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The Hyperoxic-Hypoxic Paradox

by Amir Hadanny 1,2,3,* and Shai Efrati 1,2,4
The Sagol Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Research, Shamir (Assaf-Harofeh) Medical Center, Zerifin 70300, Israel
Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel
The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel
The Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 958;
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 25 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxygen Therapy)
Effective metabolism is highly dependent on a narrow therapeutic range of oxygen. Accordingly, low levels of oxygen, or hypoxia, are one of the most powerful inducers of gene expression, metabolic changes, and regenerative processes, including angiogenesis and stimulation of stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The sensing of decreased oxygen levels (hypoxia) or increased oxygen levels (hyperoxia), occurs through specialized chemoreceptor cells and metabolic changes at the cellular level, which regulate the response. Interestingly, fluctuations in the free oxygen concentration rather than the absolute level of oxygen can be interpreted at the cellular level as a lack of oxygen. Thus, repeated intermittent hyperoxia can induce many of the mediators and cellular mechanisms that are usually induced during hypoxia. This is called the hyperoxic-hypoxic paradox (HHP). This article reviews oxygen physiology, the main cellular processes triggered by hypoxia, and the cascade of events triggered by the HHP. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperoxia; hypoxia; hyperbaric oxygen; biogenesis; hyperoxic-hypoxic paradox; hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) hyperoxia; hypoxia; hyperbaric oxygen; biogenesis; hyperoxic-hypoxic paradox; hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)
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Hadanny, A.; Efrati, S. The Hyperoxic-Hypoxic Paradox. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 958.

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