Special Issue "Oxygen Therapy"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Uri Ashery
Website
Guest Editor
Sagol School of Neuroscience, School of Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv, Israel
Interests: synaptic transmission; synaptic plsaticity; super resolution microscopy; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease
Prof. Shai Efrati
Website
Guest Editor
Sagol Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Research, Shamir (Assaf-Harofeh) Medical Center, Israel
Sackler School of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Interests: regeneration; brain; hyperbaric medicine; physiology
Dr. Ronit Shapira
Website
Assistant Guest Editor
School of Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences,Tel Aviv, Israel
Interests: hyperbaric oxygen therapy; Alzheimer’s diseas; neurodegenerative diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oxygen is vital for normal cell metabolism. Oxygen therapy is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment. Air usually consists of 21% oxygen by volume, while oxygen therapy increases oxygen by up to 100% or increases oxygen solubility in the blood and tissues by elevating atmospheric pressure. The use of oxygen in the clinic is common for centuries and is considered one of the most effective and safe medicines needed in health systems, according to the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. In order to increase oxygen-delivered dosages and their relative concentrations, the environmental pressure can be increased. For example, to enhance the amount of oxygen dissolved in the body’s tissues, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) including the inhalation of 100% oxygen at pressures exceeding one atmosphere absolute (1 ATA) needs to be used. Historically, HBOT has been applied worldwide, mostly for chronic non-healing wounds. In recent years, growing evidence related to the regenerative effects of HBOT has emerged. The combined action of both hyperoxia and hyperbaric pressure leads to significant improvement in tissue oxygenation while targeting both oxygen and pressure-sensitive genes, resulting in improved mitochondrial metabolism with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the intermittent increase of oxygen concentration activates many of the mediators and cellular pathways that are usually induced by hypoxia but not hazardous hypoxia—termed the hyperoxic–hypoxic paradox. Among others, the intermittent hyperoxic exposure during HBOT can affect the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1a), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity, induce stem cell proliferation, augment circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and angiogenesis factors, as well as induce angiogenesis and improve blood flow. In addition to the stimulation of EPCs, HBOT can decrease the inflammatory response in endothelial cells mediated by TNF-alpha, and thus promote vascular recovery. Recently, HBOT also been shown to improve acute neurological conditions like stroke and traumatic brain injury and alleviates chronic conditions such as vascular dementia. In addition, both animal and human studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of HBOT on mitochondrial function.

This Special Issue, entitled “Oxygen Therapy”, will feature exciting novel studies in this area as well as stimulate new avenues of research into the biological functions of oxygen and the hyperoxic–hypoxic paradox, its underlying mechanisms, and the potential application of its use as a novel therapeutic approach.

Prof. Uri Ashery
Prof. Shai Efrati
Dr. Ronit Shapira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomolecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
  • Hyperoxic–hypoxic paradox
  • Mitochondria
  • Tissue regeneration
  • Angiogenesis
  • Neurogenesis
  • Anti-inflammation
  • Stem cells
  • Brain injury
  • Brain disorders
  • Epigenetic

