Special Issue "Low Binder Concrete and Mortars"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jorge de Brito

Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049–001 Lisbon, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sustainable construction (recycled aggregates in concrete and mortars), bridge and building management systems, buildings service life (prediction), life cycle assessment, construction technology
Guest Editor
Dr. Rawaz Kurda

Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049–001 Lisbon, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Supplementary cementitious materials; recycled aggregates; sustainable concrete and mortar; Alkali activation; Life Cycle Assessment; quality performance; costs; multi criteria analysis; optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that after water, concrete and mortars are the most demanded materials worldwide. Therefore, they have a significant influence on environmental impacts (EI), namely, because of their cement content. Thus, many alternative materials such as supplementary cementitious materials have been proposed to be used in order to decrease the EI of mortar and concrete. However, studies regarding extremely low binder content, namely, cement, are still very scarce.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences provides a forum for original studies and comprehensive reviews on the technical performance (e.g., mechanical and durability), economics, and EI (e.g., global warming and energy consumption) of concrete and/or mortar containing low binder content. In other words, any attempts or techniques, i.e., using any type of supplementary cementitious materials, alkali activation (e.g., geopolymers), strengthening systems (e.g., fibers), by-product nano materials, additives, etc., that help to decrease the cement content of concrete and mortars, are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jorge de Brito
Dr. Rawaz Kurda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Concrete and mortar technology
  • Sustainable development
  • Supplementary cementitious materials
  • Nano-materials
  • Alkali activation–polymer composites
  • Concrete admixtures
  • Fiber-reinforced concrete
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Costs

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Incorporating Waste Limestone Powder into Solid Waste Cemented Paste Backfill Material
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102076 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
To effectively reuse waste limestone powder, which is a major solid waste around mines, we replaced limestone powder back into a part of cement in solid waste cemented paste backfill (SWCPB) and studied the parameters of pore structures. To optimize the pore microstructure [...] Read more.
To effectively reuse waste limestone powder, which is a major solid waste around mines, we replaced limestone powder back into a part of cement in solid waste cemented paste backfill (SWCPB) and studied the parameters of pore structures. To optimize the pore microstructure characteristics of SWCPB in mines, two different components and grade tailings were selected. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the pore properties and microstructure of SWCPB. The results showed that (1) at the later curing stage, with the optimization of pore characteristics and microstructure through the limestone powder admixture, the strength of SWCFB was guaranteed at a 20% replacement degree of cement. (2) Porosity, macropore proportion, and the average pore radius all negatively correlated with limestone powder content, which were reduced by 7.15%, 46.35%, and 16.37%, respectively. (3) Limestone powder as a crystal nucleus participated in the hydration reaction and was embedded into the product to enhance the strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Binder Concrete and Mortars)
Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of TRM-Strengthened RC Beam: Various Types of Textile-Reinforced Mortar with Non-Impregnated Textile
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9101981
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
In this study, to compare strengthening efficiency and flexural behaviors of textile- reinforced mortar (TRM) according to various types of strengthening methods without the textile being impregnated, ten specimens were tested. The results showed that TRM was beneficial for uniform distribution of cracks [...] Read more.
In this study, to compare strengthening efficiency and flexural behaviors of textile- reinforced mortar (TRM) according to various types of strengthening methods without the textile being impregnated, ten specimens were tested. The results showed that TRM was beneficial for uniform distribution of cracks and increased the strengthening efficiency and load-bearing capacity, as textile reinforcement ratio and textile lamination increased and the mesh size of the textile decreased and mechanical end anchorage applied. However, the strengthening effect was shown obviously until the yield load considering structural safety and serviceability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Binder Concrete and Mortars)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Limestone and Calcined Clay-Based Sustainable Cementitious Materials for 3D Concrete Printing: A Fundamental Study of Extrudability and Early-Age Strength Development
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091809
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of different grades of calcined clay on the extrudability and early-age strength development under ambient conditions. Four mix designs were proposed. Three of them contained high, medium, and low grades of calcined clay, [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of different grades of calcined clay on the extrudability and early-age strength development under ambient conditions. Four mix designs were proposed. Three of them contained high, medium, and low grades of calcined clay, respectively, and one was the reference without calcined clay. In terms of extrudability, an extrusion test method based on the ram extruder was introduced to observe the quality of extruded material filaments, and to determine the extrusion pressure of tested materials at different ages. For evaluating the very early-age strength development, the penetration resistance test, the green strength test, and the ultrasonic pulse velocity test were applied. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the developed mix designs were determined by the compressive strength test at 1, 7 and 28 days. Finally, the main finding of this study was that increasing the metakaolin content in calcined clay could significantly increase the extrusion pressures and green strength, shorten the initial setting time and enhance the compressive strength at 1, 7, and 28 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Binder Concrete and Mortars)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Components of the Fracture Response of Alkali-Activated Slag Composites with Steel Microfibers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091754
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
Knowledge of the mechanical and primarily fracture parameters of composites with a brittle matrix is essential for the quantification of their resistance to crack initiation and growth, and also for the specification of material model parameters employed for the simulation of the quasi-brittle [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the mechanical and primarily fracture parameters of composites with a brittle matrix is essential for the quantification of their resistance to crack initiation and growth, and also for the specification of material model parameters employed for the simulation of the quasi-brittle behavior of structures made from this type of composite. Therefore, the main target of this paper is to quantify the mechanical fracture parameters of alkali-activated slag composites with steel microfibers and the contribution of the matrix to their fracture response. The first alkali-activated slag composite was a reference version without fibers; the others incorporated steel microfibers amounting to 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of the slag. Prism specimens with an initial central edge notch were used to perform the three-point bending fracture tests. Load vs. displacement (deflection at midspan) and load vs. crack mouth opening displacement diagrams were recorded during the fracture tests. The obtained diagrams were employed as inputs for parameter identification, the aim of which was to transfer the fracture test response data to the desired material parameters. Values were also determined for fracture parameters using the effective crack model, work-of-fracture method and double-K fracture model. All investigated mechanical fracture parameters were improved by the addition of steel microfibers to the alkali-activated matrix. Based on the obtained results, the addition of 10 to 15% of microfibers by weight is optimal from the point of view of the enhancement of the fracture parameters of alkali-activated slag composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Binder Concrete and Mortars)
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties and Fractal Dimension of Pore Structure of Basalt–Polypropylene Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081602
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the effects of basalt–polypropylene fibers on the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete and calculates the fractal dimension of the pore structure of concrete by using a fractal model based on the optical method. Test results reveal that [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of basalt–polypropylene fibers on the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete and calculates the fractal dimension of the pore structure of concrete by using a fractal model based on the optical method. Test results reveal that hybrid fibers can improve the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete, and the synergistic effect of the hybrid fibers is strongest when the contents of basalt fiber (BF) and polypropylene fiber (PF) are 0.05% each, and that the maximum increments in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength are 5.06% and 9.56%, respectively. The effect of hybrid fibers on splitting tensile strength is greater than on compressive strength. However, hybrid fibers have adverse effects on mechanical properties when the fiber content is too high. The pore structure of basalt–polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete (BPFRC) exhibits obvious fractal characteristics, and the fractal dimension is calculated to be in the range of 2.297–2.482. The fractal dimension has a strong correlation with the air content and spacing factor: the air content decreases significantly whereas the spacing factor increases with increasing fractal dimension. In addition, the fractal dimension also has a strong positive correlation with compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. Therefore, the fractal dimension of the pore structure can be used to evaluate the microscopic pore structure of concrete and can also reflect the influence of the complexity of the pore structure on the macroscopic mechanical properties of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Binder Concrete and Mortars)
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Figure 1

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