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Selected Papers from the 18th International Conference of Young Scientists on Energy and Natural Sciences Issues (CYSENI 2022)

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 10410

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, 44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: safety assessment of nuclear power plants; heat transfer; fluid mechanics; energy systems research; energy systems integration; reliability and risk analysis of energy supply systems; analysis of thermal hydraulic processes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 18th International Conference of Young Scientists on Energy and Natural Sciences Issues (CYSENI 2022) is an annual event initiated by the Lithuanian Energy Institute and organized together with the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, and RTO.Lithuania. This year, the conference will be held online, from 24 to 27 May 2022. The conference is aimed at young researchers and professionals from Europe and worldwide working in energy, natural, and environmental sciences. CYSENI seeks to provide a free and well-established platform to undergraduate, MSc, PhD students, and entrant early-career scientists to present their latest research, develop their skills, make new contacts, and establish long-lasting scientific relationships. Young researchers working in the field of related topics are welcome to participate in the conference. You will find more information about the conference at https://cyseni.com.

This Special Issue contains selected papers peer-reviewed by the journal from the conference.

Dr. Sigitas Rimkevičius
Dr. Rolandas Urbonas
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Projected Wind Energy Maximum Potential in Lithuania
by Justė Jankevičienė and Arvydas Kanapickas
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010364 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Harnessing wind energy in Lithuania is one of the most important ways to implement climate mitigation measures. This study aims to assess whether it is feasible to implement an energy greening plan in Lithuania in the 21st century, hypothetically by using only wind [...] Read more.
Harnessing wind energy in Lithuania is one of the most important ways to implement climate mitigation measures. This study aims to assess whether it is feasible to implement an energy greening plan in Lithuania in the 21st century, hypothetically by using only wind farms, where the entire permitted area is developed with them. The wind turbine chosen for the study is a 3 MW wind turbine, installed at a height of 100 m. Wind speeds were estimated using the most up-to-date generation of shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) climate scenario projections. The most likely climate model, SSP2-4.5, shows that the wind speed in Lithuania is more likely to decrease slightly over the 21st century. The decrease could be as high as 3% in the coastal region, while in the eastern part of the country, which is the furthest from the sea, the decrease will likely be around 1.5%. Analysis of the projected data shows that the number of days with wind speeds below the cut-in speed is decreasing, while the number of days with wind speeds higher than the cut-off speed is increasing slightly. However, the number of days on which the operating conditions of the wind farm are met has changed only slightly. The results show that the potential maximum wind power generation exceeds Lithuania’s renewable energy needs by at least three times, suggesting that the development of onshore wind farms in Lithuania can help to achieve the energy greening plans. Full article
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16 pages, 4319 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the Temperature Control Strategy in Steady-State Virtual Vacuum Simulation on the Spontaneous Evaporation Rate and Corresponding Evaporation Coefficient
by Gediminas Skarbalius, Algis Džiugys, Edgaras Misiulis and Robertas Navakas
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010256 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
In the present paper, we propose a novel simulation approach that allows one to capture the steady-state evaporation into virtual vacuum state by maintaining a constant number of atoms within the liquid phase during the simulations. The proposed method was used to perform [...] Read more.
In the present paper, we propose a novel simulation approach that allows one to capture the steady-state evaporation into virtual vacuum state by maintaining a constant number of atoms within the liquid phase during the simulations. The proposed method was used to perform virtual vacuum simulations of argon at a temperature of 90 K in order to study the effects of the chosen simulation temperature control approach on the system’s temperature profiles, spontaneous evaporation rates, and the energetic characteristics of the evaporating atoms. The results show that the expected non-uniform temperature profile across the liquid phase can be flattened out by dividing the liquid phase into separately thermostated bins. However, the desired liquid surface temperature can be achieved only when the thermostat region boundary is placed outside the liquid phase. The obtained relationship between the surface temperature and the spontaneous evaporation rate show that the spontaneous evaporation rate and corresponding evaporation coefficient evaluation may change up to 21% when the surface temperature changes in a narrow temperature interval of 2.45 K. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the thermostat region boundary position has no impact on the energetic characteristics of the evaporating argon atoms, even when the boundary is placed outside the liquid phase. Full article
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14 pages, 7769 KiB  
Article
Nuclear Analysis of High-Power LIEBE Molten Target at CERN for the Production of Radioisotopes
by Benjaminas Togobickij, Mantas Povilaitis, Andrius Slavickas, Thierry Stora, Vincent Barozier and Gediminas Stankūnas
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 11884; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122311884 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 995
Abstract
To enhance the production of short-lived isotopes, higher beam powers are sought, which require targets able to accommodate them. One such target prototype is a liquid metal target LIEBE, developed at CERN. In this paper, a simulation of the proton beam interaction with [...] Read more.
To enhance the production of short-lived isotopes, higher beam powers are sought, which require targets able to accommodate them. One such target prototype is a liquid metal target LIEBE, developed at CERN. In this paper, a simulation of the proton beam interaction with the LIEBE target is presented. Simulations were performed by a series of proton transport calculations using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The latest LIEBE target MCNP input was created in high-fidelity geometry, and the FENDL-3.1 cross-section data library was used. Flux and dose rate maps in the LIEBE target obtained from the simulations are presented in the paper. The maximum obtained dose around the target is roughly 361 Sv/h for gamma rays and 214 Sv/h for neutrons. The 70 MeV–100 µA proton beam penetrates roughly 7 mm deep into the liquid eutectic lead–bismuth. Based on this, further required changes to the LIEBE target can be evaluated. Full article
