Special Issue "Wind Power Technologies"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Wenxian Yang
Website
Guest Editor
Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Interests: wind power; offshore engineering; operation and maintenance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will report the latest research achievements of professional scholars or experts who are working in the field of wind power. This Special Issue will cover, but is not limited to, the following topics:

  1. Design and dynamics of wind power systems
  2. Risk management and reliability analysis of wind power systems
  3. Operation and maintenance of wind power systems
  4. Design of wind farms
  5. Wind resource assessment
  6. Substation and energy storage technologies in wind farms
  7. The ecosystem in wind farms
  8. Big data and intelligent technologies for developing a smart wind farm

Dr. Wenxian Yang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Wind power
  • Dynamics
  • Reliability
  • Operation and maintenance
  • Energy storage
  • Wind farm

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Improving the Strategy of Maintaining Offshore Wind Turbines through Petri Net Modelling
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020574 - 08 Jan 2021
Abstract
In order to improve the operation and maintenance (O&M) of offshore wind turbines, a new Petri net (PN)-based offshore wind turbine maintenance model is developed in this paper to simulate the O&M activities in an offshore wind farm. With the aid of the [...] Read more.
In order to improve the operation and maintenance (O&M) of offshore wind turbines, a new Petri net (PN)-based offshore wind turbine maintenance model is developed in this paper to simulate the O&M activities in an offshore wind farm. With the aid of the PN model developed, three new potential wind turbine maintenance strategies are studied. They are (1) carrying out periodic maintenance of the wind turbine components at different frequencies according to their specific reliability features; (2) conducting a full inspection of the entire wind turbine system following a major repair; and (3) equipping the wind turbine with a condition monitoring system (CMS) that has powerful fault detection capability. From the research results, it is found that periodic maintenance is essential, but in order to ensure that the turbine is operated economically, this maintenance needs to be carried out at an optimal frequency. Conducting a full inspection of the entire wind turbine system following a major repair enables efficient utilisation of the maintenance resources. If periodic maintenance is performed infrequently, this measure leads to less unexpected shutdowns, lower downtime, and lower maintenance costs. It has been shown that to install the wind turbine with a CMS is helpful to relieve the burden of periodic maintenance. Moreover, the higher the quality of the CMS, the more the downtime and maintenance costs can be reduced. However, the cost of the CMS needs to be considered, as a high cost may make the operation of the offshore wind turbine uneconomical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Deformation Analysis of Large Diameter Monopiles of Offshore Wind Turbines under Scour
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7579; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217579 - 28 Oct 2020
Abstract
The displacement of monopile supporting offshore wind turbines needs to be strictly controlled, and the influence of local scour can not be ignored. Using p–y curves to simulate the pile–soil interaction and the finite difference method to calculate iteratively, a numerical frame for [...] Read more.
The displacement of monopile supporting offshore wind turbines needs to be strictly controlled, and the influence of local scour can not be ignored. Using p–y curves to simulate the pile–soil interaction and the finite difference method to calculate iteratively, a numerical frame for analysis of lateral loaded pile was discussed and then verified. On the basis of the field data from Dafeng Offshore Wind Farm in Jiangsu Province, the local scour characteristics of large diameter monopile were concluded, and a new method of considering scour effect applicable to large diameter monopile was put forward. The results show that, for scour of large diameter monopiles, there was no obvious scour pit, but local erosion and deposition. Under the test conditions, the displacement errors between the proposed and traditional method were 46.4%. By the proposed method, the p–y curves of monopile considering the scour effect were obtained through ABAQUS, and the deformation of large diameter monopile under scour was analyzed by the proposed frame. The results show that, with the increase of scour depth, the horizontal displacement of the pile head increases nonlinearly, the depth of rotation point moves downward, and both of the changes are related to the load level. Under the test conditions, the horizontal displacement of the pile head after scour could reach 1.4~3.6 times of that before scour. Finally, for different pile parameters, the pile head displacement was compared, and further, the susceptibility to scour was quantified by a proposed concept of scour sensitivity. The analysis indicates that increasing pile length is a more reasonable way than pile diameter and wall thickness to limit the scour effect on the displacement of large diameter pile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Aerodynamic Performance of Savonius Wind Rotor Using Straight-Arc Curtain
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7216; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207216 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
A straight and an arc-shaped curtain are combined to enhance the aerodynamic performance of the Savonius wind rotor. The straight-arc curtain is placed in front of the Savonius wind rotor to reduce the negative moment on the convex blade and increase the positive [...] Read more.
