Special Issue "Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Yurii K. Gun'ko

School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: quantum dots; magnetic nanomaterials; carbon nanomaterials; nano-bio-technology; biological imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic nanomaterials represent one of the most important and emerging classes of materials in nanotechnology due to a range of potential applications, including magnetic data storage, catalysis, magnetic separation, sensing, waste water treatment, and many others. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles have been envisaged for various biological and biomedical applications. For example, magnetic nanoparticles can be used as drug delivery agents, which can be localized in the body at a site of interest using an external magnetic field. When exposed to an alternating magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles can serve as powerful heat sources, destroying tumour cells, that allows to use these nanomaterials in cancer hyperthermia therapy. Magnetic fluids based on aqueous dispersions of small size magnetic nanoparticles have also been utilized as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Special Issue is focused on the preparation, biological behaviour studies and prospective applications of magnetic nanomaterials in biology and medicine.

Prof. Yurii Gun'ko
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • drug delivery
  • sensing
  • nanomedicine
  • MRI
  • magnetic hyperthermia

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Interleukin 6 Plays a Role in the Migration of Magnetically Levitated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Spheroids
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030412
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 11 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside quiescently within a specialised ‘niche’ environment in the bone marrow. However, following appropriate signalling cues, MSCs mobilise and migrate out from the niche, typically toward either sites of injury (a regenerative response) or toward primary tumours (an intrinsic
[...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside quiescently within a specialised ‘niche’ environment in the bone marrow. However, following appropriate signalling cues, MSCs mobilise and migrate out from the niche, typically toward either sites of injury (a regenerative response) or toward primary tumours (an intrinsic homing response, which promotes MSCs as cellular vectors for therapeutic delivery). To date, very little is known about MSC mobilisation. By adopting a 3D MSC niche model, whereby MSC spheroids are cultured within a type I collagen gel, recent studies have highlighted interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a key cytokine involved in MSC migration. Herein, the ability of IL-6 to induce MSC migration was further investigated, and the key matrix metalloproteinases used to effect cell mobilisation were identified. Briefly, the impact of IL-6 on the MSC migration in a two-dimensional model systems was characterised—both visually using an Ibidi chemotaxis plate array (assessing for directional migration) and then via a standard 2D monolayer experiment, where cultured cells were challenged with IL-6 and extracted media tested using an Abcam Human MMP membrane antibody array. The 2D assay displayed a strong migratory response toward IL-6 and analysis of the membrane arrays data showed significant increases of several key MMPs. Both data sets indicated that IL-6 is important in MSC mobilisation and migration. We also investigated the impact of IL-6 induction on MSCs in 3D spheroid culture, serving as a simplistic model of the bone marrow niche, characterised by fluorescently tagged magnetic nanoparticles and identical membrane antibody arrays. An increase in MMP levels secreted by cells treated with 1 ng/mL IL-6 versus control conditions was noted in addition to migration of cells away from the central spheroid mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors from Clerodendranthus spicatus with Xanthine Oxidase Immobilized Silica Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020158
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
In this study, xanthine oxidase immobilized silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-XO) were successfully prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The average diameter
[...] Read more.
In this study, xanthine oxidase immobilized silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-XO) were successfully prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The average diameter of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 300 nm to 350 nm with a shell thickness of 60 nm. The maximum saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4@SiO2-XO nanoparticles was 44.9 emu/g, which ensured the separation from the medium within one minute by using an ordinary magnet. A xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor screening method using Fe3O4@SiO2-XO nanoparticles was established and utilized in the extract of Clerodendranthus spicatus. Under the optimized conditions, two compounds were screened out and identified as gardenin B and eupatorin. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of these two compounds were 1.488 μg/mL and 11.197 μg/mL, respectively. The interactions between these two compounds and XO were investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopic method. The results suggested that the quenching effects of gardenin B and eupatorin were due to a static quenching mechanism. Furthermore, gardenin B showed stronger binding capacity than that of eupatorin. In conclusion, this screening method exhibited efficiency and reusability in screening, identification and analysis of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effects of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010134
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have poor outcomes. Docetaxel (DTX)-based therapy is a current standard treatment for patients with mCRPC. Approaches combining conventional chemotherapeutic agents and nanoparticles (NPs), particularly iron oxide NPs, may overcome the serious side effects and drug resistance,
[...] Read more.
