Special Issue "Diet in Brain Health and Neurological Disorders: Risk Factors and Treatments"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Jason Brandt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 218 Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Tel. 410-955-2619
Interests: executive function, memory disorders, dementia, neuropsychology, cognitive assessment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The role of nutrition in health and disease has been appreciated from time immemorial.  Around 400 B.C., Hippocrates wrote “Let food by thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” In the 12th century, the great philosopher and physician Moses Maimonides wrote “any disease that can be treated by diet should be treated by no other means.” Now, in the 21st century, we are bombarded by claims in the media of “superfoods,” wondrous nutritional supplements, and special diets that promise to cure or prevent disease, improve health and restore functioning. Much of the focus has been on neurological disease, brain health and psychological functioning (behavior, cognition, and emotion).

The hyperbole aside, there has been considerable progress in the past decade in our understanding of the contribution of specific nutrients and dietary patterns to brain development, physiology, and functioning. This Special Issue of Brain Sciences is devoted to the latest research on the role of nutritional deficiencies and excesses in the genesis of brain dysfunction, and use of diet for the prevention and treatment of brain and mental disorders. Basic laboratory and clinical research studies of the immature, adult, and aged nervous system are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jason Brandt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diet
  • nutrition
  • nutrients
  • metabolism
  • lipids
  • ketones
  • anti-oxidants

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Diet in Brain Health and Neurological Disorders: Risk Factors and Treatments
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(9), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9090234 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
The role of nutrition in health and disease has been appreciated from time immemorial [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Transpulmonary Administration of Caffeine on Brain Activity in Healthy Men
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(9), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9090222 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study aimed to examine the effect of transpulmonary administration of caffeine on working memory and related brain functions by electroencephalography measurement. The participants performed working memory tasks before and after vaporizer-assisted aspiration with inhalation of caffeinated- and non-caffeinated liquids in the [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to examine the effect of transpulmonary administration of caffeine on working memory and related brain functions by electroencephalography measurement. The participants performed working memory tasks before and after vaporizer-assisted aspiration with inhalation of caffeinated- and non-caffeinated liquids in the caffeine and sham conditions, respectively. Transpulmonary administration of caffeine tended to increase the rate of correct answers. Moreover, our findings suggest that transpulmonary administration of caffeine increases the theta-band activity in the right prefrontal, central, and temporal areas during the task assigned post-aspiration. Our results may indicate an efficient and fast means of eliciting the stimulatory effects of transpulmonary administration of caffeine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050120 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) play a central role in neuronal growth and in the development of the human brain, and a deficiency of these substances has been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). In this regard, supplementation with [...] Read more.
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) play a central role in neuronal growth and in the development of the human brain, and a deficiency of these substances has been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). In this regard, supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is used as adjuvant therapy in ADHD. Seafood, particularly fish, and some types of nuts are the main dietary sources of such fatty acids in the Spanish diet. In order to assess the effect of the intake of common foods containing high amounts of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, a food frequency questionnaire was administered to parents of children with ADHD (N = 48) and to parents of normally developing children (control group) (N = 87), and the intake of dietary omega-3 LC-PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was estimated. Children with ADHD consumed fatty fish, lean fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and chicken eggs significantly less often (p < 0.05) than children in the control group. The estimated daily omega-3 LC-PUFA intake (EPA + DHA) was significantly below that recommended by the public health agencies in both groups, and was significantly lower in children with ADHD (p < 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.45) compared to normally developing children. Dietary intervention to increase the consumption of fish and seafood is strongly advised and it is especially warranted in children with ADHD, since it could contribute to improve the symptoms of ADHD. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(9), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8090174 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Even though obese individuals often succeed with weight loss, long-term weight loss maintenance remains elusive. Dietary, lifestyle and psychosocial correlates of weight loss maintenance have been researched, yet the nature of maintenance is still poorly understood. Studying the neural processing of weight loss [...] Read more.
Even though obese individuals often succeed with weight loss, long-term weight loss maintenance remains elusive. Dietary, lifestyle and psychosocial correlates of weight loss maintenance have been researched, yet the nature of maintenance is still poorly understood. Studying the neural processing of weight loss maintainers may provide a much-needed insight towards sustained obesity management. In this narrative review, we evaluate and critically discuss available evidence regarding the food-related neural responses of weight loss maintainers, as opposed to those of obese or lean persons. While research is still ongoing, available data indicate that following weight loss, maintainers exhibit persistent reward related feeling over food, similar to that of obese persons. However, unlike in obese persons, in maintainers, reward-related brain activity appears to be counteracted by subsequently heightened inhibition. These findings suggest that post-dieting, maintainers acquire a certain level of cognitive control which possibly protects them from weight regaining. The prefrontal cortex, as well as the limbic system, encompass key regions of interest for weight loss maintenance, and their contributions to long term successful weight loss should be further explored. Future possibilities and supportive theories are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Expanding Role of Ketogenic Diets in Adult Neurological Disorders
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(8), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8080148 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
The current review highlights the evidence supporting the use of ketogenic diet therapies in the management of adult epilepsy, adult malignant glioma and Alzheimer’s disease. An overview of the scientific literature, both preclinical and clinical, in each area is presented and management strategies [...] Read more.
The current review highlights the evidence supporting the use of ketogenic diet therapies in the management of adult epilepsy, adult malignant glioma and Alzheimer’s disease. An overview of the scientific literature, both preclinical and clinical, in each area is presented and management strategies for addressing adverse effects and compliance are discussed. Full article

Other

Open AccessPerspective
The Counteracting Effects of Exercise on High-Fat Diet-Induced Memory Impairment: A Systematic Review
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(6), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9060145 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The objective of the present review was to evaluate whether exercise can counteract a potential high-fat diet-induced memory impairment effect. The evaluated databases included: Google Scholar, Sports Discus, Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychInfo. Studies were included if: (1) an experimental/intervention study was [...] Read more.
The objective of the present review was to evaluate whether exercise can counteract a potential high-fat diet-induced memory impairment effect. The evaluated databases included: Google Scholar, Sports Discus, Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychInfo. Studies were included if: (1) an experimental/intervention study was conducted, (2) the experiment/intervention included both a high-fat diet and exercise group, and evaluated whether exercise could counteract the negative effects of a high-fat diet on memory, and (3) evaluated memory function (any type) as the outcome measure. In total, 17 articles met the inclusionary criteria. All 17 studies (conducted in rodents) demonstrated that the high-fat diet protocol impaired memory function and all 17 studies demonstrated a counteracting effect with chronic exercise engagement. Mechanisms of these robust effects are discussed herein. Full article
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