Special Issue "Sustainable Building Materials"

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 November 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nadezda Stevulova

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: building materials; characterization of particulate solids; chemistry of solids; cellulosic fibres utilization; bio-composites; waste utilization into concrete; environmental sustainability; environmental engineering
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Silvia Vilcekova

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: building structures; indoor environmental quality; green buildings; sustainability assessment of buildings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The priority of sustainable, post-fossil carbon society is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases. In the context of achievement of the transition towards global sustainable development, civil engineering strategy must ensure the resource and energy efficient technologies with consumption of renewable resources and the cleaner production of building materials. The main aim of this Special Issue, "Sustainable Building Materials" in Buildings is to provide a platform for the discussion of the major research challenges and achievements on development of advanced building materials for passive and zero-energy buildings and materials for renovation, innovative key building materials, the use of alternative raw materials (construction and demolition waste, industrial waste) in building materials production, life cycle analysis of materials and constructions, the indoor environmental assessment. This Special Issue provides an integrated view of the trends in the development of environmentally friendly materials and solving the problems associated with the achievement of sustainability and ensuring a life quality in buildings.

Prof. Nadezda Stevulova warmly invites authors to submit their papers for potential inclusion in this Special Issue on sustainable building materials.

Prof. Dr. Nadezda Stevulova
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Silvia Vilcekova
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 650 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • advanced building materials
  • zero-energy buildings
  • life cycle analysis
  • indoor environmental assessment.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Investigation of Waste Paper Cellulosic Fibers Utilization into Cement Based Building Materials
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, the utilization of renewable natural cellulosic materials, such as wood, plants, and waste paper in the preparation of building materials has attracted significant interest. This is due to their advantageous properties, low environmental impact and low cost. The objective of this paper
[...] Read more.
Recently, the utilization of renewable natural cellulosic materials, such as wood, plants, and waste paper in the preparation of building materials has attracted significant interest. This is due to their advantageous properties, low environmental impact and low cost. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of recycled cellulosic fibers (in the amount 0.5 wt % of the filler and binder weight) and superplasticizer (in the amount 0.5 wt % of the cement weight) on the resulting properties of cement composites (consistency of fresh mixture, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive and flexural strength) for hardening times of 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days. Plasticizer use improved the workability of fresh cement mixture. In comparison to the reference sample, the results revealed a decrease in density of 6.8% and in the thermal conductivity of composites with cellulosic fibers of 34%. The highest values of compressive (48.4 MPa) and flexural (up to 7 MPa) strength were achieved for hardened fiber cement specimens with plasticizer due to their significantly better dispersion of cement particles and improved bond strength between fibers and matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Efficiency of Metallurgical Slags for Application in Building Materials and Products
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
The article deals with studying the antimicrobial efficiency of finely ground metallurgical slags, such as granulated blast-furnace slag with specific surface areas of 340 (1Sa) and 520 m2/kg (1Sb), air cooled blast-furnace slag (2S), demetallized steel slag (3S), calcareous ladle slag
[...] Read more.
The article deals with studying the antimicrobial efficiency of finely ground metallurgical slags, such as granulated blast-furnace slag with specific surface areas of 340 (1Sa) and 520 m2/kg (1Sb), air cooled blast-furnace slag (2S), demetallized steel slag (3S), calcareous ladle slag (4S), and copper slag (5S). The efficiency was tested on microbial representatives, such as: Gram-positive bacteria—Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus; Gram-negative bacteria—Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens; yeasts—Candida utilis, Rhodotorula glutinis; and microscopic filamentous fungi—Aspergillus niger, Penicillium funiculosum, Chaetomium globosum, Alternaria alternata, Trichoderma viride, Cladosporium herbarum. The efficiency was determined by dilution methods in agar growth media so that the resulting concentration of the tested slags was 10, 20, 40, and 60%. The antibacterial efficiency of the slags decreased in the order: S4 > S3 > S2 > S1a = S1b > S5, while their anti-yeast efficiency decreased in the order S4 > S1a = S1b = S3 > S2 > S5. Microscopic filamentous fungi were selectively sensitive to the slags; therefore, there is only an approximate order of efficiency of S4 > S3 = S1a = S1b > S5 > S2. Application of metallurgical slags into building materials and products provide them with increasing resistance against biodeterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Improving the Healthiness of Sustainable Construction: Example of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
With the increasing emphasis on sustainable construction, it has become important to better understand the impacts of common materials. This is especially paramount with the introduction of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which call for more comprehensive evaluations, adding many
