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Active Materials for Medical Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2021) | Viewed by 28365

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, 700050 Iasi, Romania
Interests: SEM; EDS; EBSD; AFM; biomaterials; biodegradable; ceramic layers; 3D printing
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, 700050 Iasi, Romania
Interests: corrosion resistance; electro-corrosion; EIS; polymers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For the attention of engineers, physicists, medical doctors, researchers, and scientists, we intend to analyze and discuss different topics on active materials for medical applications. There is a great potential in the use of active or smart materials (metallic, polymer or ceramic) for the progress of applications in the medical domain of MEMS, actuators, sensors or functional systems. Active or “smart” materials have the ability to respond to different physical or chemical stimuli in a specific, repeatable mode. The actual activity in the domain, however, presents problems connected to obtaining and processing, characterization, modeling, and simulation or prototyping technologies.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences intends to focus on the most recent advances in obtaining active materials used in the medical field with enhanced performance.

Prof. Nicanor Cimpoesu
Dr. Ramona Cimpoesu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biodegradable alloy
  • shape memory alloy
  • biomedical materials
  • ceramic materials
  • biodegradable polymers
  • shape memory polymers
  • recovery systems

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 160 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on “Active Materials for Medical Applications”
by Nicanor Cimpoeșu and Ramona Cimpoeșu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8440; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178440 - 24 Aug 2022
Viewed by 845
Abstract
This Special Issue was proposed by engineers, physicists, medical doctors, researchers and scientists [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

20 pages, 7456 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Corrosion Behavior of Zn3Mg0.7Y Biodegradable Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF)
by Cătălin Panaghie, Ramona Cimpoeșu, Georgeta Zegan, Ana-Maria Roman, Mircea Catalin Ivanescu, Andra Adorata Aelenei, Marcelin Benchea, Nicanor Cimpoeșu and Nicoleta Ioanid
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052727 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
Biodegradable metallic materials represent a new class of biocompatible materials for medical applications based on numerous advantages. Among them, those based on zinc have a rate of degradation close to the healing period required by many clinical problems, which makes them more suitable [...] Read more.
Biodegradable metallic materials represent a new class of biocompatible materials for medical applications based on numerous advantages. Among them, those based on zinc have a rate of degradation close to the healing period required by many clinical problems, which makes them more suitable than those based on magnesium or iron. The poor mechanical properties of Zn could be significantly improved by the addition of Mg and Y. In this research, we analyze the electro-chemical and mechanical behavior of a new alloy based on Zn3Mg0.7Y compared with pure Zn and Zn3Mg materials. Microstructure and chemical composition were investigated by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical corrosion was analyzed by linear polarization (LP), cyclic polarization (CP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For hardness and scratch resistance, a microhardness tester and a scratch module were used. Findings revealed that the mechanical properties of Zn improved through the addition of Mg and Y. Zn, Zn-Mg and Zn-Mg-Y alloys in this study showed highly active behavior in SBF with uniform corrosion. Zinc metals and their alloys with magnesium and yttrium showed a moderate degradation rate and can be considered as promising biodegradable materials for orthopedic application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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10 pages, 29478 KiB  
Article
Corrosion-Resistance Analysis of HA Layer Deposited through Electrophoresis on Ti4Al4Zr Metallic Substrate
by Ramona Cimpoeșu, Petrică Vizureanu, Ioan Știrbu, Alina Sodor, Georgeta Zegan, Marius Prelipceanu, Nicanor Cimpoeșu and Nicoleta Ioanid
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4198; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094198 - 5 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
An alloy surface with possible applications in the medical field, Ti4A14Zr, was improved through the deposition of a thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer. In this paper, we analyzed the growth of a HA layer through electrophoresis and the corrosion resistance of the metallic sample [...] Read more.
