Research on Indoor Air Environment and Energy Conservation

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 2785

Special Issue Editors

College of Urban Construction, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
Interests: building energy conversion; indoor air environment; passive cooling; radiative cooling
School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
Interests: high efficiency heat pump; large temperature zeotropic mixture; sleeping environment; thermal comfort and indoor air quality
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Interests: building performance simulation; data center cooling; building energy system retrofits; energy resilient buildings; HVAC systems; renewable energy solutions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Urban Construction, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211189, China
Interests: building energy saving; building energy flexibility; school building design optimization

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Guest Editor
College of Urban Construction, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
Interests: dehumidification air conditioner; liquid desiccant; coupled heat and mass transfer; membrane separation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Indoor air environment and energy conservation have become increasingly important issues due to the rapid development of modern society. With more people spending time indoors, the quality of indoor air has a direct impact on people's health and well-being. Furthermore, the increasing energy consumption of buildings to satisfy the indoor thermal environment has led to a significant increase in carbon emissions, exacerbating the issue of climate change.

To promote the development of healthy low-carbon buildings, this Special Issue of Buildings aims to address the outlined challenges by welcoming articles related to (but not limited to) the following topics:

  • Advances and reviews of indoor air environment/building energy conversion;
  • Passive and positive methods for the energy-efficient provision of clean air;
  • Identification and control of indoor pollution sources;
  • Novel energy materials for building applications;
  • Renewable/integrated energy system for energy-saving construction;
  • Applications of passive cooling/heating technologies in buildings;
  • Modeling and simulation for indoor environment/building energy systems.

Dr. Kai Zhang
Dr. Jian Liu
Dr. Xiaolei Yuan
Dr. Yizhe Xu
Dr. Junming Zhou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • indoor air quality
  • indoor thermal environment
  • materials for energy conversion
  • renewable energy system
  • integrated energy system
  • modeling of energy system
  • energy efficience in building
  • passvie energy in building
  • building simulation
  • flexible
  • building

