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Immunometabolic Links between Estrogen, Adipose Tissue and Female Reproductive Metabolism

1
Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
2
National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre Southampton, University Hospital Southampton NHS foundation Trust, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
3
Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
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Abstract

The current knowledge of sex-dependent differences in adipose tissue biology remains in its infancy and is motivated in part by the desire to understand why menopause is linked to an increased risk of metabolic disease. However, the development and characterization of targeted genetically-modified rodent models are shedding new light on the physiological actions of sex hormones in healthy reproductive metabolism. In this review we consider the need for differentially regulating metabolic flexibility, energy balance, and immunity in a sex-dependent manner. We discuss the recent advances in our understanding of physiological roles of systemic estrogen in regulating sex-dependent adipose tissue distribution, form and function; and in sex-dependent healthy immune function. We also review the decline in protective properties of estrogen signaling in pathophysiological settings such as obesity-related metaflammation and metabolic disease. It is clear that the many physiological actions of estrogen on energy balance, immunity, and immunometabolism together with its dynamic regulation in females make it an excellent candidate for regulating metabolic flexibility in the context of reproductive metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen; sex-dependent adiposity; metabolic flexibility; reproductive metabolism; metabolic syndrome; metaflammation; immunometabolism; menopause; obesity; metabolic syndrome estrogen; sex-dependent adiposity; metabolic flexibility; reproductive metabolism; metabolic syndrome; metaflammation; immunometabolism; menopause; obesity; metabolic syndrome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Eaton, S.A.; Sethi, J.K. Immunometabolic Links between Estrogen, Adipose Tissue and Female Reproductive Metabolism. Biology 2019, 8, 8.

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