An alloy surface with possible applications in the medical field, Ti4A14Zr, was improved through the deposition of a thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer. In this paper, we analyzed the growth of a HA layer through electrophoresis and the corrosion resistance of the metallic sample covered with the ceramic layer. The substrate surface was processed via chemical procedures before the HA deposition. The state of the metallic surface and that of the layer of HA were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the chemical composition. The results indicate a high increase in the corrosion resistance associated with the ceramic layer compared to the metallic basic layer. Moreover, the analysis revealed the formation of a homogeneous TiO2 layer on the surface of the metallic substrate. The titanium oxide layer identified by SEM–EDS and confirmed by EIS was very homogeneous and resistant, with a compact microstructural appearance and submicron dimension. The layer composed of TiO2 and HA provided good corrosion protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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12 pages, 5224 KiB  
Article
Laser Induced Method to Produce Curcuminoid-Silanol Thin Films for Transdermal Patches Using Irradiation of Turmeric Target
by Alexandru Cocean, Iuliana Cocean, Nicanor Cimpoesu, Georgiana Cocean, Ramona Cimpoesu, Cristina Postolachi, Vasilica Popescu and Silviu Gurlui
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4030; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094030 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
A new possible method to produce a transdermal patch is proposed in this paper. The study refers to the pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) applied on turmeric target in order to obtain thin layers. Under high power laser irradiation of 532 nm wavelength, [...] Read more.
A new possible method to produce a transdermal patch is proposed in this paper. The study refers to the pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) applied on turmeric target in order to obtain thin layers. Under high power laser irradiation of 532 nm wavelength, thin films containing curcuminoids were obtained on different substrates such as glass and quartz (laboratory investigation) and hemp fabric (practical application). Compared FTIR, SEM-EDS and LIF analyses proved that the obtained thin film chemical composition is mainly demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin which is evidence that most of the curcumin from turmeric has been demethixylated during laser ablation. Silanol groups with known role into dermal reconstruction are evidenced in both turmeric target and curcuminoid thin films. UV–VIS reflection spectra show the same characteristics for all the curcuminoid thin films, indicating that the method is reproducible. The method proves to be successful for producing a composite material, namely curcuminoid transdermal patch with silanol groups, using directly turmeric as target in the thin film deposited by pulsed laser technique. Double layered patch curcuminoid—silver was produced under this study, proving compatibility between the two deposited layers. The silver layer added on curcuminoid-silanol layer aimed to increase antiseptic properties to the transdermal patch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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17 pages, 4558 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis of Mandibular Anterior Teeth with Healthy, but Reduced Periodontium
by Ioana-Andreea Sioustis, Mihai Axinte, Marius Prelipceanu, Alexandra Martu, Diana-Cristala Kappenberg-Nitescu, Silvia Teslaru, Ionut Luchian, Sorina Mihaela Solomon, Nicanor Cimpoesu and Silvia Martu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3824; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093824 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
Finite element analysis studies have been of interest in the field of orthodontics and this is due to the ability to study the stress in the bone, periodontal ligament (PDL), teeth and the displacement in the bone by using this method. Our study [...] Read more.
Finite element analysis studies have been of interest in the field of orthodontics and this is due to the ability to study the stress in the bone, periodontal ligament (PDL), teeth and the displacement in the bone by using this method. Our study aimed to present a method that determines the effect of applying orthodontic forces in bodily direction on a healthy and reduced periodontium and to demonstrate the utility of finite element analysis. Using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of a patient with a healthy and reduced periodontium, we modeled the geometric construction of the contour of the elements necessary for the study. Afterwards, we applied a force of 1 N and a force of 0.8 N in order to achieve bodily movement and to analyze the stress in the bone, in the periodontal ligament and the absolute displacement. The analysis of the applied forces showed that a minimal ligament thickness is correlated with the highest value of the maximum stress in the PDL and a decreased displacement. This confirms the results obtained in previous clinical practice, confirming the validity of the simulation. During orthodontic tooth movement, the morphology of the teeth and of the periodontium should be taken into account. The effect of orthodontic forces on a particular anatomy could be studied using FEA, a method that provides real data. This is necessary for proper treatment planning and its particularization depends on the patient’s particular situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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17 pages, 8807 KiB  
Article
Inlay-Retained Dental Bridges—A Finite Element Analysis
by Monica Tatarciuc, George Alexandru Maftei, Anca Vitalariu, Ionut Luchian, Ioana Martu and Diana Diaconu-Popa
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3770; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093770 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4134
Abstract
Inlay-retained dental bridges can be a viable minimally invasive alternative when patients reject the idea of implant therapy or conventional retained full-coverage fixed dental prostheses, which require more tooth preparation. Inlay-retained dental bridges are indicated in patients with good oral hygiene, low susceptibility [...] Read more.
