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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

A Critical Review on the Influence of Fine Recycled Aggregates on Technical Performance, Environmental Impact and Cost of Concrete

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Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne NE18ST, UK
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Department of Information System Engineering, Erbil Technical Engineering College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region 44001, Iraq
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Department of Civil Engineering, Technical Engineering College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region 44001, Iraq
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Erbil Technology Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region 44001, Iraq
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Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Knowledge University, Erbil, Kurdistan 44001, Iraq
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Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Tishk International University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region 44001, Iraq
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031018
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Binder Concrete and Mortars)
The aim of this critical review is to show the applicability of recycled fine aggregates (RFA) in concrete regarding technical performance, environmental impact, energy consumption and cost. It is not possible to judge the performance of concrete by considering one dimension. Thus, this study focussed on the fresh and hardened (e.g., mechanical and durability) properties and environmental and economic life cycle assessment of concrete. Most literature investigated showed that any addition of recycled fine aggregates from construction and demolition waste as a replacement for natural fine aggregates proves detrimental to the functional properties (quality) of the resulting concrete. However, the incorporation of recycled fine aggregates in concrete was proven to enhance the environmental and economic performance. In this study, an extensive literature review based multi criteria decision making analysis framework was made to evaluate the effect of RFA on functional, environmental, and economic parameters of concrete. The results show that sustainability of RFA based concrete is very sensitive to transportation distances. Several scenarios for the transportation distances of natural and recycled fine aggregates and their results show that only if the transportation distance of the natural aggregates is more than double that of RFA, e the RFA based concrete alternatives would be considered as more sustainable. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine recycled aggregates; construction and demolition waste; recycled aggregate concrete; life cycle assessment; sustainability; optimization fine recycled aggregates; construction and demolition waste; recycled aggregate concrete; life cycle assessment; sustainability; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hafez, H.; Kurda, R.; Kurda, R.; Al-Hadad, B.; Mustafa, R.; Ali, B. A Critical Review on the Influence of Fine Recycled Aggregates on Technical Performance, Environmental Impact and Cost of Concrete. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 1018.

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