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16 pages, 3228 KiB  
Article
Development and Investigation of a Synthetic Inertia Algorithm
by Paulius Cicėnas and Virginijus Radziukynas
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11459; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211459 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
In this article, we present a synthetic inertia (SI) algorithm that allows for the simulation of the inertia response of a traditional generator to an electrical power system. To obtain the algorithm, detailed dynamic calculations were performed using a large real-system dynamic model [...] Read more.
In this article, we present a synthetic inertia (SI) algorithm that allows for the simulation of the inertia response of a traditional generator to an electrical power system. To obtain the algorithm, detailed dynamic calculations were performed using a large real-system dynamic model in Siemens PSS/E modeling packages (PSS/E). Output error (OE), autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs (ARMAX), and Box–Jenkins (BJ) models of parametric identification were used to obtain the SI algorithm. The dynamic calculation results such as active power output, frequency variation in the presence of the active power deficit, surplus, and short circuit in the power system were used to compare the algorithm accuracy with comparable generator results. For this purpose, the power system stabilizer (PSS) and the turbine governor were not evaluated to obtain the most accurate possible active power change due to the characteristics of the generator. The errors were evaluated by using the models to determine the error estimates for the correlation coefficient (R), root mean square deviation (RMSE), and coefficient of determination (R2). Based on the obtained results, we established that the OE mathematical model should be used, as it is more efficient compared to the ARMAX and BJ models. Full article
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9 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Analysis of TihxOy Films Produced by Physical Vapor Deposition Method
by Marius Urbonavicius, Simona Tuckute, Smagul Karazhanov and Martynas Lelis
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 10811; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122110811 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 981
Abstract
For decades, partially oxidized hydrides were commonly considered as undesirably contaminated phases and were avoided by scientists. Nevertheless, more recently, it was realized that in some hydrides and oxides, partial substitution of dissimilar H and O2− anions allows one to obtain [...] Read more.
For decades, partially oxidized hydrides were commonly considered as undesirably contaminated phases and were avoided by scientists. Nevertheless, more recently, it was realized that in some hydrides and oxides, partial substitution of dissimilar H and O2− anions allows one to obtain unique optical and electrical properties that might have appealing applications in commercial products. It was determined that specific properties of so called oxyhydride materials strongly depend on the used synthesis methods; therefore, there is a great interest in exploring various variants of oxyhydride formation. In the current study, TiHxOy films were deposited by a reactive magnetron sputtering process in Ar-O2-H2 gas mixtures. Color, transparency and crystal phase composition of the films coherently reacted to the Ar:O2:H2 gas ratio. Namely, the rise in partial hydrogen pressure promoted the formation of anatase phase TiO2 structure and darkening of the films. Interestingly, this had only minimal impact on the band gap values, but had a relatively strong negative effect on the photocatalytic activity of the films. The unaccustomed results stressed the difference between the partially reduced TiO2 with a significant amount of oxygen vacancies and synthesized TiHxOy films where some O2− ions are implicitly substituted by H ions. Full article
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16 pages, 6620 KiB  
Article
Development of a CFD-Suitable Deep Neural Network Model for Laminar Burning Velocity
by Andrius Ambrutis and Mantas Povilaitis
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7460; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157460 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Hydrogen is a valued resource for today’s industry. As a fuel, it produces large amounts of energy and creates water during the process, unlike most other polluting energy sources. However, the safe use of hydrogen requires reliable tools able to accurately predict combustion. [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is a valued resource for today’s industry. As a fuel, it produces large amounts of energy and creates water during the process, unlike most other polluting energy sources. However, the safe use of hydrogen requires reliable tools able to accurately predict combustion. This study presents the implementation of a deep neural network of laminar burning velocity of hydrogen into an open-source CFD solver flameFoam. DNN was developed based on a previously created larger DNN, which was too large for CFD applications since the calculations took around 40 times longer compared to the Malet correlation. Therefore, based on the original model, a faster, but still accurate, DNN was developed and implemented into flameFoam starting with version 0.10. The paper presents the adaptation of the original DNN into a CFD-applicable version and the initial test results of the CFD–DNN simulation. Full article
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12 pages, 5756 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Cavity Corner Geometry Effect on Recirculation Zone Structure
by Justas Šereika, Paulius Vilkinis and Nerijus Pedišius
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6288; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126288 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
A numerical investigation of flow topology in open-type cavities with length-to-depth ratio L/h1 = 4 was performed in the Reynolds number range of 10–1000. Cavities with differently rounded corners were chosen for simulation. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to analyse [...] Read more.
A numerical investigation of flow topology in open-type cavities with length-to-depth ratio L/h1 = 4 was performed in the Reynolds number range of 10–1000. Cavities with differently rounded corners were chosen for simulation. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to analyse flow topology in different planes. A series of experiments was performed to ensure the validity of numerical simulations. Both numerical simulations and physical experiments were conducted with water as the working fluid. Since the results agreed acceptably, further simulations were performed. The main goal of this study was to investigate and highlight the influence of rounded cavity corners on the topology and stability of flow. Analysis revealed that fully rounded upper cavity corners decrease pressure loss compared to other investigated cases; therefore, the velocity of the main flow is increased. Additionally, fully rounded upper corners form a notably smaller recirculation zone compared to other investigated cases. Flow stability analysis showed that fully rounded cavity bottom corners negatively impact flow stability by increasing the intensity of turbulence. Full article
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