Inlay-retained dental bridges can be a viable minimally invasive alternative when patients reject the idea of implant therapy or conventional retained full-coverage fixed dental prostheses, which require more tooth preparation. Inlay-retained dental bridges are indicated in patients with good oral hygiene, low susceptibility to caries, and a minimum coronal tooth height of 5 mm. The present study aims to evaluate, through the finite element method (FEM), the stability of these types of dental bridges and the stresses on the supporting teeth, under the action of masticatory forces. The analysis revealed the distribution of the load on the bridge elements and on the retainers, highlighting the areas of maximum pressure. The results of our study demonstrate that the stress determined by the loading force cannot cause damage to the prosthetic device or to abutment teeth. Thus, it can be considered an optimal economical solution for treating class III Kennedy edentation in young patients or as a provisional pre-implant rehabilitation option. However, special attention must be paid to its design, especially in the connection area between the bridge elements, because the connectors and the retainers represent the weakest parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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18 pages, 7606 KiB  
Article
Microstructural, Electrochemical and In Vitro Analysis of Mg-0.5Ca-xGd Biodegradable Alloys
by Bogdan Istrate, Corneliu Munteanu, Ramona Cimpoesu, Nicanor Cimpoesu, Oana Diana Popescu and Maria Daniela Vlad
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11030981 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
The subject of Mg-based biodegradable materials, used for medical applications, has been extensively studied throughout the years. It is a known fact that alloying Mg with biocompatible and non-toxic elements improves the biodegradability of the alloys that are being used in the field [...] Read more.
The subject of Mg-based biodegradable materials, used for medical applications, has been extensively studied throughout the years. It is a known fact that alloying Mg with biocompatible and non-toxic elements improves the biodegradability of the alloys that are being used in the field of surgical applications. The aim of this research is to investigate the aspects concerning the microstructure, electrochemical response (corrosion resistance) and in vitro cytocompatibility of a new experimental Mg-based biodegradable alloy—Mg–0.5%Ca with controlled addition of Gd as follows: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 wt.%—in order to establish improved biocompatibility with the human hard and soft tissues at a stable biodegradable rate. For this purpose, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), light microscopy (LM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for determining the microstructure and chemical composition of the studied alloy and the linear polarization resistance (LPR) method was used to calculate the corrosion rate for the biodegradability rate assessment. The cellular response was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test followed by fluorescence microscopy observation. The research led to the discovery of a dendritic α-Mg solid solution, as well as a lamellar Mg2Ca and a Mg5Gd intermetallic compound. The in vivo tests revealed 73–80% viability of the cells registered at 3 days and between 77 and 100% for 5 days, a fact that leads us to believe that the experimental studied alloys do not have a cytotoxic character and are suitable for medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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15 pages, 8072 KiB  
Article
Surface Analysis of 3D (SLM) Co–Cr–W Dental Metallic Materials
by Elena-Raluca Baciu, Ramona Cimpoeșu, Anca Vițalariu, Constantin Baciu, Nicanor Cimpoeșu, Alina Sodor, Georgeta Zegan and Alice Murariu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010255 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
The surface condition of the materials involved in dentistry is significant for the subsequent operations that are applied in oral cavity. Samples of Co–Cr–W alloy, obtained through selective laser melting (SLM) 3D printing, with different surface states were analyzed. Surface analysis after the [...] Read more.
The surface condition of the materials involved in dentistry is significant for the subsequent operations that are applied in oral cavity. Samples of Co–Cr–W alloy, obtained through selective laser melting (SLM) 3D printing, with different surface states were analyzed. Surface analysis after the 3D printing process and sandblasting was realized from microstructural, chemical composition, profilometry, droplet adhesion, scratch test, and microhardness perspectives. The results presented a hardening process and a roughness modification following the sandblasting procedure, a better adhesion of the liquid droplets, the appearance of micro-cracks during the scratch test, and the oxidation of the sample after the 3D printing process and surface processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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13 pages, 11080 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Abrasive Finishing of Beta-Titanium Wire Using Multiple Transfer Movement Method
by Sung Sik Nam, Jeong Su Kim and Sang Don Mun
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6729; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196729 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
Titanium is often used in various important applications in transportation and the healthcare industry. The goal of this study was to determine the optimum processing of magnetic abrasives in beta-titanium wire, which is often used in frames for eyeglasses because of its excellent [...] Read more.
