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Open AccessArticle

Limestone and Calcined Clay-Based Sustainable Cementitious Materials for 3D Concrete Printing: A Fundamental Study of Extrudability and Early-Age Strength Development

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
2
Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091809
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Binder Concrete and Mortars)
The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of different grades of calcined clay on the extrudability and early-age strength development under ambient conditions. Four mix designs were proposed. Three of them contained high, medium, and low grades of calcined clay, respectively, and one was the reference without calcined clay. In terms of extrudability, an extrusion test method based on the ram extruder was introduced to observe the quality of extruded material filaments, and to determine the extrusion pressure of tested materials at different ages. For evaluating the very early-age strength development, the penetration resistance test, the green strength test, and the ultrasonic pulse velocity test were applied. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the developed mix designs were determined by the compressive strength test at 1, 7 and 28 days. Finally, the main finding of this study was that increasing the metakaolin content in calcined clay could significantly increase the extrusion pressures and green strength, shorten the initial setting time and enhance the compressive strength at 1, 7, and 28 days. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable; extrudability; early-age strength; limestone and calcined clay; 3D concrete printing sustainable; extrudability; early-age strength; limestone and calcined clay; 3D concrete printing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.; Li, Z.; Chaves Figueiredo, S.; Çopuroğlu, O.; Veer, F.; Schlangen, E. Limestone and Calcined Clay-Based Sustainable Cementitious Materials for 3D Concrete Printing: A Fundamental Study of Extrudability and Early-Age Strength Development. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1809.

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