[...] Read more.
With the increasing emphasis on sustainable construction, it has become important to better understand the impacts of common materials. This is especially paramount with the introduction of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which call for more comprehensive evaluations, adding many aspects of social consideration to the issues of environmental sustainability, including human health. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/vinyl can be seen as a material with potential for significant adverse effects on a multiplicity of levels, and the construction industry is its single most significant consumer. This article presents a transdisciplinary review of adverse health impacts associated with PVC showing a number of issues: some that could be eliminated through design, but also some which appear inherent to the material itself and therefore unavoidable. The totality of issues revealed in relation to PVC presents a compelling case for a call for complete elimination of use of this material in sustainable construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Bio-Aggregate-Based Composites Containing Hemp Hurds and Alternative Binder
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This experimental study was focused on the application of a surface-modified hemp- hurds aggregate into composites using an alternative binder of MgO-cement. This paper presents the results of the comparative study of the parameters (chemical and physico-chemical modification, and hardening time) affecting the
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This experimental study was focused on the application of a surface-modified hemp- hurds aggregate into composites using an alternative binder of MgO-cement. This paper presents the results of the comparative study of the parameters (chemical and physico-chemical modification, and hardening time) affecting the physical (density, thermal conductivity coefficient and water-absorption behavior) and mechanical properties (compressive strength) of the bio-aggregate-based composite. A test of the parameters of the bio-composite samples showed some differences, which were determined by the chemical and surface properties of the modified filler, and which affected the mechanisms of hardening. The bulk density values of the hemp hurd composites hardened for 28 days place this material in the lightweight category of composites. The values of water absorption and the thermal conductivity coefficient of bio-composites decreased, and the strength parameter increased with an increase in the hardening time. The lower values of compressive strength, water absorption, and thermal conductivity coefficient (except for the ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid-treated filler) were observed in composites based on fillers chemically treated with NaOH and Ca(OH)2) compared to referential composites (based on original hemp hurds). This is related to changes in the chemical composition of hemp hurds after chemical modification. The composites with ultrasound-treated hemp hurds had the greatest strengths at each hardening time. This is related to pulping the bundles of fibers and forming a larger surface area for bonding in the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Adsorption Kinetic Parameters of Co2+ Ions by α-C2SH
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the kinetic parameters of Co2+ ion adsorption by α-C2SH were determined. α-C2SH was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 175 °C, when the duration of isothermal curing was 24 h and the molar ratio of primary
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In this work, the kinetic parameters of Co2+ ion adsorption by α-C2SH were determined. α-C2SH was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 175 °C, when the duration of isothermal curing was 24 h and the molar ratio of primary mixture was CaO/SiO2 = 1.5. This research allows us to state that the adsorption reactions proceed according to the chemisorption process. In order to determine adsorption kinetic parameters, kinetics models have been developed and fitted for these reactions. Additionally, it was determined that adsorbed Co2+ ions have a significant influence on the stability of α-C2SH. These results were confirmed by XRD, STA, and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Calcium Extraction from Blast-Furnace-Slag-Based Mortars in Sulphate Bacterial Medium
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wastewater structures, such as treatment plants or sewers can be easily affected by bio-corrosion influenced by microorganisms living in waste water. The activity of these microbes results in deterioration and can cause the reduction in structural performance of such structures. In order to
[...] Read more.
Wastewater structures, such as treatment plants or sewers can be easily affected by bio-corrosion influenced by microorganisms living in waste water. The activity of these microbes results in deterioration and can cause the reduction in structural performance of such structures. In order to improve the durability of mortar and concrete, different admixtures are being used and the best impact is observed in cement based materials combined with blast furnace slag. In this study, mortar samples with blast furnace slag were exposed to bacterial sulphate attack for 90 and 180 days. The leaching of calcium ions from the cement matrix and equivalent damaged depths of studied mortar samples were evaluated. The results showed more significant leaching of samples placed in bacterial environment, compared to the samples placed in non-bacterial environment. Similarly, the equivalent damaged depths of mortars were much higher for the bacteria-influenced samples. The slag-based cement mortars did not clearly show improved resistance in bacterial medium in terms of calcium leaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Surface Modifications of Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Concrete Properties
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The experiment aims to test the specific way of producing concrete with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). To reduce its negative impact on the concrete properties, two different ways of treatment of the RCA with geopolymer slurry were applied—coating during the mixing using the
