrosis-4 [FIB-4] index > 3.25) and non-cirrhotic groups (FIB-4 index ≤ 3.25). The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. The independent risk factors for the development of HCC were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The patients with HBV-related HCC were significantly younger, had better Child-Pugh scores, lower FIB-4 index and Mac-2 binding protein glycosylated isomers (M2BPGi) levels, more progressive cancer stage, and higher alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels than those with HCV-related HCC. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were less common in patients with HBV-related HCC. The non-cirrhotic group with HBV-related HCC had a higher visceral adipose tissue index (VATI), better Child-Pugh score, and higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), whereas the one with HCV-related HCC had a higher proportion of men, higher VATI, better Child-Pugh score, higher HbA1c, and a higher prevalence of hypertension, than the corresponding cirrhotic groups. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that age, male sex, VATI, HbA1c, the presence of hypertension, and HBV etiology were independent risk factors for HCC in a non-cirrhotic liver. A high accumulation of VAT is a risk factor for HCC in patients with non-cirrhotic livers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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