Special Issue "Functional Materials in Water and Wastewater Treatment/Soil Remediation"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Sustainable Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Chang-Gu Lee
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Ajou University, Korea
Interests: water treatment; environmental nanotechnology; wastewater treatment; resource recovery
Prof. Seong-Jik Park
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bioresources and Rural Systems Engineering, Hankyong National University, Korea
Interests: water; soil; sediment; environment; phosphorus
Prof. Eun Hea Jho
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Korea
Interests: water & soil treatment; heavy metal; ecotoxicity; risk assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Material science is an interdisciplinary research field, including interrelationships between composition, structure, process, and performance of various materials, and is widely integrated with other disciplines to form many interdisciplinary subjects. In practice, it is often divided into structural materials and functional materials. Recently, environmental materials as a new field of material science have attracted much attention. Application of functional environmental materials, both natural and synthetic, is becoming increasingly popular in water purification and soil remediation. With rapid industrial development and accelerated urbanization, environmental pollution has been getting worse, but conventional treatment technologies often cannot satisfy the growing public demand for a healthy environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop efficient and economic technologies for large-scale water and soil treatment. One way of doing this is the application of functional environmental materials, and it is expected to greatly enhance the efficiency of traditional treatment processes, thereby facilitating improvement in water and soil quality. The functional environmental materials for water purification and soil remediation can be divided into four categories: (1) Adsorbent, (2) ion-exchange material, (3) catalytic oxidation material, and (4) stabilizing agents. These materials include natural clay minerals with and/or without treatment, synthetic materials such as activated carbon, ferric hydroxide, activated alumina, biochars, photocatalysts, synthetic fiber mats, and their composites. In this Special Issue, we invite you to submit manuscripts on various functional environmental materials for water/wastewater treatment and soil remediation.

Prof. Chang-Gu Lee
Prof. Seong-Jik Park
Prof. Eun Hea Jho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • functional materials
  • water and wastewater treatment
  • soil remediation
  • adsorption
  • ion exchange
  • catalytic oxidation, stabilizing agent

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Hybrid Ion-Exchange Fabric/Ceramic Membrane System to Remove As(V), Zn(II), and Turbidity from Wastewater
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072414 - 01 Apr 2020
Abstract
Ceramic membranes and ion exchangers are effective at removing turbidity and ionic contaminants from water, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate the performance of a hybrid ion-exchange fabric/ceramic membrane system to treat metal ions and turbidity at the same time in synthetic wastewater. [...] Read more.
Ceramic membranes and ion exchangers are effective at removing turbidity and ionic contaminants from water, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate the performance of a hybrid ion-exchange fabric/ceramic membrane system to treat metal ions and turbidity at the same time in synthetic wastewater. The removal rate of As(V) and Zn(II) by the ceramic membrane increased with solution pH, while turbidity was completely removed regardless of the solution pH. The main reaction of As(V) removal was adsorption at solution pH 6 and precipitation at solution pH 8, whereas phase-change was the predominant reaction for Zn(II) removal at both solution pH values. The removal efficiency of the ion-exchange fabric was affected by the solution pH, with the maximum removal capacity of As(V) occurring at solution pH 4. The As(V) adsorption capacity of the ion-exchange fabric reached equilibrium within 120 min. The ion-exchange capacity of the ion-exchange fabric was compared with commercial ion-exchange fibers. The regeneration efficiency of the ion-exchange fabric using 0.1 M NaCl solution was around 95% on average and decreased slightly as the number of regeneration cycles was increased. Over 80% of As(V) and Zn(II) were steadily removed at solution pH 6 by the hybrid ion-exchange fabric/ceramic membrane system. Reduced flow rate and removal capacity were recovered through a backwashing process during continuous treatment with the hybrid ion-exchange fabric/ceramic membrane system. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Removal of Crystal Violet from Textile Wastewater Using Palm Kernel Shell-Derived Biochar
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072251 - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
In this study, we explored the adsorption potential of biochar derived from palm kernel shell (BC-PKS) as an affordable adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet from wastewater. Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption of crystal violet [...] Read more.