[...] Read more.
The experiment aims to test the specific way of producing concrete with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). To reduce its negative impact on the concrete properties, two different ways of treatment of the RCA with geopolymer slurry were applied—coating during the mixing using the specific mixing approach and coating prior to the mixing of concrete. As control samples, a mixture prepared by natural aggregate only and a mixture with RCA that was prepared by standard mixing with no coating process were tested as well. The results of density, total water absorption, and compressive strength in periods of 28, 90, 180, and 365 days of curing are presented and evaluated. Both methods of coating of the RCA with geopolymer slurry allow for the preparation of concrete with properties comparable to those of normal concrete (prepared by standard mixing with natural aggregate); thus, it seems to be a promising way to enhance the rate of RCA application. The positive effect of coating is clearly visible after a longer period of curing (180 days). When comparing the methods of RCA coating, coating directly during the mixing yields somewhat better results; it is also positive from the technological point of view, since the process is simpler in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Utilization of Waste Water from a Concrete Plant in the Production of Cement Composites
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040120
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
This article presents the results of a study dealing with the utilization of sludge water from a concrete plant as a partial replacement for mixing water in the production of cement composites. The replacement of mixing water with sludge water from a concrete
[...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study dealing with the utilization of sludge water from a concrete plant as a partial replacement for mixing water in the production of cement composites. The replacement of mixing water with sludge water from a concrete plant was carried out in the amounts of 20% and 50%. The following tests were carried out in order to determine the effect of the replacement of mixing water with sludge water from a concrete plant on the physical and mechanical properties of the cement composites: cement mortar consistency, beginning and end of setting, strength characteristics (compressive strength and flexural strength), and thermal properties. The measured values of the strength characteristics of the test specimens after 28 days of age confirm the possibility of replacing mixing water with sludge water from a concrete plant without significantly reducing the compressive and flexural strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Improving the Impact of Commercial Paint on Indoor Air Quality by Using Highly Porous Fillers
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040110
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current paper, the effect on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) of two commercial acrylic-based paints were compared: one (Paint A) for indoor applications, the other (Paint B) for indoor/outdoor applications. Both were applied on an inert and on a real mortar substrate.
[...] Read more.
In the current paper, the effect on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) of two commercial acrylic-based paints were compared: one (Paint A) for indoor applications, the other (Paint B) for indoor/outdoor applications. Both were applied on an inert and on a real mortar substrate. The possibility of Paint B to passively improve IAQ was also investigated when adding highly porous adsorbent fillers, both as addition or as total replacement of a conventional siliceous one. The obtained results show that all paints have high capacity to inhibit biological growth. Paint A is more breathable and it has a higher moisture buffering capacity. Paint B negatively modifies the beneficial properties of the mortar substrate for IAQ. However, the use of unconventional fillers, especially as addition to the formulation, allows the recovery of the same properties of the substrate or even the enhancement of about 20% of the ability to adsorb volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under the current test conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Simplified Design of FRP-Confined Square RC Columns under Bi-Axial Bending
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Available guidelines do not provide design procedures for the general case of retrofitting reinforced concrete (RC) columns using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets subjected to simultaneous bi-axial flexural and axial loads. In many practical cases, columns essentially undergo simultaneous axial force and bi-axial
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Available guidelines do not provide design procedures for the general case of retrofitting reinforced concrete (RC) columns using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets subjected to simultaneous bi-axial flexural and axial loads. In many practical cases, columns essentially undergo simultaneous axial force and bi-axial bending moments, especially in in-situ construction. This paper suggests a simplified design method based on the equivalent uni-axial moment concept to calculate the required number of layers FRP sheets for retrofitting RC square columns. The proposed procedure is then verified against available bi-axial moment and axial force test data found in the literature. Results demonstrate that the proposed procedure is appropriate for practical applications with acceptable accuracy. It also appears that retrofitting RC square columns by longitudinal fiber arrangement is only effective for columns with tension-controlled behavior, while transverse and combined longitudinal-transverse arrangements are more effective in enhancing the load bearing capacity of both the compression- and tension-controlled columns. A design example will also be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials)
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