Special Issue "Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Composite Materials"

A special issue of Biomimetics (ISSN 2313-7673).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Inmaculada Aranaz Corral

Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Spain
Interests: natural polymers (chitin, chitosan, alginates); chitosan derivatives; functional characterization; synthetic polymers; green processes; polymer networks; biomaterials; drug delivery
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Florentina Niuris Acosta Contreras

Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Spain
Interests: biopolymers; chitosan derivatives; physico-chemical and functional characterization; green processes; polymer networks; biomaterials; drug delivery; pharmaceutical formulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitin and its deacetylated derivative, chitosan, are a family of copolymers composed of poly β-1,4 linked D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. These polymers exhibit a large number of biological (non-toxicity, bioactivity, biocompatibility and biodegradability among others) and technological properties that are of interest in different fields, such as biomedicine, agriculture, biotechnology or the textile industry. Moreover, chitin, chitosan and their derivatives can be processed into different forms such as micro- and nanoparticles, fibers, films or scaffolds. These structures are compatible with other types of materials like metallic or magnetic nanoparticles, carbonous or inorganic materials. Therefore, a myriad of composites based on chitinous materials can be easily produced with interesting properties.

This Special Issue aims to collect the contributions from researchers from different fields with a common interest in chitin- and chitosan-based materials. Due to the strong relationship between polymer physico-chemical properties and functional behavior, researchers are encouraged to include detailed methods for polymer characterization.

