Special Issue "New Players in Adipocyte Biology"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jacqueline M. Stephens

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: adipocytes; adipose tissue; STAT5; Type II diabetes
Guest Editor
Dr. Matthew J. Brady

The University of Chicago
Website | E-Mail
Interests: adipocyte; mammary cancer, sleep, insulin sensitivity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue will be devoted to more recent aspects of adipocyte biology, including the impact of sleep and exercise that are now known to regulate adipose tissue function and contribute to systemic metabolic function. The title “new players” also refers to the authors of the manuscripts. We have largely selected Assistant Professors who are just establishing their own laboratories after training in nationally recognized adipocyte biology laboratories. Given the global epidemic of obesity, there is increasing interest in adipocyte biology. Hence, we think these manuscripts will be of great interest to investigators in the fields of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic diseases.

Dr. Jacqueline M. Stephens
Dr. Matthew J. Brady
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • adipocyte
  • adipose tissue
  • metabolic health
  • sleep
  • exercise
  • metabolic flexibility
  • circadian regulation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Expression of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cardiotrophin-1 in Humans with Obesity
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a gp130 cytokine that was previously characterized for its effects on cardiomyocytes and identified as a marker of heart failure. More recent studies reported elevated circulating levels of CT-1 in humans with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, a subsequent [...] Read more.
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a gp130 cytokine that was previously characterized for its effects on cardiomyocytes and identified as a marker of heart failure. More recent studies reported elevated circulating levels of CT-1 in humans with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, a subsequent rodent study implicated CT-1 as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and MetS. Adipose tissue (AT) is broadly acknowledged as an endocrine organ and is a substantial source of CT-1. However, no study has examined the expression of adipose-derived CT-1 in humans. We present the first analysis of CT-1 mRNA expression in subcutaneous AT and its association with clinical variables in 22 women with obesity and 15 men who were 40% overfed for 8-weeks. We observed that CT-1 expression was higher in the subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) than the femoral (scFEM) depot. Importantly, we reveal that scFEM but not scABD, CT-1 expression was negatively associated with visceral adiposity and intrahepatic lipid, while positively correlated with insulin sensitivity in obese women. Also, men with higher CT-1 levels at baseline had less of a decline in insulin sensitivity in response to overfeeding. Our data provide new knowledge on the regulation of adipose-derived CT-1 in obesity and during weight gain in response to overfeeding in humans and suggest that CT-1 may play a protective role in obesity and related disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
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Open AccessArticle
Oncostatin M Mediates Adipocyte Expression and Secretion of Stromal-Derived Factor 1
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
Adipose tissue homeostasis depends on interactions between stromal cells, adipocytes, and the cytokines and chemokines they produce. The gp130 cytokine, oncostatin M (OSM), plays a role in adipose tissue homeostasis. Mice, lacking the OSM receptor (OSMR) in adipocytes (OsmrFKO mice), exhibit [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue homeostasis depends on interactions between stromal cells, adipocytes, and the cytokines and chemokines they produce. The gp130 cytokine, oncostatin M (OSM), plays a role in adipose tissue homeostasis. Mice, lacking the OSM receptor (OSMR) in adipocytes (OsmrFKO mice), exhibit derangements in adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity, and immune cell balance. Here, we describe a possible role for the chemokine stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in these alterations. We treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with OSM and observed a suppression of SDF-1 gene expression and protein secretion, an effect which was partially blunted by OSMR knockdown. However, OsmrFKO mice also exhibited decreased SDF-1 gene and protein expression in adipose tissue. These contrasting results suggest that the loss of adipocyte OSM–OSMR signaling in vivo may be indirectly affecting adipokine production and secretion by altering OSM target genes to ultimately decrease SDF-1 expression in the OsmrFKO mouse. We conclude that adipocyte OSM–OSMR signaling plays a role in adipose tissue SDF-1 production and may mitigate its effects on adipose tissue homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Deciphering White Adipose Tissue Heterogeneity
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Adipose tissue not only stores energy, but also controls metabolism through secretion of hormones, cytokines, proteins, and microRNAs that affect the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. Adipose tissue is organized into discrete depots throughout the body, and these depots are [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue not only stores energy, but also controls metabolism through secretion of hormones, cytokines, proteins, and microRNAs that affect the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. Adipose tissue is organized into discrete depots throughout the body, and these depots are differentially associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of metabolic disease. In addition to energy-dissipating brown and beige adipocytes, recent lineage tracing studies have demonstrated that individual adipose depots are composed of white adipocytes that are derived from distinct precursor populations, giving rise to distinct subpopulations of energy-storing white adipocytes. In this review, we discuss this developmental and functional heterogeneity of white adipocytes both between and within adipose depots. In particular, we will highlight findings from our recent manuscript in which we find and characterize three major subtypes of white adipocytes. We will discuss these data relating to the differences between subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue and in relationship to previous work deciphering adipocyte heterogeneity within adipose tissue depots. Finally, we will discuss the possible implications of adipocyte heterogeneity may have for the understanding of lipodystrophies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
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Open AccessReview
Targeting White Adipose Tissue with Exercise or Bariatric Surgery as Therapeutic Strategies in Obesity