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Oxygen: The Rate-Limiting Factor for Episodic Memory Performance, Even in Healthy Young Individuals
Biomolecules 2020, 10(9), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091328 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
Cognition is a crucial element of human functionality. Like any other physical capability, cognition is both enabled and limited by tissue biology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oxygen is a rate-limiting factor for any of the main cognitive domains [...] Read more.
Cognition is a crucial element of human functionality. Like any other physical capability, cognition is both enabled and limited by tissue biology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oxygen is a rate-limiting factor for any of the main cognitive domains in healthy young individuals. Fifty-six subjects were randomly assigned to either increased oxygen supply using hyperbaric oxygen (two atmospheres of 100% oxygen) or to a “sham” treatment (a simulation of increased pressure in a chamber with normal air). While in the chamber, participants went through a battery of tests evaluating the major cognitive domains including information processing speed, episodic memory, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and attention. The results demonstrated that from all evaluated cognitive domains, a statistically significant improvement was found in the episodic memory of the hyper-oxygenized group. The hyper-oxygenized group demonstrated a better learning curve and a higher resilience to interference. To conclude, oxygen delivery is a rate-limiting factor for memory function even in healthy young individuals under normal conditions. Understanding the biological limitations of our cognitive functions is important for future development of interventional tools that can be used in daily clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxygen Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Hyperoxia Alters Ultrastructure and Induces Apoptosis in Leukemia Cell Lines
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020282 - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
Oxygenation conditions are crucial for growth and tumor progression. Recent data suggests a decrease in cancer cell proliferation occurring after exposure to normobaric hyperoxia. Those changes are associated with fractal dimension. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of hyperoxia [...] Read more.
Oxygenation conditions are crucial for growth and tumor progression. Recent data suggests a decrease in cancer cell proliferation occurring after exposure to normobaric hyperoxia. Those changes are associated with fractal dimension. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of hyperoxia on apoptosis and morphology of leukemia cell lines. Two hematopoietic lymphoid cancer cell lines (a T-lymphoblastoid line, JURKAT and a B lymphoid line, CCRF-SB) were tested under conditions of normobaric hyperoxia (FiO2 > 60%, ± 18h) and compared to a standard group (FiO2 = 21%). We tested for apoptosis using a caspase-3 assay. Cell morphology was evaluated by cytospin, microphotography after coloration, and analysis by a fractal dimension calculation software. Our results showed that exposure of cell cultures to transient normobaric hyperoxia induced apoptosis (elevated caspase-3) as well as significant and precocious modifications in cell complexity, as highlighted by increased fractal dimensions in both cell lines. These features are associated with changes in structure (pycnotic nucleus and apoptosis) recorded by microscopic analysis. Such morphological alterations could be due to several molecular mechanisms and rearrangements in the cancer cell, leading to cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis as shown by caspase-3 activity. T cells seem less resistant to hyperoxia than B cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxygen Therapy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
An Extra Breath of Fresh Air: Hyperbaric Oxygenation as a Stroke Therapeutic
Biomolecules 2020, 10(9), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091279 - 04 Sep 2020
Abstract
Stroke serves as a life-threatening disease and continues to face many challenges in the development of safe and effective therapeutic options. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) demonstrates pre-clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and reports reductions in oxidative [...] Read more.
Stroke serves as a life-threatening disease and continues to face many challenges in the development of safe and effective therapeutic options. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) demonstrates pre-clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and reports reductions in oxidative stress, inflammation, and neural apoptosis. These pathophysiological benefits contribute to improved functional recovery. Current pre-clinical and clinical studies are testing the applications of HBOT for stroke neuroprotection, including its use as a preconditioning regimen. Mild oxidative stress may be able to prime the brain to tolerate full extensive oxidative stress that occurs during a stroke, and HBOT preconditioning has displayed efficacy in establishing such ischemic tolerance. In this review, evidence on the use of HBOT following an ischemic stroke is examined, and the potential for HBOT preconditioning as a neuroprotective strategy. Additionally, HBOT as a stem cell preconditioning is also discussed as a promising strategy, thus maximizing the use of HBOT for ischemic stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxygen Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
Molecular and Therapeutic Aspects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Neurological Conditions
Biomolecules 2020, 10(9), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091247 - 27 Aug 2020
Abstract
In hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), the subject is placed in a chamber containing 100% oxygen gas at a pressure of more than one atmosphere absolute. This treatment is used to hasten tissue recovery and improve its physiological aspects, by providing an increased supply [...] Read more.
In hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), the subject is placed in a chamber containing 100% oxygen gas at a pressure of more than one atmosphere absolute. This treatment is used to hasten tissue recovery and improve its physiological aspects, by providing an increased supply of oxygen to the damaged tissue. In this review, we discuss the consequences of hypoxia, as well as the molecular and physiological processes that occur in subjects exposed to HBOT. We discuss the efficacy of HBOT in treating neurological conditions and neurodevelopmental disorders in both humans and animal models. We summarize by discussing the challenges in this field, and explore future directions that will allow the scientific community to better understand the molecular aspects and applications of HBOT for a wide variety of neurological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxygen Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
The Hyperoxic-Hypoxic Paradox
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10060958 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Effective metabolism is highly dependent on a narrow therapeutic range of oxygen. Accordingly, low levels of oxygen, or hypoxia, are one of the most powerful inducers of gene expression, metabolic changes, and regenerative processes, including angiogenesis and stimulation of stem cell proliferation, migration, [...] Read more.
Effective metabolism is highly dependent on a narrow therapeutic range of oxygen. Accordingly, low levels of oxygen, or hypoxia, are one of the most powerful inducers of gene expression, metabolic changes, and regenerative processes, including angiogenesis and stimulation of stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The sensing of decreased oxygen levels (hypoxia) or increased oxygen levels (hyperoxia), occurs through specialized chemoreceptor cells and metabolic changes at the cellular level, which regulate the response. Interestingly, fluctuations in the free oxygen concentration rather than the absolute level of oxygen can be interpreted at the cellular level as a lack of oxygen. Thus, repeated intermittent hyperoxia can induce many of the mediators and cellular mechanisms that are usually induced during hypoxia. This is called the hyperoxic-hypoxic paradox (HHP). This article reviews oxygen physiology, the main cellular processes triggered by hypoxia, and the cascade of events triggered by the HHP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxygen Therapy)
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