Special Issue "Fiber-Reinforced Concrete"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Pedro Serna Ros
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Institute of Concrete Science and Technology (ICITECH), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain
Interests: special concrete technology; fibre-reinforced concretes; self-compacting; recycled; UHPFRC; mix design criteria; testing methods; structural analysis (shear behaviour, bond, creep on FRC); standardization and new concretes' real applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fibres are added into a concrete matrix to produce a distributed and random reinforcement, in contrast with traditional located rebars. The inclusion of fibres into concrete is a known solution to increase crack control capacity (such as that produced by shrinkage or service loads), mainly reducing its progression after the first crack. This solution is used in the construction industry in broad range of applications, such as traditional ones, like concrete pavements or tunnels, but it is also increasingly being used in structural applications, mostly after its incorporation in codes (ACI 318 or MC 2010). It is accepted that crack control efficiency will improve the long-term behaviour of concrete, but its structural performance and durability face aggressive exposure conditions.

In this Special Issue, research papers focused on fibre-reinforced concrete at all strength levels from regular (FRC) to UHPFRC are invited, especially those that analyse fibres’ effect on improvinf crack control, concrete long-term properties and their durability, and criteria to evaluate and quantify durability, criteria for their mix design, structural design criteria, with either an experimental or a modelling approach.

This Special Issue will incorporate original research and review articles covering:

  • Optimization of fibres in effective crack control;
  • Influence of concrete matrix composition on the performance of FRC, using more efficient nanomaterials;
  • Characterisation of the long-term performance of FRC under sustained load (creep);
  • Assessing transport properties and the use of fibres to delay the entrance of aggressive agents, both in uncracked and in cracked state;
  • Design criteria of FRC structures;
  • Case studies on existing FRC structures.

Prof. Pedro Serna Ros
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fibre-reinforced concrete
  • cracking behaviour
  • long-term performance
  • durability
  • fibre-reinforced concrete design

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Blast-Resistant Performance of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (HFRC) Panels Subjected to Contact Detonation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010241 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper experimentally investigates the blast-resistant characteristics of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HFRC) panels by contact detonation tests. The control specimen of plain concrete, polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and steel fiber-reinforced concrete were prepared and tested for characterization in contrast with PP-Steel HFRC [...] Read more.
This paper experimentally investigates the blast-resistant characteristics of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HFRC) panels by contact detonation tests. The control specimen of plain concrete, polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and steel fiber-reinforced concrete were prepared and tested for characterization in contrast with PP-Steel HFRC and PVA-Steel HFRC. The sequent contact detonation tests were conducted with panel damage recorded and measured. Damaged HFRC panels were further comparatively analyzed whereby the blast-resistance performance was quantitively assessed via damage coefficient and blast-resistant coefficient. For both PP-Steel and PVA-Steel HFRC, the best blast-resistant performance was achieved at around 1.5% steel + 0.5% PP-fiber hybrid. Finally, the fiber-hybrid effect index was introduced to evaluate the hybrid effect on the explosion-resistance performance of HFRC panels. It revealed that neither PP-fiber or PVA-fiber provide positive hybrid effect on blast-resistant improvement of HFRC panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Cracking on Oxygen Transport in UHPFRC Using Stainless Steel Sensors
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010239 - 28 Dec 2019
Abstract
Reinforced concrete elements frequently suffer small cracks that are not relevant from the mechanical point of view, but they can be an entrance point for aggressive agents, such as oxygen, which could initiate the degradation processes. Fiber-Reinforced Concrete and especially Ultra High Performance [...] Read more.
Reinforced concrete elements frequently suffer small cracks that are not relevant from the mechanical point of view, but they can be an entrance point for aggressive agents, such as oxygen, which could initiate the degradation processes. Fiber-Reinforced Concrete and especially Ultra High Performance Concrete increase the multi-cracking behavior, reducing the crack width and spacing. In this work, the oxygen availability of three types of concrete was compared at similar strain levels to evaluate the benefit of multi-cracking in the transport of oxygen. The types of concrete studied include traditional, High-Performance, and Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with and without nanofibers. To this purpose, reinforced concrete beams sized 150 × 100 × 750 mm3 were prepared with embedded stainless steel sensors that were located at three heights, which have also been validated through this work. These beams were pre-cracked in bending up to fixed strain levels. The results indicate that the sensors used were able to detect oxygen availability due to the presence of cracks and the detected differences between the studied concretes. Ultra High Performance Concrete in the cracked state displayed lower oxygen availability than the uncracked High Performance Concrete, demonstrating its potential higher durability, even when working in cracked state, thanks to the increased multi-cracking response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Steel Fiber Use as Shear Reinforcement on I-Shaped UHP-FRC Beams
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5526; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245526 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the presented paper, the effectiveness of steel fiber use on the shear and flexure behaviors of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) beams and the feasibility of steel fibers in place of shear reinforcement were investigated experimentally. In this framework, a total of four [...] Read more.