A straight and an arc-shaped curtain are combined to enhance the aerodynamic performance of the Savonius wind rotor. The straight-arc curtain is placed in front of the Savonius wind rotor to reduce the negative moment on the convex blade and increase the positive moment on the concave blade. The static and dynamic performances of the Savonius wind rotor with and without the curtain are investigated based on the computational fluid dynamics method. The results show that the static torque is higher with the curtain than without it at the same angle-of-attack. The maximum mean power coefficient with the curtain is increased by about 50% compared with conventional Savonius wind rotor. Additionally, the flow field around the rotor with the straight-arc curtain is presented, and the flow control mechanics of the straight-arc curtain are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Vibration Characteristics of Rolling Element Bearings with Different Radial Clearances for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4731; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144731 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Rolling element bearing is a vital component in rotating machinery, such as a wind turbine (WT) system. By accurately monitoring its health condition, the faults can be detected at an early stage, providing sufficient lead time to perform maintenance and hence reducing accidents [...] Read more.
Rolling element bearing is a vital component in rotating machinery, such as a wind turbine (WT) system. By accurately monitoring its health condition, the faults can be detected at an early stage, providing sufficient lead time to perform maintenance and hence reducing accidents and economic losses. Bearing usually suffers from various wears and tears, which result in a gradual increase in clearance through its lifetime. Insufficient understanding of vibration characteristics under different clearances brings difficulties for bearing condition monitoring. Thus, this paper presents a nonlinear bearing vibration model with six degrees of freedom (DOF) to investigate the vibration characteristics under different radial clearances and load conditions. Then, a dedicated bearing test is established to verify the reasonability and effectiveness of the vibration model. Furthermore, a comprehensive simulation analysis is conducted to study the vibration characteristics over an extended range of the internal radial clearance and external load. Results show that the dynamic force on each ball presents an impulse whose magnitudes increases whereas the pulse width reduces with clearance increases. Ball pass frequency of outer race (BPFO) is the dominant modulation component and the frequency is in accordance with the number of dynamic force impulses. Two indicators, i.e., root mean square (RMS) value and spectral centroid, are proposed to indicate clearance changes. In general, they show an uptrend with the increase in clearance, which is in line with the dynamic force increasing with clearance, especially the spectral centroid of the low frequency band. However, it should be noted that the RMS value and spectral centroid exhibit a fluctuating behavior due to nonlinear vibration responses. For the first time, this study shows the details of vibration characteristics with clearance variations and provides a foundation for monitoring the bearing conditions before any obvious local defects on raceways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Utilisation of Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition in Conjunction with Cyclostationary Technique for Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Detection
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093334 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper the application of cyclostationary signal processing in conjunction with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) technique, on the fault diagnostics of wind turbine gearboxes is investigated and has been highlighted. It is shown that the EEMD technique together with cyclostationary analysis [...] Read more.
In this paper the application of cyclostationary signal processing in conjunction with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) technique, on the fault diagnostics of wind turbine gearboxes is investigated and has been highlighted. It is shown that the EEMD technique together with cyclostationary analysis can be used to detect the damage in complex and non-linear systems such as wind turbine gearbox, where the vibration signals are modulated with carrier frequencies and are superimposed. In these situations when multiple faults alongside noisy environment are present together, the faults are not easily detectable by conventional signal processing techniques such as FFT and RMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A Power Performance Online Assessment Method of a Wind Turbine Based on the Probabilistic Area Metric
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3268; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093268 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
This paper presents an approach for creating online assessment power curves by calculating the variations between the baseline and actual power curves. The actual power curve is divided into two regions based on the operation rules of a wind turbine, and the regions [...] Read more.
This paper presents an approach for creating online assessment power curves by calculating the variations between the baseline and actual power curves. The actual power curve is divided into two regions based on the operation rules of a wind turbine, and the regions are individually assessed. The raw data are filtered using the control command, and outliers are detected using the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise clustering method. The probabilistic area metric is applied to quantify the variations of the two power curves in the two regions. Based on this result, the variation in the power curves can be calculated, and the results can be used to dynamically evaluate the power performance of a wind turbine. The proposed method is verified against the derivation of secondary principal component method and traditional statistical methods. The potential applications of the proposed method in wind turbine maintenance activities are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Structural Configurations on the Shear Fatigue Damage of the Blade Trailing-Edge Adhesive Joint
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082715 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
Wind turbines are under continuous development for large-scale deployment and oceanization, leading to the requirement of longer blades. The economic losses caused by blade replacement and shutdown have increased. The downtime caused by blade issues in a wind turbine is 8–20% of the [...] Read more.