Titanium is often used in various important applications in transportation and the healthcare industry. The goal of this study was to determine the optimum processing of magnetic abrasives in beta-titanium wire, which is often used in frames for eyeglasses because of its excellent elasticity among titanium alloys. To check the performance of the magnetic abrasive finishing process, the surface roughness (Ra) was measured when the specimen was machined at various rotational speeds (700, 1500, and 2000 rpm) in the presence of diamond paste of various particle sizes (0.5, 1, and 3 μm). We concluded that the surface roughness (Ra) was the best at 2000 rpm, 1 μm particle size, and 300 s processing time, and the surface roughness of β-titanium improved from 0.32 to 0.05 μm. In addition, the optimal conditions were used to test the influence of the finishing gap, and it was found that the processing power was superior at a gap of 3 mm than at 5 mm when processing was conducted for 300 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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11 pages, 8217 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alkyl Structure (Straight Chain/Branched Chain/Unsaturation) of C18 Fatty Acid Sodium Soap on Skin Barrier Function
by Koji Kubota, Akie Kakishita, Mana Okasaka, Yuka Tokunaga and Sadaki Takata
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4310; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124310 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3774
Abstract
Anionic surfactants are commonly used as detergents and emulsifiers. However, these compounds are potent skin irritants. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the alkyl structure of anionic surfactants on the skin barrier function using the transmission index (TI) method. The TI [...] Read more.
Anionic surfactants are commonly used as detergents and emulsifiers. However, these compounds are potent skin irritants. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the alkyl structure of anionic surfactants on the skin barrier function using the transmission index (TI) method. The TI method is used to measure the skin penetration rate of drugs. Sodium soaps of C18 fatty acids with different structures were evaluated. Sodium laurate was used as the control. In addition, microscopic observations of the skin tissue treated with different soaps and controls were performed to study the mechanism of skin permeation. Results showed that unsaturated fatty acid soaps exerted the most potent effect on the skin barrier function and saturated fatty acid soaps exerted the least effect; saturated branched fatty acid soap had an intermediate effect. This could be attributed to the differences in the melting points of different fatty acids. In addition, unlike lauric acid soap, C18 fatty acid soap did not cause morphological changes in the skin tissue. Thus, differences in the alkyl structure of fatty acids resulted in differences in the effect of fatty acid soaps on the skin barrier function. The mechanism was presumed to be an effect on intercellular lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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8 pages, 4967 KiB  
Article
Self-Expandable Retainer for Endoscopic Visualization in the External Auditory Canal: Proof of Concept in Human Cadavers
by Yehree Kim, Jeon Min Kang, Ho-Young Song, Woo Seok Kang, Jung-Hoon Park and Jong Woo Chung
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051877 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3585
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a self-expandable retainer (SER) for endoscopic visualization of the external auditory canal (EAC). Tympanomeatal flap (TMF) elevation was performed in six cadaveric heads. Two different types of SER were placed. The procedural feasibility was [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a self-expandable retainer (SER) for endoscopic visualization of the external auditory canal (EAC). Tympanomeatal flap (TMF) elevation was performed in six cadaveric heads. Two different types of SER were placed. The procedural feasibility was assessed by endoscopic images. Technical success rate, procedure time, endoscopy lens cleaning, and presence of mucosal injuries were analyzed. TMF elevation and SER placement were successful in all specimens and there were no procedure-related complications. The mean procedure time with the SERs was significantly shorter than without (p < 0.001). The mean number of times the endoscopy lens was cleaned during the procedure was significantly lower in the SER group (p < 0.001). In the SER group, endoscopy insertion into the EAC was easier without tissue contact with the lens during the TMF elevation compared with the non-SER group. There were no mucosal injuries. SER placement is effective for endoscopic visualization via the expanded and straightened EAC. A fully covered type of SER is preferable. The device can be useful for endoscopic ear surgery, reducing procedure time and reducing the need for endoscopy lens cleaning during the procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Materials for Medical Applications)
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