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Advances in Urban Fire and Explosion Hazards

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 5745

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
Interests: fire risk assessment; underground fire
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Interests: explosion; shock wave; detonation
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Interests: combustion; thermal decomposition; solid propellant
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Interests: flame spread over solid combustible surface; pyrolysis and its kinetics of chemical hazardous materials; thermal ablation prediction of charring materials; combustion and simulation of propellant
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
Interests: forest fire; heat transfer; tunnel fire; pool fire
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
Interests: fire safety; fire simulation; tunnel fire
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

City fire and explosion public safety concerns people’s lives and property. In recent years, serious fire and explosion accidents have been occurring ever more frequently, resulting in a large number of casualties. It is urgent to carry out relevant research on urban fire and explosion safety. In this Special Issue, we aim to study fire and explosions with regard to urban safety, including but not being limited to the following topics:

  • Urban tunnel fires;
  • Subway fires;
  • Compartment fires;
  • Fire spread and growth;
  • Deflagration and flame acceleration;
  • Renewable energy safety;
  • Hydrogen explosion.

Prof. Dr. Zihe Gao
Dr. Bin Li
Dr. Dan Zhang
Dr. Lin Jiang
Dr. Huaxian Wan
Dr. Longxing Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tunnel fire
  • smoke control
  • gas explosion
  • detonation
  • hydrogen

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 4462 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Metro Train on the Smoke Back-Layering Length under Different Tunnel Cross-Sections
by Meng Wang, Henan Liu, Fei Wang, Linhan Shen and Miaocheng Weng
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6775; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136775 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Smoke back-layering length is an important aspect of tunnel fire research, and the influence of metro train blockage cannot be ignored. In previous studies, less attention has been paid to the phenomenon of back-layering caused by the same train blocked in tunnels with [...] Read more.
Smoke back-layering length is an important aspect of tunnel fire research, and the influence of metro train blockage cannot be ignored. In previous studies, less attention has been paid to the phenomenon of back-layering caused by the same train blocked in tunnels with different cross-sections. This paper investigates this point through dimensionless analysis and fire dynamic simulator (FDS) numerical simulation. Several full-scale model tunnels (300 m in length), with different tunnel cross-sections, were constructed in FDS. According to the FDS simulation result, the smoke back-layering length was compared and analyzed. To investigate the effect of the tunnel cross-sections on smoke back-layering length under metro train blocking, the headroom ratio ε was proposed. Then, the influence of the tunnel cross-section on the smoke back-layering length was discussed in detail. Based on the dimensional analysis and FDS simulation results, a new model for predicting the smoke back-layering length was proposed. The prediction model obtained in this paper was compared with the FDS simulation results and the prediction model proposed by our predecessors. It is proven that the proposed model can better predict the length of smoke back-layering when metro trains are blocked in tunnels with different cross-sections. The outcomes of this work are expected to provide theoretical guidance for fire smoke control in metro tunnels with different cross-sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Urban Fire and Explosion Hazards)
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12 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
Uncontrolled and Controlled Destruction of Acetylene Pressure Cylinders
by Vojtěch Jankůj, Miroslav Mynarz and Petr Lepík
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3577; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073577 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
The risk of physical destruction of a pressure cylinder increases with increasing temperature load. Acetylene is a significant hazardous gas in cylinders. If the destruction pressure is reached, the cylinder is torn into two or more pieces, followed by the gas release to [...] Read more.
The risk of physical destruction of a pressure cylinder increases with increasing temperature load. Acetylene is a significant hazardous gas in cylinders. If the destruction pressure is reached, the cylinder is torn into two or more pieces, followed by the gas release to the environment. The presence of ignition sources could lead to the formation of the fireball phenomenon. This phenomenon generally reaches approximately ten meters in diameter and can be accompanied by a blast wave and a spread of the cylinder’s fragments or surrounding objects. The consequences of this type of fire could be fatal. Shooting through the cylinder shell may lead to the mitigation, if not elimination, of the effects of the uncontrolled destruction mentioned above. As a result of the review of relevant publications, several states commonly use this method as a standard procedure. Internal gas is released through the resulting hole, the pressure drops down and the gas creates a fire jet or disperses to surroundings. This study is based on a large-scale experiment where acetylene cylinders were placed inside a prepared woodpile and exposed to fire. In the fire condition, the cylinders exploded and created fireballs, or were penetrated via shooting and created fire jets. The results from these tests were compared, focusing on the shooting procedure, then analyzed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Urban Fire and Explosion Hazards)
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15 pages, 5121 KiB  
Article
Smoke Back-Layering Phenomenon under the Combined External Wind and Stack Effects in a Staircase
by Man Li, Lingling Wang, Junya Chen, Zhenrong Mu and Suqi Liu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031469 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
The external wind can change smoke movement patterns inside the staircase and affect smoke exhaust efficiency. This paper analyzes the smoke back-layering phenomenon in the staircase with open stair doors below the fire floor. The effect of the open stair door location and [...] Read more.
The external wind can change smoke movement patterns inside the staircase and affect smoke exhaust efficiency. This paper analyzes the smoke back-layering phenomenon in the staircase with open stair doors below the fire floor. The effect of the open stair door location and the heat release rate of fires and external wind velocities on smoke movement patterns are investigated numerically. The external wind ranges from 0–5.5 m/s. At 0 m/s, the smoke back-layering phenomenon driven by pressure difference can be found in the staircase with all stair doors closed. With the increasing wind velocity, four smoke behaviors are identified: upward moving smoke, first downward then upward moving smoke, downward moving smoke, and no smoke. Results show that the back-layering distance is mainly influenced by the external wind and heat release rate of fires. Correlations are modified and used to predict the longest back-layering distance with the first downward then upward moving smoke. This helps with arranging the smoke detectors inside a staircase and the fire safety design of high-rise buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Urban Fire and Explosion Hazards)
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