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have poor outcomes. Docetaxel (DTX)-based therapy is a current standard treatment for patients with mCRPC. Approaches combining conventional chemotherapeutic agents and nanoparticles (NPs), particularly iron oxide NPs, may overcome the serious side effects and drug resistance, resulting in the establishment of new therapeutic strategies. We previously reported the combined effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with DTX on prostate cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of Fe3O4 NPs and rapamycin or carboplatin on prostate cancer cells in vitro. Treatment of DU145 and PC-3 cells with Fe3O4 NPs increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of both cell lines with 100 μg/mL Fe3O4 NPs for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition of cell viability with a different inhibitory effect. Combination treatments with 100 µg/mL Fe3O4 NPs and 10 µM carboplatin or 10 nM rapamycin in DU145 and PC-3 cells significantly decreased cell viability. Synergistic effects on apoptosis were observed in PC-3 cells treated with Fe3O4 NPs and rapamycin and in DU145 cells with Fe3O4 NPs and carboplatin. These results suggest the possibility of combination therapy with Fe3O4 NPs and various chemotherapeutic agents as a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with mCRPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of T2 Relaxation Rates due to Large Volume Fractions of Magnetic Nanoparticles for All Motional Regimes
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010101
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
The effect of high volume fraction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) transverse relaxation rates (R2 = 1/T2 and R2* = 1/T2*) is investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Theoretical models
[...] Read more.
The effect of high volume fraction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) transverse relaxation rates (R2 = 1/T2 and R2* = 1/T2*) is investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Theoretical models assume that particles occupy a small volume fraction of the sample space. Results presented in this work show that models based on both motional averaged (MAR) and static dephasing (SDR) regimes respectively underestimate and overestimate relaxation rates at large volume fractions. Furthermore, both R2* and R2* become echo-time dependent. This suggests that diffusion is involved with larger echo-times producing smaller relaxation rates due to better averaging of the magnetic field gradients. Findings emphasize the need for the models to be modified to take account of high particle concentration especially important for application involving clustering and trapping of nanoparticles inside cells. This is important in order to improve the design process of MNP Contrast Agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating the Role of Shell Thickness and Field Cooling on Saturation Magnetization and Its Temperature Dependence in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 Core/Shell Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121269
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Understanding saturation magnetization and its behavior with particle size and temperature are essential for medical applications such magnetic hyperthermia. We report the effect of shell thickness and field cooling on the saturation magnetization and its behavior with temperature in Fe3O4
[...] Read more.
Understanding saturation magnetization and its behavior with particle size and temperature are essential for medical applications such magnetic hyperthermia. We report the effect of shell thickness and field cooling on the saturation magnetization and its behavior with temperature in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles of fixed core diameter (8 nm) and several shell thicknesses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)) were used to investigate the phase and the morphology of the samples. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed the core/shell structure and phases. Using a SQUID (San Diego, CA, USA), magnetic measurements were conducted in the temperature range of 2 to 300 K both under zero field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling (FC) protocols at several field-cooling values. In the ZFC state, considerable enhancement of saturation magnetization was obtained with the increase of shell thickness. After field cooling, we observed a drastic enhancement of the saturation magnetization in one sample up to 120 emu/g (50% larger than the bulk value). In both the FC and ZFC states, considerable deviations from the original Bloch’s law were observed. These results are discussed and attributed to the existence of interface spin-glass clusters which are modified by the changes in the shell thickness and the field-cooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Targeted Molecular Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer with a Miniature Endoscope
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121241
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
It is highly desirable to develop novel approaches to improve patient survival rate of pancreatic cancer through early detection. Here, we present such an approach based on photoacoustic and fluorescence molecular imaging of pancreatic tumor using a miniature multimodal endoscope in combination with
[...] Read more.
It is highly desirable to develop novel approaches to improve patient survival rate of pancreatic cancer through early detection. Here, we present such an approach based on photoacoustic and fluorescence molecular imaging of pancreatic tumor using a miniature multimodal endoscope in combination with targeted multifunctional iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). A novel fan-shaped scanning mechanism was developed to minimize the invasiveness for endoscopic imaging of pancreatic tumors. The results show that the enhancements in photoacoustic and fluorescence signals using amino-terminal fragment (ATF) targeted IONPs were ~four to six times higher compared to that using non-targeted IONPs. Our study indicates the potential of the combination of the multimodal photoacoustic-fluorescence endoscopy and targeted multifunctional nanoparticles as an efficient tool to provide improved specificity and sensitivity for pancreatic cancer detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle A Fast and Cost-Effective Detection of Melamine by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using a Novel Hydrogen Bonding-Assisted Supramolecular Matrix and Gold-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7050475
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fast and cost-effective melamine detection approach has been developed based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using a novel hydrogen bonding-assisted supramolecular matrix. The detection utilizes Fe3O4/Au magnetic nanoparticles coated with 5-aminoorotic acid (AOA) as a SERS active
[...] Read more.