In the presented paper, the effectiveness of steel fiber use on the shear and flexure behaviors of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) beams and the feasibility of steel fibers in place of shear reinforcement were investigated experimentally. In this framework, a total of four I-shaped UHPC beams were produced for a high tensile reinforcement ratio of 2.2%. While two of them were non-fiber UHPC beams with and without the shear reinforcement to show the contribution of steel fibers, the remaining beams were made from the ultra-high performance steel fiber-reinforced concrete (UHP-FRC) having the short straight fibers with 1.5% and 2.5% by volume. The shear and flexural parameters, such as the load–deflection response, cracking pattern, failure mode, deflection, and curvature ductilities were discussed based on the four-point loading test results. While the reference beam without fiber and shear reinforcement failed by the shear with a sudden load drop before the yielding of reinforcement and produced no deflection capability, the inclusion of steel fibers to the UHPC matrix transformed the failure mode from shear to flexure through the fibers’ crack-bridging ability. It might be deduced that the moderate level of steel fiber use in the UHP-FRC beams may take the place of shear reinforcement in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Compression Behavior of Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete by Means of the Response Surface Methodology
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5330; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245330 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The compression behavior of steel-fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) has been addressed exhaustively in recent decades thereby highlighting a variety of differences with regard to the effect that the addition of fiber has on it. In this paper, a detailed study of the subject [...] Read more.
The compression behavior of steel-fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) has been addressed exhaustively in recent decades thereby highlighting a variety of differences with regard to the effect that the addition of fiber has on it. In this paper, a detailed study of the subject is developed for which a database has been created, which includes 197 tests performed on cylindrical concrete specimens with dimensions of 150 × 300 mm 2 (diameter × height). By means of the response surface methodology, we disclose the relationship that exists between the geometric parameters of the fiber (length, diameter, and aspect ratio), their amount (fraction in volume), and some matrix parameters (compression resistance and maximum size of coarse aggregate) with the different compression responses of the SFRC, which are strength, elastic modulus, critical deformation under maximum load, and the volumetric deformation work in the pre- and post-peak branch. Linear polynomial models are chosen to adjust each response with the defined factors, and said variables are studied in a dimensional and non-dimensional format. From the results obtained, it is verified how the inclusion of steel-fibers produces notable improvements in ductility and the energy absorption capacity of the concrete when significantly increasing the works of volumetric deformation in the pre- and post-peak branch with respect to the matrix without fibers. In addition, a new model is analyzed, which describes the stress–strain curve of the compression behavior of the SFRC based on the increase of ductility and energy absorption. This model is characterized by a softening branch subsequent to the peak load determined by means of the residual compressive strength, a parameter that corresponds to the value of the compressive stress associated with a strain equal to three times that of the peak of the curve, which is significantly dependent on the aspect ratio and fiber content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation on Relations Between Impact Resistance and Tensile Properties of Cement-Based Materials Reinforced by Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4434; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204434 - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Cement-based material is brittle and is easily damaged by an impact load with a few blows. The purpose of this paper is to study the relations between the impact resistance and tensile properties of cement-based materials reinforced by polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA-FRCM). A [...] Read more.
Cement-based material is brittle and is easily damaged by an impact load with a few blows. The purpose of this paper is to study the relations between the impact resistance and tensile properties of cement-based materials reinforced by polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA-FRCM). A drop-weight test and uniaxial tension test were performed. The relations were studied based on the experimental results, including the relation between the blow number and the tensile stress at the first visible cracking (σc) and the relation between the blow number and the tensile strain at the ultimate failure (εf). Results showed that the blow number for the first visible crack for disc impact specimens increases obviously with the increase of σc of slab specimens. The crater diameter and blow number for ultimate failure of the disc specimens increase with the increase of εf of slab specimens. For the PVA-FRCM specimens with larger σc and εf, much more blows are needed to cause both the first visible crack and ultimate failure. Polyvinyl alcohol fibers can reinforce impact resistance and tensile properties of cement-based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Diagnostics of Sprayed Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Corrosion
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3763; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183763 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sprayed fiber-reinforced concrete is used in construction for the execution and repair of reinforced concrete elements. It is believed that the addition of steel fibers is most effective, due to their parameters and low costs. Some researchers, however, suggest that the addition of [...] Read more.