Dr. Inmaculada Aranaz Corral
Dr. Florentina Niuris Acosta Contreras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomimetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metallic nanoparticles
  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • carbon nanofibers
  • carbon nanotubes
  • hydroxyapatite
  • bioglass
  • drug delivery
  • clays
  • bioplastics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cellulose Nanofiber-Reinforced Chitosan Hydrogel Composites for Intervertebral Disc Tissue Repair
Biomimetics 2019, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4010019 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The development of non-cellularized composites of chitosan (CHI) hydrogels, filled with cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) of the type nanofibrillated cellulose, was proposed for the repair and regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue. With the achievement of CNF-filled CHI hydrogels, biomaterial-based [...] Read more.
The development of non-cellularized composites of chitosan (CHI) hydrogels, filled with cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) of the type nanofibrillated cellulose, was proposed for the repair and regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue. With the achievement of CNF-filled CHI hydrogels, biomaterial-based implants were designed to restore damaged/degenerated discs. The structural, mechanical and biological properties of the developed hydrogel composites were investigated. The neutralization of weakly acidic aqueous CNF/CHI viscous suspensions in NaOH yielded composites of physical hydrogels in which the cellulose nanofibers reinforced the CHI matrix, as investigated by means of microtensile testing under controlled humidity. We assessed the suitability of the achieved biomaterials for intervertebral disc tissue engineering in ex vivo experiments using spine pig models. Cellulose nanofiber-filled chitosan hydrogels can be used as implants in AF tissue defects to restore IVD biomechanics and constitute contention patches against disc nucleus protrusion while serving as support for IVD regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of Acetic Acid-Doped Polyaniline and Polyaniline–Chitosan Composite
Biomimetics 2019, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4010015 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Polyaniline–chitosan (PAni–Cs) composite films were synthesized using a solution casting method with varying PAni concentrations. Polyaniline powders used in the composite synthesis were polymerized using acetic acid as the dopant media. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the PAni powders synthesized using hydrochloric acid and [...] Read more.
Polyaniline–chitosan (PAni–Cs) composite films were synthesized using a solution casting method with varying PAni concentrations. Polyaniline powders used in the composite synthesis were polymerized using acetic acid as the dopant media. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the PAni powders synthesized using hydrochloric acid and acetic acid did not exhibit significant difference to the chemical features of PAni, implying that PAni was formed in varying concentrations of the dopant media. The presence of agglomerated particles on the surface of the Cs composite, which may have been due to the presence of PAni powders, was observed with scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX). Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy further showed the interaction of PAni with Cs where the Cs characteristic peak shifted to a higher wavelength. Cell viability assay also revealed that the synthesized PAni–Cs composites were nontoxic and may be utilized for future biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
New Chitosan/Iron Oxide Composites: Fabrication and Application for Removal of Sr2+ Radionuclide from Aqueous Solutions
Biomimetics 2018, 3(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics3040039 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Here, we discuss the fabrication and problems of application of chitosan-based composite materials for the removal of hazardous metal ions from tap water and wastewater. The chitosan-based composites containing iron oxides for the uptake of Sr2+ ions were fabricated via a co-precipitation [...] Read more.
Here, we discuss the fabrication and problems of application of chitosan-based composite materials for the removal of hazardous metal ions from tap water and wastewater. The chitosan-based composites containing iron oxides for the uptake of Sr2+ ions were fabricated via a co-precipitation method with variation of the iron/chitosan ratio and pH of the medium. The morphology and composition of the fabricated sorbents were characterized using scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We have shown that the suggested fabrication approach allows for a homogeneous distribution of the inorganic phase in the polymer matrix. Investigations of the sorption performance of the composites have shown that they are efficient sorbents for 90Sr radionuclides uptake from tap water. The composite sorbent containing amorphous iron oxide in a chitosan matrix and calcined at 105 °C showed the best sorption characteristics. We have also demonstrated that there is an optimal iron oxide content in the composite: with increasing oxide content, the efficiency of the sorbents decreases due to poor stability in solution, especially in alkaline media. The alternative approach yielding magnetic chitosan-based composites with sufficiently good sorption performance and stability in neutral and weakly alkaline media is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Ability of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Enzymatically Depolymerized to Produce and Stabilize Silver Nanoparticles
Biomimetics 2018, 3(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics3030021 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of great interest due to their antimicrobial, optical and catalytical properties. Green synthesis of AgNPs is fundamental for some applications such as biomedicine and catalysis. Natural polymers, such as chitosan, have been proposed as reducing and stabilizing agents in [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of great interest due to their antimicrobial, optical and catalytical properties. Green synthesis of AgNPs is fundamental for some applications such as biomedicine and catalysis. Natural polymers, such as chitosan, have been proposed as reducing and stabilizing agents in the green synthesis of AgNPs. Physico-chemical properties of chitosan have a great impact on its technological and biological properties. In this paper, we explore the effect of chitosan molecular weight (Mw) on the thermal AgNPs production using two sample sets of low Mw chitosans (F1 > 30 kDa, F2: 30–10 kDa and F3: 10–5 kDa) produced by enzymatic depolymerization of a parent chitosan with chitosanase and lysozyme. Both polymer sets were able to effectively reduce Ag+ to Ag0 as the presence of the silver surface plasmon resonance (SRP) demonstrated. However, the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles depended not only on the Mw of the polymer but particularly on the polymer pattern which was determined by the enzyme used to depolymerize the parent chitosan. Low Mw chitosan samples produced by lysozyme were more effective than those produced by chitosanase to stabilize the AgNPs and smaller and less polydisperse nanoparticles were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With some polymer sets, more than 80% of the AgNPs produced were lower than 10 nm which correspond to quantum dots. The preparation method described in this paper is general and therefore, it may be extended to other noble metals, such as palladium, gold or platinum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Composite Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Interaction Between Chitosan and Mucin: Fundamentals and Applications
Biomimetics 2019, 4(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4020032 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The term chitosan (CS) refers to a family of aminopolysaccharides derived from chitin. Among other properties, CS is nontoxic, mucoadhesive and can be used for load and transport drugs. Given these and other physicochemical and biological properties, CS is an optimal biopolymer for [...] Read more.
The term chitosan (CS) refers to a family of aminopolysaccharides derived from chitin. Among other properties, CS is nontoxic, mucoadhesive and can be used for load and transport drugs. Given these and other physicochemical and biological properties, CS is an optimal biopolymer for the development of transmucosal drug delivery systems, as well as for the treatment of pathologies related to mucosal dysfunctions. Mucins are glycoprotein macromolecules that are the major components of mucus overlaying epithelia. CS interacts with mucin and adsorbs on and changes the rheology of mucus. However, CS and mucins denote families of polymers/macromolecules with highly variable chemical structure, properties, and behavior. To date, their interactions at the molecular level have not been completely unraveled. Also, the properties of complexes composed of CS and mucin vary as a function of the sources and preparation of the polymers. As a consequence, the mucoadhesion and drug delivery properties of such complexes vary as well. The breadth of this review is on the molecular interactions between CS and mucin. In particular, in vitro and ex vivo characterization methods to investigate both the interactions at play during the formation of CS-mucin complexes, and the advances on the use of CS for transmucosal drug delivery are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Composite Materials)
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