Wind turbines are under continuous development for large-scale deployment and oceanization, leading to the requirement of longer blades. The economic losses caused by blade replacement and shutdown have increased. The downtime caused by blade issues in a wind turbine is 8–20% of the total downtime. Many of these blade issues originate from the cracking of the blade trailing edge. The edge is more susceptible to damage due to the complex geometry, manufacturing technique, and operation conditions. The traditional design method and the expensive experimental research are not suitable for the accurate damage analysis of the trailing-edge adhesive because of simplifying assumptions and costs. This study aimed to investigate the influence of trailing-edge structural configurations on the shear fatigue life of the trailing-edge adhesive joint using finite element and stress transformation matrix (STM) methods. The structural configurations of the blade trailing edge included the position of unidirectional fiber layer (UD), chamfer of bonding line, prefabricated components, and outer over-lamination of the trailing edge. In this study, the finite element method was used to simulate the blade structure. The shell element was used for laminates, and the solid element was used for the trailing-edge adhesive joint. The basic shear fatigue properties of the adhesive were obtained by standard component tests. The shear fatigue life of the blade trailing-edge adhesive joint under given load conditions was calculated using the fatigue properties of the adhesive and STM method. The results showed that the angle of chamfering, location of UD, rigidity of the preform, and outer over-lamination all had an obvious influence on the fatigue damage of trailing-edge adhesive. The findings of this study can be used to guide blade structure design and blade production and maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Further Study on the Effects of Wind Turbine Yaw Operation for Aiding Active Wake Management
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10061978 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Active wake management (AWM) via yaw control has been discussed in recent years as a potential way to improve the power production of a wind farm. In such a technique, the wind turbines will be required to work frequently at misaligned yaw angles [...] Read more.
Active wake management (AWM) via yaw control has been discussed in recent years as a potential way to improve the power production of a wind farm. In such a technique, the wind turbines will be required to work frequently at misaligned yaw angles in order to reduce the vortices in the wake area behind the turbines. However, today, it is still not very clear about how yaw operation affects the dynamics and power generation performance of the wind turbines. To further understand the effects of yaw operation, numerical research is conducted in this paper. In the study, the optimal size of the flow field used in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation was specifically discussed in order to obtain an efficient numerical model to quickly and accurately predict the dynamics and the performance of the turbines. Through this research, the correlation between the blade loads during yaw and non-yaw operations is established for aiding yaw control, and the blade loads and power generation performances of the wind turbine during yaw operation under different wind shear and blade deflection conditions are analyzed for understanding the effects of yaw operation. It is found that the optimal size of the flow field for performing efficient and accurate CFD calculations does exist. The misaligned yaw operation generally tends to decrease the loads acting on the blade. However, the aerodynamic energy captured by the turbine rotor and blade loads during yaw operation is not only dependent on the yaw angle of the rotor but is also affected by wind speed, rotor speed, the pitch angle of the blades, blade deflection, and wind shear. Particularly, it is interestingly found that wind shear can cause undesirable fluctuation of the power, which will challenge the power quality of the wind farm if no measures are taken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study of Stepped-Lap Scarf Joint Repair for Spar Cap Damage of Wind Turbine Blade in Service
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030922 - 31 Jan 2020
Abstract
The objective of this paper was to design configuration parameters for a stepped-lap scarf joint repair, which can be used for spar cap damage of a wind turbine blade in service and to realize the post-repair monitoring. Two experimental studies were included. First, [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper was to design configuration parameters for a stepped-lap scarf joint repair, which can be used for spar cap damage of a wind turbine blade in service and to realize the post-repair monitoring. Two experimental studies were included. First, tensile test for the unidirectional tape specimens with a large aspect ratio repaired using a multiple stepped-lap scarf joint method was carried out. The results showed that the reinforcement layer could effectively improve the load-carrying capacity of the repaired zone. The stepped-lap joint surface was identified as the weak part of the spar cap repair, which should be monitored. Second, by embedding carbon nanotube buckypaper sensors on the stepped-lap joint surface of the repaired specimens, quasi-static tensile tests and fatigue tests were carried out. According to the resistance response of the sensors, the quasi-static tensile test confirmed the failure processes, namely the stiffness turning point, damage evolution, crack propagation, and fracture. The fatigue test could accurately identify the progressive failure, namely the initial damage, damage accumulation, initial cracking, and crack propagation to structural failure. The above tests provided an important configuration parameter basis for evaluating the spar cap repair scheme and presented a promising method for the health monitoring of a spar cap after repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A Quantitative Study on the Void Defects Evolving into Damage in Wind Turbine Blade Based on Internal Energy Storage
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020491 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
As manufacturing defects, voids in wind turbine blades may cause damage under fatigue loads. In this paper, the internal energy storage is used as an indicator to identify the critical moment when a defect evolves into damage. The heat transfer equation of composites [...] Read more.