Sprayed fiber-reinforced concrete is used in construction for the execution and repair of reinforced concrete elements. It is believed that the addition of steel fibers is most effective, due to their parameters and low costs. Some researchers, however, suggest that the addition of steel fibers can contribute to the initiation of corrosion of the main reinforcement. In consideration of the differences of opinion on the corrosion resistance of sprayed fiber-reinforced concrete, it has become necessary to analyze this issue. The article presents comparative studies of corrosion assessments of the main reinforcement in specimens made of ordinary concrete and concrete with steel fibers. The tests were performed using a semi non-destructive galvanostatic pulse method, which allows location of the areas of corrosion and estimation of the reinforcement corrosion activity. In order to initiate the corrosion processes the specimens were subjected to freezing cycles in NaCl solution. In addition, the shrinkage and compressive strength of specimens were measured, and the observation of specimen structure under a scanning microscope was performed. It was found that galvanostatic pulse method allowed estimation of the reinforcement corrosion progress. The corrosion of the main reinforcement in steel fiber reinforced concrete specimens was less advanced than in the specimens without fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Shear Strengthening of RC Beams with an FRP Grid-PCM Reinforcement Layer
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9152984 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper investigates the shear strengthening effect of a number of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened by a reinforcement layer which combines carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) grid and polymer cement mortar (PCM). A total of ten RC beams, including three types of [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the shear strengthening effect of a number of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened by a reinforcement layer which combines carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) grid and polymer cement mortar (PCM). A total of ten RC beams, including three types of specimens as Series A and seven kinds of specimens as Series B, were prepared and investigated. The test variables in both series of experiments included various reinforcement ranges and different reinforcement amounts that consisted of CFRP grids’ spacing and cross-section areas. The experimental results suggest that the shear strengthening effect of the CFRP grid-PCM layer for RC beams is obvious and adequate. Meanwhile, better performance is observed if the CFRP grid-PCM reinforcement layer is used for the full sectional reinforcement of RC beams with an I-shaped profile, in contrast to RC beams with reinforcement of the web only. In addition, a new evaluation method based on the effective strain of the CFRP grid is developed to determine the shear capacity of RC beams strengthened by a CFRP grid-PCM layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Concrete–Concrete Bond in Mode-I: A study on the Synergistic Effect of Surface Roughness and Fiber Reinforcement
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122556 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Effectiveness and durability of interventions on deficient concrete structures remain a major concern, comprising the challenge of old-to-new concrete compatibility and bonding, as stress concentrations and microstructural flaws at the old-to-new concrete interface compromise structural integrity and create migration paths for harmful contaminants. [...] Read more.
Effectiveness and durability of interventions on deficient concrete structures remain a major concern, comprising the challenge of old-to-new concrete compatibility and bonding, as stress concentrations and microstructural flaws at the old-to-new concrete interface compromise structural integrity and create migration paths for harmful contaminants. Fiber reinforcement can be beneficial, but proper quantification and mastering of fundamental mechanisms is required before these are fully utilized. A study is presented on Mode-I crack growth resistance at the interface between two concretes (substrate and repair). Countered Double Cantilever Beam tests are performed, crack growth resistance curves calculated (Modified Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics), and complemented with analysis of interfacial roughness and failure planes. Polyvinyl alcohol (8 and 12 mm length) and steel fibers (13 mm) are introduced in the repairs at 0.5% and 1% volume fractions. Results indicate that fibers improve fracture behavior of both the repair material and substrate-repair interface; correlations with interfacial roughness, crack deviation, and fracture parameters are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Short Fibers on the Long-Term Behavior of RC/FRC Beams Aged under Service Loading
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122540 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The enhanced post-cracking properties of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC), as compared to plain concrete (PC), are extensively proven by many experimental findings. However, still limited experimental data are available on the behavior of such materials in long-term conditions and durability. This paper shows results [...] Read more.