In this study, we explored the adsorption potential of biochar derived from palm kernel shell (BC-PKS) as an affordable adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet from wastewater. Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption of crystal violet onto BC-PKS. The kinetics adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model, indicating that the rate of adsorption is principally controlled by chemisorption. The adsorption equilibrium data were better fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model with a determination coefficient of 0.954 and a maximum adsorption of 24.45 mg/g. Thermodynamics studies found the adsorption of crystal violet by BC-PKS to be endothermic with increasing randomness at the BC-PKS/crystal violet interface. The percentage removal and adsorption capacity increased with the pH of the solution, as the negative charges on the biochar surface at high pH enhance the electrostatic attraction between crystal violet molecules and BC-PKS. Increasing the BC-PKS dosage from 0.1 to 1.0 g increased percent removal and decreased the adsorption capacity of crystal violet onto BC-PKS. Therefore, biochar from agricultural by-products, i.e., palm kernel shell, can be cost-effective adsorbents for the removal of crystal violet from textile wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Irrigation with Desalinated Water on Lettuce Grown under Greenhouse in South Korea
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2207; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072207 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study assessed the effects of irrigation with desalinated water on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Two experiments, the first using saline and the second desalinated irrigation water, respectively, were designed to grow lettuce in plots (22 m × 0.4 [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effects of irrigation with desalinated water on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Two experiments, the first using saline and the second desalinated irrigation water, respectively, were designed to grow lettuce in plots (22 m × 0.4 m × 0.4 m) under controlled greenhouse conditions. Three levels of saline irrigation water and tap water (control) were used for the first experiment. In the second experiment, the three saline levels underwent a desalination process. Each experiment was carried out twice, in succession, with two replications. The results from the first experiment showed that the use of saline irrigation water caused an increase in the salinity level of soil and, consequently, adversely affected lettuce growth and yields. The results from the second experiment showed that the use of desalinated irrigation water does not negatively affect soil salinity and lettuce growth and yield. However, the need for additional application of the elements such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ was also identified since continued use of desalinated water irrigation correlated with a decrease in the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), leading to increased risk of soil sodicity. This is due to the elimination of nutrients during the desalination process. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Removal of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Amine-Doped Polyacrylonitrile Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051738 - 03 Mar 2020
Abstract
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were prepared via electrospinning and were modified with diethylenetriamine (DETA) to fabricate surface-modified PAN fibers. The surface-modified PAN fibers were used to evaluate their adsorption capacity for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to [...] Read more.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were prepared via electrospinning and were modified with diethylenetriamine (DETA) to fabricate surface-modified PAN fibers. The surface-modified PAN fibers were used to evaluate their adsorption capacity for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to examine the effects of the modification process, initial concentration, initial pH, and adsorbent dose on the adsorption of Cu(II). Kinetic analysis revealed that the experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model better than the pseudo-first-order model. Adsorption equilibrium studies were conducted using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, and the findings indicated that the PAN fibers modified with 85% DETA presented the highest adsorption capacity for Cu(II) of all analyzed samples. Moreover, the results revealed that the Freundlich model was more appropriate than the Langmuir one for describing the adsorption of Cu(II) onto the modified fibers at various initial Cu(II) concentrations. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 87.77 mg/g at pH 4, and the percent removal of Cu(II) increased as the amount of adsorbent increased. Furthermore, the surface-modified PAN fibers could be easily regenerated using NaOH solution. Therefore, surface-modified PAN fibers could be used as adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Functional Group Density of Anion Exchange Resins on Removal of p-Toluene Sulfonic Acid from Aqueous Solution
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
Adsorption using anion exchange resins is an efficient method for the removal of aromatic sulfonic acids (ASAs) from industrial wastewater. In this study, a series of weak-base anion exchangers (SD1–SD5) were synthesized to investigate the effect of functional group density of resins on [...] Read more.
Adsorption using anion exchange resins is an efficient method for the removal of aromatic sulfonic acids (ASAs) from industrial wastewater. In this study, a series of weak-base anion exchangers (SD1–SD5) were synthesized to investigate the effect of functional group density of resins on the adsorption of ASAs from wastewater containing competitive inorganic anions. p-Toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) was selected as a target pollutant, and Na2SO4 was chosen as the competitive inorganic salt because of its widespread existence in industrial wastewater. Adsorption performances of these resins were evaluated and compared in terms of selectivity, kinetics, isotherms, regeneration, and dynamic adsorption behavior. Importantly, the PTSA uptake increased with the raising content of functional groups on resins in the absence of Na2SO4; however, in the presence of a high level of Na2SO4 (for example, ≥1%), a decrease in the functional group density could improve the adsorption capacity of resins for PTSA. Moreover, desorption and fixed bed column experiments were conducted in all resins, thereby confirming the effect of functional group density of resins on the PTSA adsorption in actual application. In brief, this research will provide a better understanding for the design and preparation of anion exchangers for the effective removal of ASA from wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Arsenic Leached from Sediments: Agricultural Implications of Abandoned Mines
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4628; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214628 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Heavy metals, including arsenic from abandoned mines, are easily transported with sediment and deposited in waterbodies such as reservoirs and lakes, creating critical water quality issues when they are released. Understanding the leaching of heavy metals is necessary for developing efficient water quality [...] Read more.
Heavy metals, including arsenic from abandoned mines, are easily transported with sediment and deposited in waterbodies such as reservoirs and lakes, creating critical water quality issues when they are released. Understanding the leaching of heavy metals is necessary for developing efficient water quality improvement plans. This study investigated how arsenic leaches from different soil and sediment types and responds to hydrologic conditions to identify areas susceptible to arsenic contamination. In this study, batch- and column-leaching tests and sequential extraction procedures were used to examine arsenic leaching processes in detail. The results showed that most arsenic-loaded sediments accumulated in the vicinity of a reservoir inlet, and arsenic in reservoir beds have a higher leaching potential than those from agricultural land and stream beds. Arsenic deposited at the bottom of reservoirs had higher mobility than that in the other soils and sediments, and arsenic leaching was closely associated with the acidity of water. In addition, arsenic leaching was found to be responsive to seasons (wet or dry) as its mobilization is controlled by organic compounds that vary over time. The results suggested that temporal variations in the hydrochemical composition of reservoir water should be considered when defining a management plan for reservoir water quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Application of Alginate Coated Iron Hydroxide for the Removal of Cu(II) and Phosphate
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3835; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183835 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
The removal of both cation and anion contaminants in solution typically requires separate processes or multiple materials, resulting in added complexity and higher operational costs. A cost effective and environmental friendly hybrid adsorbent material has been developed for the removal of Cu(II) and [...] Read more.
