Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2024 | Viewed by 11510

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cultural heritage; building materials; nondestructive testing; sustainable development; circular economy; development schemes; environmental management; GIS
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Guest Editor
Institute of Structural Analysis and Antiseismic Research, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: linear and nonlinear theory of elasticity; advanced beam theories; elastic stability of structures (beams, plates); static and dynamic analysis of structures; nonlinear inelastic analysis of structures (beams, plates); flexural-torsional buckling of bars; post buckling equilibrium path; modeling for the static and dynamic analysis of multi-story buildings, bridges and large-scale civil engineering structures; creep and shrinkage effects in concrete structures; precast elements in structures with different time of casting; static and dynamic analysis of composite structures; soil-structure interaction; linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis of wind turbine towers; seismic isolation; νovel absorption and isolation concepts; applications to buildings, bridges and wind turbine towers

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Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: building materials science and engineering; non-destructive testing at the scale of buildings and infrastructure; geophysical prospection of buildings and structures to assess their state of preservation; modeling of environmental impact on buildings and infrastructure
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Guest Editor
Mechanics, Smart Sensors & Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Interests: development of "health monitoring" methodologies for assessment of deterioration and life prediction of technological materials and structures undergoing environmental aging; development of advanced non-destructive methods (ultrasound, acoustic microscopy, nonlinear acoustics, lock-in thermography, nano-microscopy) for the characterization of metal alloys, coatings, composite materials with a metal and ceramic matrix, nano-structured and intelligent materials; study of the mechanical behavior of materials (crack growth, local plastic deformation, low and high cycle fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, micro-friction fatigue, creep, corrosion)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Innovative scientific methodologies and challenging projects marking future trends in the management, protection and sustainability of the built environment, have initiated a universal scientific dialogue within a holistic approach, merging competence from the scientific fields of architecture, civil engineering, surveying engineering, materials science and engineering, information technology, and social sciences, as well as professionals on construction, restoration and conservation, stakeholders, industry representatives and policymakers. Interdisciplinary analyses on the interaction between traditional building materials and the environment have provided valuable support for comprehensive diagnoses that enable resource-sensitive design and implementation of compatible, efficient and sustainable solutions for the preservation and protection of our built environment. New building materials that have been developed allow engineers to overcome the limitations of conventional building materials, whereas new architectural forms and construction technologies have been developed to adapt to the ever-increasing and demanding requirements of modern society and acute environmental and engineering challenges. The combined utilization of digital documentation technologies with innovative analytical and non-destructive techniques, numerical, computational and 3D techniques, support the creation of transdisciplinary multispectral modeling towards the sustainable preservation of historic and contemporary buildings and infrastructure. This Special Issue of Buildings includes selected and revised papers from the 3rd International Conference TMM-CH “Transdisciplinary Multispectral Modelling and Cooperation for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage Recapturing the World in Conflict through Culture promoting mutual understanding and Peace”, held during 20–23 March 2023 Eugenides Foundation Athens, Greece, as well as relevant submissions that address the aforementioned scope and objectives. It, thus, aims to provide a valuable source of state-of-the-art technological and scientific achievements in the critical field of the sustainable preservation of buildings and infrastructure.