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Building Energy Efficiency Enhancement through Thermochromic Powder-Based Temperature-Adaptive Radiative Cooling Roofs
by Ge Song, Kai Zhang, Fei Xiao, Zihao Zhang, Siying Jiao and Yanfeng Gong
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061745 - 10 Jun 2024
Viewed by 210
Abstract
This paper proposes a temperature-adaptive radiative cooling (TARC) coating with simple preparation, cost effectiveness, and large-scale application based on a thermochromic powder. To determine the energy efficiency of the proposed TARC coating, the heat transfer on the surface of the TARC coating was [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a temperature-adaptive radiative cooling (TARC) coating with simple preparation, cost effectiveness, and large-scale application based on a thermochromic powder. To determine the energy efficiency of the proposed TARC coating, the heat transfer on the surface of the TARC coating was analyzed. Then, a typical two-story residential building with a roof area of 258.43 m2 was modeled using EnergyPlus. Finally, the energy-saving potential and carbon emission reduction resulting from the application of the proposed TARC roof in buildings under different climates in China were discussed. The results showed that the average solar reflectivity under visible light wavelengths (0.38–0.78 μm) decreases from 0.71 to 0.37 when the TARC coating changes from cooling mode to heating mode. Furthermore, energy consumption can be reduced by approximately 17.8–43.0 MJ/m2 and 2.0–32.6 MJ/m2 for buildings with TARC roofs compared to those with asphalt shingle roofs and passive daytime radiative cooling (PDRC) roofs, respectively. This also leads to reductions in carbon emissions of 9.4–38.0 kgCO2/m2 and 1.0–28.9 kgCO2/m2 for the buildings located in the selected cities. To enhance building energy efficiency, TARC roofs and PDRC roofs are more suitable for use on buildings located in zones with high heating demands and high cooling demands, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Indoor Air Environment and Energy Conservation)
18 pages, 18984 KiB  
Article
Effect of Air Parameters on LiCl-H2O Film Flow Behavior in Liquid Desiccant Systems
by Yue Lyu, Yonggao Yin and Jingjing Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051474 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 422
Abstract
The wettability and stability of a solution’s film on the filler surface are the key factors determining heat and mass transfer efficiency in liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of different air parameters on the flow behavior of [...] Read more.
The wettability and stability of a solution’s film on the filler surface are the key factors determining heat and mass transfer efficiency in liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of different air parameters on the flow behavior of a lithium chloride solution’s film. The effects of air velocity, air flow pattern, and pressure on the wettability and critical amount of spray are discussed. The results show that the main mechanism by which the air velocity affects the wettability is that the shear stress generated by the direction of the air velocity disperses the direction of the surface tension and weakens its effect on the liquid film distribution. In addition, in the counter flow pattern, the air flow blocks the liquid film from spreading longitudinally and destroys the stability of the liquid film at the liquid outlet, which increases the critical amount of spray. The pressure distribution is similar under different operating pressures when the flow is stable; thus, pressure has little effect on wettability. The simulation results under 8 atm are compared with the experimental results. It is found that the sudden increase in the amount of moisture removal when the amount of spray changes from 0.05 to 0.1 m3/(m·h) in the experiment is caused by the change in the liquid film flow state. In addition, the results show that within the range of air flow parameters for the liquid desiccant air conditioning system, air flow shear force is not the main factor affecting the stability of the solution’s film, and there is no secondary breakage of the solution’s film during the falling-film flow process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Indoor Air Environment and Energy Conservation)
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19 pages, 3428 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Influence of Cool Roof Thermal Parameters on Building Energy Consumption Based on Orthogonal Design
by Shanguo Zhao, Guangmei Hai and Xiaosong Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010028 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
An analytical hierarchy model of the impact of solar reflectance, thermal emittance, heat transfer coefficient, and heat storage coefficient on building energy consumption was established through the implementation of orthogonal design experiments. The EnergyPlus software (v9.0.1) was utilized to simulate building energy consumption [...] Read more.
An analytical hierarchy model of the impact of solar reflectance, thermal emittance, heat transfer coefficient, and heat storage coefficient on building energy consumption was established through the implementation of orthogonal design experiments. The EnergyPlus software (v9.0.1) was utilized to simulate building energy consumption across diverse climatic regions in China, providing essential benchmarks for the orthogonal design. The results of the range analysis consistently indicate that, barring regions characterized by extremely cold climates, solar reflectance emerges as the predominant factor exerting an influence on building energy consumption. As geographical latitude increases, the impact of the heat transfer coefficient becomes progressively larger, while the weight of thermal reflectance concurrently diminishes. Drawing upon the principles rooted in the gradient refractive rate theory and the concept of atmospheric window radiation, a range of high-reflectance and high-emittance cool roof coatings in various colors were meticulously developed. A spectrophotometer was employed to precisely quantify their reflectance properties, and simulations were subsequently conducted to scrutinize their energy-saving characteristics. The results demonstrate that the cool roof coatings that were developed using the methodology described in this paper exhibit substantial enhancements in reflectance, with increases of 0.24, 0.25, 0.37, and 0.35 for the yellow, red, blue, and green cool roofing materials, respectively, in comparison to conventional colored coatings. Under typical summer conditions, these enhancements translate to significant reductions in roof temperatures, ranging from 9.4 °C to 14.0 °C. Moreover, the simulations exploring the cooling loads for the roofs of differing colors consistently revealed remarkable energy savings. These savings were quantified to be 4.1%, 3.9%, 5.5%, and 5.4%, respectively, when compared to conventional coatings of the corresponding colors. These findings offer valuable insights into strategies for optimizing the energy efficiency of buildings through the application of high-reflectance cool roofing materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Indoor Air Environment and Energy Conservation)
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17 pages, 13397 KiB  
Article
Experiment and Prediction of Pressure Drop in a Fiber–Powder Composite Material with Porous Structure for Energy Wheels and Air Cleaners
by Han Gao, Zhenhai Li, Xigang Zhou, Xiaolong Yin and Mengmeng Shan
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2196; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092196 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Energy wheels and air cleaners play crucial roles in building air conditioning systems. The former is essential for conserving energy in air conditioning systems, while the latter is necessary for ensuring the quality of indoor air. Pressure drop is a crucial parameter for [...] Read more.
Energy wheels and air cleaners play crucial roles in building air conditioning systems. The former is essential for conserving energy in air conditioning systems, while the latter is necessary for ensuring the quality of indoor air. Pressure drop is a crucial parameter for both energy wheels and air cleaners, and it is essential to conduct theoretical and experimental investigations to aid in their design. In this study, we focused on the study of pressure drop in a fiber–powder composite material which can be used for both total heat exchange and air purification. Experimental tests were initially conducted to examine the impact of different parameters on the pressure drop in the material. Subsequently, based on the special fiber–powder structure of the material, two pressure drop prediction methods with different prediction strategies were proposed. The two prediction strategies were compared by analyzing the prediction accuracy of the two methods. As tested by experimental data, for both methods, the absolute prediction error was less than ±6 Pa when the pressure drop was below 50 Pa, and the relative prediction error was less than ±8% for most data sets when the pressure drop was greater than 50 Pa. Moreover, the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values of prediction for both methods were less than 4 Pa and 7% respectively. The test results show that although the prediction strategies are different, both prediction methods can obtain acceptable prediction results, and both methods are practical. This study is intended to serve as a valuable reference for the design of energy wheels and air cleaners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Indoor Air Environment and Energy Conservation)
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