The removal of both cation and anion contaminants in solution typically requires separate processes or multiple materials, resulting in added complexity and higher operational costs. A cost effective and environmental friendly hybrid adsorbent material has been developed for the removal of Cu(II) and phosphate from the solution. Ferric hydroxide (FHO) was prepared by precipitation methods and then dissolved alginate, a biopolymer, was coated on the surface of the FHO particles to generated FHO-A. In the preparation of FHO-A, the alginate concentration is a critical factor in keeping the FHO-A particles suspended in solution where high concentrations of alginate act as a stabilizer and the FHO-A particles are not settled by gravity. The Cu(II) removal efficiency was wholly dependent on the concentration of alginate via the interaction with the polymer carboxyl groups and was not influenced by the concentration of FHO. Conversely, alginate was not involved in the removal of phosphate and instead, FHO was found to be critical for phosphate removal through electrostatic forces. According to FTIR, the new peaks at 1394 and 1593 cm−1 after coating indicated that the alginate was appended to the surface of the FHO. The shift of peak from 1593 to 1588 cm−1 after Cu(II) adsorption confirms the presence of a Cu-carboxylate interaction. The adsorption of Cu(II) was completed within 5 min, which is very similar to nanoparticle mediated sorption processes. In comparison to Cu(II), the presence of alginate retards the phosphate removal rate. Further, pH dependence was observed in the process, where increasing pH results in increased Cu(II) and decreased phosphate removal rates due to alginate deprotonation and the surface charge effects, respectively. The slowed phosphate sorption rate and shifted peaks in the FTIR spectrum confirmed that the layer of alginate was coated on the FHO particle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chromium (VI) Adsorption on Modified Activated Carbons
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3549; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173549 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The paper presents the research of adsorptive properties of activated carbons to chromium (VI) removal from the water solution. Different types of carbon were investigated: WD-ekstra (WDA), WD-ekstra modified by salt acid WD(HCl) and nitrogen acid WD(HNO3). The adsorption kinetics, influence [...] Read more.
The paper presents the research of adsorptive properties of activated carbons to chromium (VI) removal from the water solution. Different types of carbon were investigated: WD-ekstra (WDA), WD-ekstra modified by salt acid WD(HCl) and nitrogen acid WD(HNO3). The adsorption kinetics, influence reaction, temperature and kind of carbon were determined using static methods. The adsorption of chromium (VI) onto all activated carbons was most efficient at pH 2. The time of adsorption balance for carbon WD(HCl) was 2.5 h and for carbon WDA 4.5 h. The influence of carbon modification and temperature on the effectiveness of adsorption of hexavalent chromium was determined on the basis of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The research showed that the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) increased with the increasing temperature of the solution. The most efficient adsorbent in static conditions was found on WD-ekstra modified by HCl. The adsorbent applied in dynamic conditions as the filtration bed (v = 2 m/h, time of retention TR = 420 s, initial concentration C0 = 1 mg/dm3), it removed chromium (VI) from water very effectively. Adsorption capacities after exhaustion of the bed were obtained at PeWD (HCl) = 4.35 mg/g. On the basis of executed research, chromium ions were successfully eliminated onto modified carbon WD(HCl) that makes its employment capabilities in the systems purification of water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of Nitrate by a Novel Polyacrylic Anion Exchange Resin from Water with Dissolved Organic Matters: Batch and Column Study
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3077; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9153077 - 30 Jul 2019
Abstract
A novel anion exchange resin AEE-3 was synthesized by N-alkylation of a weakly basic polyacrylic anion exchanger D311 with 1-bromopropane to effectively remove nitrate (NO3-N) from aqueous solution. The related finding revealed that its adsorption isotherm obeyed the Langmuir model [...] Read more.
A novel anion exchange resin AEE-3 was synthesized by N-alkylation of a weakly basic polyacrylic anion exchanger D311 with 1-bromopropane to effectively remove nitrate (NO3-N) from aqueous solution. The related finding revealed that its adsorption isotherm obeyed the Langmuir model well, and the second-order model was more validated for the NO3-N adsorption kinetics study. Compared to commercially-available polystyrene-based nitrate specialty resin Purolite A 520E (A520E), AEE-3 resin has a higher adsorbed amount and better regeneration performance toward NO3-N in the existence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) using static and dynamic methods. Notably, a real secondary treated wastewater (STWW) obtained from a local municipal wastewater treatment plant was also assessed for NO3-N removal in fixed-bed columns. Observations from this study indicated that AEE-3 could effectively remove NO3-N from contaminated surface water. Full article
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