Prof. Dr. Antonia Moropoulou
Prof. Dr. Evangelos J. Sapountzakis
Dr. Kyriakos Lampropoulos
Prof. Dr. Theodore E. Matikas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • building materials
  • structural analyses
  • environmental impact on buildings and infrastructure
  • non-destructive evaluation of building materials and structures
  • preservation and protection of built cultural heritage
  • methodologies and strategies for the enhancement of the sustainability of built environment

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 23607 KiB  
Article
Structural Behaviour and Strength Evaluation of a Venetian Church through Finite-Element Analysis
by Maria E. Stavroulaki, Ioannis (Yannos) Liofagos and Panagiotis Darmarakis
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051282 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 737
Abstract
The evaluation of the structural behaviour of a masonry Venetian church with a pointed barrel vault is presented in this paper through an analysis following the necessary steps of a monument study. With a detailed geometric model and material estimation, the finite-element method [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the structural behaviour of a masonry Venetian church with a pointed barrel vault is presented in this paper through an analysis following the necessary steps of a monument study. With a detailed geometric model and material estimation, the finite-element method is used to investigate the influence of specific structural parts of the structure, like masonry buttresses and wall connections, on the structural behaviour. The operational modal analysis is used to identify the structure dynamically. The comparison of the eigenfrequencies, which are estimated by in situ measurements and finite-element modal analysis, is used to perform a model identification. The response spectrum analysis, the static analysis after the subsistence of some parts following strengthening proposals, and the transient analysis of specific seismic excitations are used for the evaluation of the structural behaviour. The purpose of the work is to highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach to the study of a monumental complex structure, regardless of its scale. The coexistence of structural elements of different stiffnesses, such as vaults, elongated walls, buttresses, transverse walls with pediment and belfry, as well as the concha, affects the mechanical behaviour and the pathology of the structure, which is difficult to study with simplifying models. From the analysis, it is concluded that subsidence problems, combined with seismic actions, lead to the cracking of the masonry, while the existence of buttresses limits the extension of the damage and contributes to the stabilization of the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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20 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
Architectural Analysis of the First Major Rehabilitation in the 21st Century of Olbrich’s Secession Building in Vienna
by Biljana Arandelovic
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051229 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
The recent rehabilitation, reconstruction and adaptive reuse of Joseph Maria Olbrich’s Vienna Secession Building, completed in 2018, has brought the building into a contemporary age. This research article analyzes the only extensive rehabilitation carried out on the Secession Building so far in the [...] Read more.
The recent rehabilitation, reconstruction and adaptive reuse of Joseph Maria Olbrich’s Vienna Secession Building, completed in 2018, has brought the building into a contemporary age. This research article analyzes the only extensive rehabilitation carried out on the Secession Building so far in the 21st century. It studies what was accomplished during this specific rehabilitation process, and in particular emphasizes the reasons why such a process is crucial for culture heritage buildings in the city of Vienna. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the rehabilitation procedures used for the Secession Building and to identify any weaknesses to be resolved in the next rehabilitation. It provides an example of rehabilitation for any future similar initiatives, demonstrating both its positive and negative aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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23 pages, 2091 KiB  
Article
Design and Performance Assessment of Base Isolated Structures Supplemented with Vibration Control Systems
by Evangelos Sapountzakis, Georgios Florakis and Konstantinos Kapasakalis
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14040955 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 720
Abstract
This paper investigates the implementation of supplemental vibration control systems (VCS) in base isolated (BI) structures, to improve their dynamic performance. More specifically, the aim of the VCS is to reduce the base displacement demand of BI structures, and at the same time [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the implementation of supplemental vibration control systems (VCS) in base isolated (BI) structures, to improve their dynamic performance. More specifically, the aim of the VCS is to reduce the base displacement demand of BI structures, and at the same time mitigate the superstructure seismic responses. The purpose of the examined VCS is dual, and for this reason a multi-objective optimization methodology is formulated for the design of the VCS. The examined vibration absorbers include modifications of the KDamper concept. The KDamper is an extension of the traditional Tuned Mass Damper (TMD), and introduces a negative stiffness (NS) element to the additional oscillating mass of the TMD. The generated NS force is exactly in phase with the inertia force of the added mass, thus, artificially amplifying it. This way, lighter configurations are possible with an enhanced damping behavior. These VCS are designed based on engineering criteria and manufacturing constraints, while the excitation input used in the multi-objective optimization procedure is selected from a dataset of artificial accelerograms, designed to be spectrum-compatible with the EC8 design acceleration response spectrum. The effectiveness of the examined VCS is also assess with real near-fault earthquake records, and a comparison is performed with TMD-based VCS having 50 times larger additional masses. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the KDamper-based VCS in improving the dynamic behavior of BI structures over other mass-related systems (TMD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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32 pages, 9046 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Documentation and Evaluation of Grouting Process, through the Fusion of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation Information—The Case Study of the Katholikon of the Monastery of Panagia Varnakova
by Stergios Roumeliotis, Kyriakos Lampropoulos, Ekaterini Delegou, Elisavet Tsilimantou, Vasileios Keramidas, Asterios Bakolas and Antonia Moropoulou
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030814 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 844
Abstract
The restoration of historic buildings and structures involves a wide range of scientific and technical fields. The grouting process is among an array of rehabilitation and preservation interventions and aims to homogenize the structure after the implementation of strengthening measures. The process can [...] Read more.