As manufacturing defects, voids in wind turbine blades may cause damage under fatigue loads. In this paper, the internal energy storage is used as an indicator to identify the critical moment when a defect evolves into damage. The heat transfer equation of composites material containing void defects is derived based upon the theory of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. In order to obtain the numerical calculation model of the internal energy storage of the evolving process, the thermal conductivity along the transverse direction is homogenized as the temperature date along this direction is acquired by a thermal camera. Specimens with different void fractions are tested with infrared thermal imaging under fatigue load, during which the stress, strain and temperature data are acquired to establish the curve of internal energy storage against the fatigue cycle. This relationship curve can be used to identify the critical moment when void defects evolve into damage. The feasibility of this method is proven by microscopic observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Calculation and Analysis of Wind Turbine Health Monitoring Indicators Based on the Relationships with SCADA Data
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010410 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper proposes an evaluation index of wind turbine generator operating health based on the relationships with SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) data. First, the relationship among the data from a wind turbine SCADA system is thoroughly analyzed. Then, a time based [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an evaluation index of wind turbine generator operating health based on the relationships with SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) data. First, the relationship among the data from a wind turbine SCADA system is thoroughly analyzed. Then, a time based sliding window model is used to process the SCADA data by the bin method, and a running state model of the wind turbine is established by data fitting. Taking the normal operation state model of the wind turbine as the standard reference and based on the Euclidean distance between the state model curve and the standard model curve, the health index of the wind turbine operation state is proposed. Finally, using SCADA data from two 2 MW direct-drive wind turbines as examples for analysis and discussion, the results show that: (1) health indicators have good stability and sensitivity to wind turbine operating conditions; (2) the width of the data window in the sliding window model must cover all operating conditions of the wind turbine to ensure that the health index depicts the operating state of the wind turbine; (3) the data window width, window increment, and data fitting modeling all affect the health indicators, and thus, the selection of the sliding window model parameters and the data relationship modeling methods should consider the accuracy and real-time performance of the health indicators; and (4) the data acquisition cycle does not affect the health indicators. Once the basic characteristics of the data relations are known, direct data fitting modeling is more efficient than bin preprocessing modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Load-Sharing Behavior of the Multistage Planetary Gear Train Used in Wind Generators: Effects of Random Wind Load
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5501; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245501 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Load-sharing behavior is very important for power-split gearing systems. Taking the multistage planetary gear train transmission of an Million Watt (MW) wind generator as the investigation object, and based on the gear transmission system of a wind generator in a complex and changing [...] Read more.
Load-sharing behavior is very important for power-split gearing systems. Taking the multistage planetary gear train transmission of an Million Watt (MW) wind generator as the investigation object, and based on the gear transmission system of a wind generator in a complex and changing load environment, a random wind model of a wind farm is built by using the two-parameter Weibull distribution. According to the realistic working region of the wind generator, the random wind speed is changed into time-varying input speed of the wind generator gear box. Considering the internal excitation, such as mesh stiffness, mesh damping of gear pairs and the meshing error, a dynamic model for a multistage planetary gear transmission system is built by using the lumped parameter method. The load-sharing coefficients are obtained for each planet gear pair in the same meshing period of the transmission system that is under the interaction of time-varying input speed and internal excitation. It is shown that the degree of load-sharing coefficient fluctuation for each planet gear pair of the first- and second-stage planetary gear train is significantly affected by time-varying input speed. The research results can lay a theoretical foundation for optimization and reliability of planetary gear transmission systems of wind generators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Gear Fault Diagnosis Based on Kurtosis Criterion VMD and SOM Neural Network
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5424; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245424 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
A gear fault diagnosis method based on kurtosis criterion variational mode decomposition (VMD) and self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed. Firstly, the VMD algorithm is used to decompose the gear vibration signal, and the instantaneous frequency mean is calculated as the evaluation [...] Read more.
