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Biology 2019, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology8010016

Targeting White Adipose Tissue with Exercise or Bariatric Surgery as Therapeutic Strategies in Obesity

1
School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14040-907, Brazil
2
Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Advent Health, 301 East Princeton Street, Orlando, FL 32804, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Players in Adipocyte Biology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [281 KB, uploaded 15 March 2019]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

Adipose tissue is critical to whole-body energy metabolism and has become recognized as a bona fide endocrine organ rather than an inert lipid reservoir. As such, adipose tissue is dynamic in its ability to secrete cytokines, free fatty acids, lipokines, hormones and other factors in response to changes in environmental stimuli such as feeding, fasting and exercise. While excess adipose tissue, as in the case of obesity, is associated with metabolic complications, mass itself is not the only culprit in obesity-driven metabolic abnormalities, highlighting the importance of healthy and metabolically adaptable adipose tissue. In this review, we discuss the fundamental cellular processes of adipose tissue that become perturbed in obesity and the impact of exercise on these processes. While both endurance and resistance exercise can promote positive physiological adaptations in adipose tissue, endurance exercise has a more documented role in remodeling adipocytes, increasing adipokine secretion and fatty acid mobilization and oxidation during post-exercise compared with resistance exercise. Exercise is considered a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity to optimize body composition, in particular as an adjuvant therapy to bariatric surgery; however, there is a gap in knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of these exercise-induced adaptations, which could provide more insight and opportunity for precision-based treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose tissue; obesity; exercise; endurance; resistance; human adipose tissue; obesity; exercise; endurance; resistance; human
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Giolo De Carvalho, F.; Sparks, L.M. Targeting White Adipose Tissue with Exercise or Bariatric Surgery as Therapeutic Strategies in Obesity. Biology 2019, 8, 16.

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