The restoration of historic buildings and structures involves a wide range of scientific and technical fields. The grouting process is among an array of rehabilitation and preservation interventions and aims to homogenize the structure after the implementation of strengthening measures. The process can provide important information regarding the state of preservation of the examined structure and correlate the progress of the process with the pathology of the monument. To achieve this, the analysis of typical raw grouting data is progressively fused with additional information from the diagnostic studies, non-destructive testing, geospatial information, and from the calculation and analysis of grouting indices. The restoration project of the Katholikon of the Monastery of Panagia Varnakova in Fokida, Greece was selected as the case study, due to its large scale and the severe earthquake damage it has sustained, which has necessitated comprehensive strengthening interventions and extensive grouting. The implementation of an integrated methodological approach validated the enhanced level of co-analysis, revealing information that is not readily deduced from a typical approach. Selected sub-areas of the Katholikon are presented, demonstrating how the observed pathology can be correlated with the results of the grouting process, while incorporating 3D data, and findings from structural and non-destructive analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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16 pages, 7936 KiB  
Article
Between Safety and Conservation—Procedure for the Assessment of Heritage Buildings Based on Historic Research
by Antonella Saisi, Paolo Borlenghi and Carmelo Gentile
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092236 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Correct approaches to the assessment of historic structures involve the collection of data related to materials, building technology, eventual damage and decay, and transformation that has occurred over time. The procedure proposed by the authors is based on multidisciplinary research, merging data ranging [...] Read more.
Correct approaches to the assessment of historic structures involve the collection of data related to materials, building technology, eventual damage and decay, and transformation that has occurred over time. The procedure proposed by the authors is based on multidisciplinary research, merging data ranging from documentary and archive research to structural modeling. In the developed procedure, the minimization of the costs and timing of the structural assessment were the main requirements. The procedure, implemented on the Arengario, the 13th-century Town Hall of Monza, focuses on the key role of historic and documentary research in order to highlight the difference in the building technology. The overall research program involves the following steps: (i) historical analysis and documentary research; (ii) visual inspections, geometric survey, and decay/damage identification and mapping; and (iii) dynamic testing and modal identification, with these steps driving the choices involved in the subsequent step: (iv) FE modeling and updating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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19 pages, 10045 KiB  
Article
Linear and Nonlinear Earthquake Analysis for Strength Evaluation of Masonry Monument of Neoria
by Maria E. Stavroulaki, Amalia Kasampali, Barbara Charalambidi, Siphesihle Mpho Motsa, Georgios A. Drosopoulos and Georgios E. Stavroulakis
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092204 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
An evaluation of the seismic behavior of a massive masonry monument with vaults, namely, the Neoria complex at the old port of Chania, is presented here. The usage of modal response analysis requires the combination of many eigenmodes in order to capture the [...] Read more.
An evaluation of the seismic behavior of a massive masonry monument with vaults, namely, the Neoria complex at the old port of Chania, is presented here. The usage of modal response analysis requires the combination of many eigenmodes in order to capture the required amount of vibration energy. Alternatively, a number of earthquakes can be used within a time domain response analysis in order to evaluate the response and, subsequently, the strength of the structure. Results of linear analysis are compared here, since this is what is required from current seismic codes. A nonlinear analysis with adequate material models will also be presented in order to demonstrate a comparison with linear analysis and a prediction of damage appearance under ultimate conditions. From the present investigation, it is shown that the results of the modal analysis and the linear time-step analysis are comparable. Therefore, some confidence is gained towards using the results for the design of strengthening and rehabilitation studies. Nonlinear models are very sensitive with respect to design earthquakes and material models. Therefore, at this stage, their results are used for the identification of areas where interventions must be performed very carefully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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20 pages, 3511 KiB  
Article
Safety Assessment of the Main Beams of Historical Buildings Based on Multisource Data Fusion
by Ying Chen, Ran Zhang, Yanfeng Li, Jiyuan Xie, Dong Guo and Laiqiang Song
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13082022 - 8 Aug 2023
Viewed by 843
Abstract
Taking the main beams of historical buildings as the engineering background, existing theoretical research results related to influencing structural factors were used along with numerical simulation and data fusion methods to examine their integrity. Thus, the application of multifactor data fusion in the [...] Read more.