A gear fault diagnosis method based on kurtosis criterion variational mode decomposition (VMD) and self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed. Firstly, the VMD algorithm is used to decompose the gear vibration signal, and the instantaneous frequency mean is calculated as the evaluation index, and the characteristic curve is drawn to screen out the most relevant intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the original vibration signal. Then, the number of VMD decompositions is determined, and the kurtosis value of IMFs are extracted to form the feature vectors. Then, the kurtosis value feature vectors of IMFs are normalized to form the kurtosis value normalized vectors. Finally, the normalized vectors of kurtosis value are input into SOM neural network to realize gear fault diagnosis. When the number of training times of SOM neural network is 100, the gear fault category is accurately classified by SOM neural network. The results show that when the training times of SOM neural network is 100 times, the gear fault diagnosis method, based on the kurtosis criterion VMD and SOM neural network is 100%, which indicates that the new method has a good effect on gear fault diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Design of Aerodynamic Performance and Structural Characteristics for Medium Thickness Wind Turbine Airfoil
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5243; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235243 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The currently geometric and aerodynamic characteristics for wind turbine airfoils with the medium thickness are studied to pursue maximum aerodynamic performance, while the interaction between blade stiffness and aerodynamic performance is neglected. Combining the airfoil functional integration theory and the mathematical model of [...] Read more.
The currently geometric and aerodynamic characteristics for wind turbine airfoils with the medium thickness are studied to pursue maximum aerodynamic performance, while the interaction between blade stiffness and aerodynamic performance is neglected. Combining the airfoil functional integration theory and the mathematical model of the blade cross-section stiffness matrix, an integrated design method of aerodynamic performance and structural stiffness characteristics for the medium thickness airfoils is presented. The aerodynamic and structural comparison of the optimized WQ-A300 airfoil, WQ-B300 airfoil, and the classic DU97-W-300 airfoil were analyzed. The results show that the aerodynamic performance of the WQ-A300 and WQ-B300 airfoils are better than that of the DU97-W-300 airfoil. Though the aerodynamic performance of the WQ-B300 airfoil is slightly reduced compared to the WQ-A300 airfoil, its blade cross-sectional stiffness properties are improved as the flapwise and edgewise stiffness are increased by 6.2% and 8.4%, respectively. This study verifies the feasibility for the novel design method. Moreover, it also provides a good design idea for the wind turbine airfoils and blade structural properties with medium or large thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A Feasibility Study for Using Fishnet to Protect Offshore Wind Turbine Monopile Foundations from Damage by Scouring
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5023; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235023 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Offshore wind turbine monopile foundations are subjected to complex wind, wave, and flow coupling effects, which result in seabed scouring around the monopile. The consequent scour pits threaten the reliability, safety, and load-carrying capacity of the monopile. In order to develop a cost-effective [...] Read more.
Offshore wind turbine monopile foundations are subjected to complex wind, wave, and flow coupling effects, which result in seabed scouring around the monopile. The consequent scour pits threaten the reliability, safety, and load-carrying capacity of the monopile. In order to develop a cost-effective measure to mitigate such an issue, a new countermeasure device, named “fishnet”, is studied in this paper using a combined approach of numerical simulations and experimental tests. In the research, the size of the fishnet, diameter of the fishnet thread, and the installation height of the fishnet were optimized in order to achieve the best protection to the monopile foundation. In the paper, both numerical simulations and laboratory tests proved the effectiveness of the proposed “fishnet” in reducing the scour around the wind turbine monopile foundations. Moreover, its contribution to erosion reduction can be further enhanced via optimization. It was found that, after optimization, the maximum shear force on the seabed could be reduced by 14% in the numerical study, and the maximum depth of the scour pit could be reduced by 38.2% in laboratory tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Power Technologies)
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