A fast and cost-effective melamine detection approach has been developed based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using a novel hydrogen bonding-assisted supramolecular matrix. The detection utilizes Fe3O4/Au magnetic nanoparticles coated with 5-aminoorotic acid (AOA) as a SERS active substrate (Fe3O4/Au–AOA), and Rhodamine B (RhB) conjugated AOA as a Raman reporter (AOA–RhB). Upon mixing the reagents with melamine, a supramolecular complex [Fe3O4/Au–AOA•••melamine•••AOA–RhB] was formed due to the strong multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between AOA and melamine. The complex was separated and concentrated to a pellet by an external magnet and used as a supramolecular matrix for the melamine detection. Laser excitation of the complex pellet produced a strong SERS signal diagnostic for RhB. The logarithmic intensity of the characteristic RhB peaks was found to be proportional to the concentration of melamine with a limit of detection of 2.5 µg/mL and a detection linearity range of 2.5~15.0 µg/mL in milk. As Fe3O4 nanoparticles and AOA are thousands of times less expensive than the monoclonal antibody used in a traditional sandwich immunoassay, the current assay drastically cut down the cost of melamine detection. The current approach affords promise as a biosensor platform that cuts down sample pre-treatment steps and measurement expense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Enhanced Magnetic and Optical Properties for Emerging Biological Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071106
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
Metal nanoparticles are extensively studied due to their unique chemical and physical properties, which differ from the properties of their respective bulk materials. Likewise, the properties of heterogeneous bimetallic structures are far more attractive than those of single-component nanoparticles. For example, the incorporation
[...] Read more.
Metal nanoparticles are extensively studied due to their unique chemical and physical properties, which differ from the properties of their respective bulk materials. Likewise, the properties of heterogeneous bimetallic structures are far more attractive than those of single-component nanoparticles. For example, the incorporation of a second metal into a nanoparticle structure influences and can potentially enhance the optical/plasmonic and magnetic properties of the material. This review focuses on the enhanced optical/plasmonic and magnetic properties offered by bimetallic nanoparticles and their corresponding impact on biological applications. In this review, we summarize the predominant structures of bimetallic nanoparticles, outline their synthesis methods, and highlight their use in biological applications, both diagnostic and therapeutic, which are dictated by their various optical/plasmonic and magnetic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Progress in Synthesis and Functionalization of Multimodal Fluorescent-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020172
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a great interest in the development of new nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications in biology and medicine. Multimodal fluorescent-magnetic based nanomaterials deserve particular attention as they can be used as diagnostic and drug delivery tools, which could facilitate the diagnosis and
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There is a great interest in the development of new nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications in biology and medicine. Multimodal fluorescent-magnetic based nanomaterials deserve particular attention as they can be used as diagnostic and drug delivery tools, which could facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and many other diseases. This review focuses on the recent developments of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites and their biomedical applications. The recent advances in synthetic strategies and approaches for the preparation of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites are presented. The main biomedical uses of multimodal fluorescent-magnetic nanomaterials, including biological imaging, cancer therapy and drug delivery, are discussed, and prospects of this field are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview Multimodal Magnetic-Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010097
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 7 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic plasmonic nanomaterials are of great interest in the field of biomedicine due to their vast number of potential applications, for example, in molecular imaging, photothermal therapy, magnetic hyperthermia and as drug delivery vehicles. The multimodal nature of these nanoparticles means that they
[...] Read more.
Magnetic plasmonic nanomaterials are of great interest in the field of biomedicine due to their vast number of potential applications, for example, in molecular imaging, photothermal therapy, magnetic hyperthermia and as drug delivery vehicles. The multimodal nature of these nanoparticles means that they are potentially ideal theranostic agents—i.e., they can be used both as therapeutic and diagnostic tools. This review details progress in the field of magnetic-plasmonic nanomaterials over the past ten years, focusing on significant developments that have been made and outlining the future work that still needs to be done in this fast emerging area. The review describes the main synthetic approaches to each type of magnetic plasmonic nanomaterial and the potential biomedical applications of these hybrid nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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