Taking the main beams of historical buildings as the engineering background, existing theoretical research results related to influencing structural factors were used along with numerical simulation and data fusion methods to examine their integrity. Thus, the application of multifactor data fusion in the safety assessment of the main beams of historical buildings was performed. On the basis of existing structural safety assessment methods, neural networks and rough set theory were combined and applied to the safety assessment of the main beams of historical buildings. The bearing capacity of the main beams was divided into five levels according to the degree to which they met current requirements. The safety assessment database established by a Kohonen neural network was clustered. Thus, the specific evaluation indices corresponding to the five types of safety levels were presented. The rough neural network algorithm, integrating the rough set and neural network, was applied for data fusion with this database. The attribute reduction function of the rough set was used to reduce the input dimension of the neural network, which was trained, underwent a learning process, and then used for predictions. The trained neural network was applied for the safety assessment of the main beams of historical buildings, and six specific attribute index values corresponding to the main beams were directly input to obtain the current safety statuses of the buildings. Corresponding management suggestions were also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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16 pages, 11179 KiB  
Article
3D Modeling & Analysis Techniques for the Apollo Temple in Delphi
by Emmanuel Maravelakis, Georgia Giannioti, Athanasia Psalti, Marilena Tsakoumaki, Danae Phaedra Pocobelli, Michael Xinogalos, Demitrios Galanakis, Nikolaos Bilalis and Georgios Stavroulakis
Buildings 2023, 13(7), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13071730 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
This paper demonstrates the application and usage of advanced 3D modeling techniques on monuments through the Apollo Temple in Delphi case study. Firstly, it combines 3D scanning and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry to produce an accurate 3D model of the monument, and [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates the application and usage of advanced 3D modeling techniques on monuments through the Apollo Temple in Delphi case study. Firstly, it combines 3D scanning and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry to produce an accurate 3D model of the monument, and afterward, it performs finite element modeling (FEM) analysis for both static and dynamic cases. Collapsing scenarios in the case of earthquakes are produced, predicting which parts would first collapse and under which regime the collapsing mechanism would be activated. From the results disclosed herein, the frequency profile of the seismic activity that could lead to resonance with the structure’s dynamic characteristics, and therefore to excessive damages or collapse, was identified. Static structural analysis pinpoints that maximum stress exhibited on the columns’ base never exceeds 0.1338 MPa. Among others, the main novelty of this paper is that it consists of an integrated and multidisciplinary paradigm that advances the available historical knowledge for a quite heavily investigated site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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24 pages, 7140 KiB  
Article
An Oriented H-BIM Approach for the Seismic Assessment of Cultural Heritage Buildings: Palazzo Vecchio in Florence
by Vieri Cardinali, Anna Livia Ciuffreda, Massimo Coli, Mario De Stefano, Francesca Meli, Marco Tanganelli and Francesco Trovatelli
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040913 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
H-BIM paradigms are constituted by 3-D informative contents documenting the current and past state of existing structures. Although the transversal vision and the multidisciplinary interpretation have been attributed to BIM models, in the field of monumental structures, these databases can be organized in [...] Read more.
H-BIM paradigms are constituted by 3-D informative contents documenting the current and past state of existing structures. Although the transversal vision and the multidisciplinary interpretation have been attributed to BIM models, in the field of monumental structures, these databases can be organized in different ways depending on the adopted protocol and classifications for the required output of the work. In this manuscript, an H-BIM approach targeted at collecting and providing useful information to execute seismic vulnerability analyses of monumental structures is presented. The BIM modeling followed a protocol based on the following steps: geometrical acquisitions, scan-to-BIM modeling, and informative data collection. The methodology has been applied to the oldest part of Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (IT), an important monumental masonry structure representing the political headquarter of the city since the Middle Ages. The parametric modeling was realized classifying the information according to structural perspectives based on the cognitive steps for the investigation of the existing structures. Finally, a seismic assessment has been realized through a simplified procedure developed for cultural heritage buildings. The outcomes of the evaluation are still part of the collected information of the H-BIM model, as an example of continuous improvement of the available contents of the database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Preservation of Buildings and Infrastructure)
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