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Adipose tissue is critical to whole-body energy metabolism and has become recognized as a bona fide endocrine organ rather than an inert lipid reservoir. As such, adipose tissue is dynamic in its ability to secrete cytokines, free fatty acids, lipokines, hormones and other [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue is critical to whole-body energy metabolism and has become recognized as a bona fide endocrine organ rather than an inert lipid reservoir. As such, adipose tissue is dynamic in its ability to secrete cytokines, free fatty acids, lipokines, hormones and other factors in response to changes in environmental stimuli such as feeding, fasting and exercise. While excess adipose tissue, as in the case of obesity, is associated with metabolic complications, mass itself is not the only culprit in obesity-driven metabolic abnormalities, highlighting the importance of healthy and metabolically adaptable adipose tissue. In this review, we discuss the fundamental cellular processes of adipose tissue that become perturbed in obesity and the impact of exercise on these processes. While both endurance and resistance exercise can promote positive physiological adaptations in adipose tissue, endurance exercise has a more documented role in remodeling adipocytes, increasing adipokine secretion and fatty acid mobilization and oxidation during post-exercise compared with resistance exercise. Exercise is considered a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity to optimize body composition, in particular as an adjuvant therapy to bariatric surgery; however, there is a gap in knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of these exercise-induced adaptations, which could provide more insight and opportunity for precision-based treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
Open AccessReview
Cold and Exercise: Therapeutic Tools to Activate Brown Adipose Tissue and Combat Obesity
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
The rise in obesity over the last several decades has reached pandemic proportions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that is involved in energy expenditure and represents an attractive target to combat both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cold exposure and [...] Read more.
The rise in obesity over the last several decades has reached pandemic proportions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that is involved in energy expenditure and represents an attractive target to combat both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cold exposure and exercise training are two stimuli that have been investigated with respect to BAT activation, metabolism, and the contribution of BAT to metabolic health. These two stimuli are of great interest because they have both disparate and converging effects on BAT activation and metabolism. Cold exposure is an effective mechanism to stimulate BAT activity and increase glucose and lipid uptake through mitochondrial uncoupling, resulting in metabolic benefits including elevated energy expenditure and increased insulin sensitivity. Exercise is a therapeutic tool that has marked benefits on systemic metabolism and affects several tissues, including BAT. Compared to cold exposure, studies focused on BAT metabolism and exercise display conflicting results; the majority of studies in rodents and humans demonstrate a reduction in BAT activity and reduced glucose and lipid uptake and storage. In addition to investigations of energy uptake and utilization, recent studies have focused on the effects of cold exposure and exercise on the structural lipids in BAT and secreted factors released from BAT, termed batokines. Cold exposure and exercise induce opposite responses in terms of structural lipids, but an important overlap exists between the effects of cold and exercise on batokines. In this review, we will discuss the similarities and differences of cold exposure and exercise in relation to their effects on BAT activity and metabolism and its relevance for the prevention of obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
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Open AccessReview
The Importance of Peripheral Nerves in Adipose Tissue for the Regulation of Energy Balance
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes [...] Read more.
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain. Chemical and surgical denervation studies of both WAT and BAT have clearly demonstrated the role of peripheral nerves in browning, thermogenesis, lipolysis, and adipogenesis. However, much is still unknown about which subtypes of nerves are present in BAT versus WAT, what nerve products are released from adipose nerves and how they act to mediate metabolic homeostasis, as well as which cell types in adipose are receiving synaptic input. Recent advances in whole-depot imaging and quantification of adipose nerve fibers, as well as other new research findings, have reinvigorated this field of research. This review summarizes the history of research into adipose innervation and brain–adipose communication, and also covers landmark and recent research on this topic to outline what we currently know and do not know about adipose tissue nerve supply and communication with the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
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Open AccessReview
Immunometabolic Links between Estrogen, Adipose Tissue and Female Reproductive Metabolism
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
The current knowledge of sex-dependent differences in adipose tissue biology remains in its infancy and is motivated in part by the desire to understand why menopause is linked to an increased risk of metabolic disease. However, the development and characterization of targeted genetically-modified [...] Read more.
The current knowledge of sex-dependent differences in adipose tissue biology remains in its infancy and is motivated in part by the desire to understand why menopause is linked to an increased risk of metabolic disease. However, the development and characterization of targeted genetically-modified rodent models are shedding new light on the physiological actions of sex hormones in healthy reproductive metabolism. In this review we consider the need for differentially regulating metabolic flexibility, energy balance, and immunity in a sex-dependent manner. We discuss the recent advances in our understanding of physiological roles of systemic estrogen in regulating sex-dependent adipose tissue distribution, form and function; and in sex-dependent healthy immune function. We also review the decline in protective properties of estrogen signaling in pathophysiological settings such as obesity-related metaflammation and metabolic disease. It is clear that the many physiological actions of estrogen on energy balance, immunity, and immunometabolism together with its dynamic regulation in females make it an excellent candidate for regulating metabolic flexibility in the context of reproductive metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
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