The enhanced post-cracking properties of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC), as compared to plain concrete (PC), are extensively proven by many experimental findings. However, still limited experimental data are available on the behavior of such materials in long-term conditions and durability. This paper shows results from a study lasting for about seven years, which was for a final discussion on the behavior in the short and long-term of steel and polyester FRC beams with conventional steel reinforcement, after being exposed to sustained service loading and natural environmental agents for 72 months. After 28 days of curing in laboratory conditions, the beams were moved to the exposure site and loaded up to service conditions. The evolution of the crack pattern was monitored and recorded over time. After this long exposure the beams were subjected to a four point bending test in order to evaluate their residual mechanical behavior. Eventually, the beams were cut, in order to carry out durability tests for the evaluation of the carbonation depth and chloride penetration. The experimental results highlight the favorable effects of short fibers in reducing crack width and enhancing flexural stiffness. The presence of short structural fibers appears also to play a useful role in delaying creep effects inside the concrete beams. Finally, the experimental cracking behavior is compared with the one computed by applying the fib Model Code 2010 for the bearing capacity and crack width prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Mix Proportion Parameters on Behaviors of Basalt Fiber RPC Based on Box-Behnken Model
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2031; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102031 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Basalt fibers are widely used in the modification of concrete materials due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In this study, the basalt fibers were used to modify reactive powder concrete (RPC). The effect of four mix proportion parameters on the [...] Read more.
Basalt fibers are widely used in the modification of concrete materials due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In this study, the basalt fibers were used to modify reactive powder concrete (RPC). The effect of four mix proportion parameters on the working and mechanical properties of basalt fiber reactive powder concrete (BFRPC) was evaluated by the response surface methodology (RSM). The fluidity, flexural and compressive strength were tested and evaluated. A statistically experimental model indicated that D (the silica fume to cement ratio) was the key of interactions between factors, affecting other factors and controlling properties of BFRPC. The increase in basalt fiber content had a remarkable effect on increasing the flexural and compressive strength when D = 0.2. The addition of basalt fiber obviously improved the mechanical properties of RPC. While when D = 0.4, the decrease of fiber content and the increase of quartz sand content could increase the compressive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
The Size Effect on Flexural Fracture of Polyolefin Fibre-Reinforced Concrete
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091762 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The reinforcement of concrete by using polyolefin fibres may be considered in structural design to meet the requirements of the applicable code rules. To achieve a reliable use of such a composite material, use of full-scale real structures is needed. The conversion of [...] Read more.
The reinforcement of concrete by using polyolefin fibres may be considered in structural design to meet the requirements of the applicable code rules. To achieve a reliable use of such a composite material, use of full-scale real structures is needed. The conversion of lab testing data into real practice properties is challenging and significantly influenced by various aspects, among which the size effect is a key one. Given that the available literature does not report coinciding conclusions about such an effect on quasi-brittle materials reinforced with fibres, further research is justified. Therefore, this work studies the behaviour of notched beams with three proportional sizes by using self-compacting polyolefin reinforced concrete with a fibre volume fraction of 1.1%. Flexural testing was carried out according to the standard EN-14651, with the results revealing the existence of the size effect. In addition, a reduction of the residual strength identified in the larger specimens was observed in fracture surfaces with equal fibre content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with Hybrid Composite Beam
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091734 - 26 Apr 2019
Abstract
This paper describes the results of long-term tests on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with hybrid composite beam (HCB) under two different sustained loads. Test specimens were fabricated to reflect the most common RC beam size used in school buildings in South Korea. [...] Read more.
This paper describes the results of long-term tests on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with hybrid composite beam (HCB) under two different sustained loads. Test specimens were fabricated to reflect the most common RC beam size used in school buildings in South Korea. The specimens had dimensions of 400 mm (width) × 600 mm (depth) × 6000 mm (length), and were tested with or without external strengthening by a hybrid composite beam (HCB). Test results showed that strengthening the RC beams with HCB not only reduced the instantaneous deflection but was also effective in decreasing long-term deflection. In this study, time-dependent factors were investigated using a modified version of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) equation. Time-dependent factors of HCB-strengthened RC beams found in the present work differed from those of other investigations due to various experimental conditions. In the present study, we found that the ACI equation may not provide a reasonable estimation of the long-term behavior of HCB-strengthened RC beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber-Reinforced Concrete)
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