Special Issue "New Trends in Design Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Francisco Cavas Martínez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Structures, Construction and Graphical Expression, Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain
Interests: design, computational modeling, and simulation; CAD, CAE, CAM, and BIM; geometric modeling and analysis; creativity and sustainability; innovative design; additive manufacturing; biomechanical engineering; engineering methods in human-related applications; biomedical engineering; big data and artificial intelligence; digital manufacturing for industry 4.0
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the current and complex mechanical engineering environment, computational modeling and simulation represent vital tools for gaining understanding and optimizing product designs and manufacturing processes at different levels. Today, the huge growth in computational power available for design, modeling, and simulation provides modern computational methods with a significant role in the analysis and optimization of many complex processes and designs, allowing them to be completed in a fast and effective manner, saving costs, time, and reducing waste. Therefore, it becomes essential to stay up to date with the latest trends and developments in the field of Mechanics.

We encourage submissions to this Special Issue which aim at sharing knowledge, experience, and up-to-date scientific information in the areas of design engineering, providing an overview on methodologies, tools, and applications for understanding how the application of emerging technologies impact critical engineering activities, such as product design, manufacturing, management and integration of information along the life cycle of the product/system. This Special Issue shall provide a comprehensive coverage of the experimental, computational, and analytical approaches that are usually employed to implement new products and processes in several different fields (automotive, biomedical, civil, aeronautics, etc.). These approaches also frequently aim to improve current products and processes, basing on new approaches to implement technologies. This Special Issue will not only be useful for researchers in these areas, but also for engineers engaged with advanced design and manufacturing problems.

This Special Issue will publish original contributions related but not limited to the topics described in the keywords.

Prof. Dr. Francisco Cavas Martínez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Design, computational modeling, and simulation
  • Optimization
  • Finite element method
  • Manufacturing, integrated product and process design
  • Virtual reality, augmented reality and interactive design
  • Geometric modelling and analysis
  • CAD, CAE, CAM and BIM
  • Additive manufacturing—design and applications
  • Engineering methods in human-related applications
  • Reverse engineering, digital acquisition and inspection
  • Industrial design and ergonomics
  • Numerical modeling for simulation in biomechanical engineering
  • Digital manufacturing for Industry 4.0 applications
  • Manufacturing, integration and characterization of multifunctional structure and devices
  • Design for sustainability and human robot collaboration
  • Biomimicry for product design
  • In silico design and generation of biological structures
  • Virtual prototyping-based design
  • Mechanisms and machine design
  • Big data and artificial intelligence
  • Product/process innovation and systematic design methods
  • Materials engineering design

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Warpage Behavior on Silicon Semiconductor Device: The Impact of Thick Copper Metallization
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115140 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Electrochemical deposited (ECD) thick film copper on silicon substrate is one of the most challenging technological brick for semiconductor industry representing a relevant improvement from the state of art because of its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity compared with traditional materials, such as [...] Read more.
Electrochemical deposited (ECD) thick film copper on silicon substrate is one of the most challenging technological brick for semiconductor industry representing a relevant improvement from the state of art because of its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity compared with traditional materials, such as aluminum. The main technological factor that makes challenging the industrial implementation of thick copper layer is the severe wafer warpage induced by Cu annealing process, which negatively impacts the wafer manufacturability. The aim of presented work is the understanding of warpage variation during annealing process of ECD thick (20 μm) copper layer. Warpage is experimentally characterized at different temperature by means of Phase-Shift Moiré principle, according to different annealing profiles. Physical analysis is employed to correlated the macroscopic warpage behavior with microstructure modification. A linear Finite Element Model (FEM) is developed to predict the geometrically stress-curvature relation, comparing results with analytical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
Characterising the Mould Rectification Process for Designing Scoliosis Braces: Towards Automated Digital Design of 3D-Printed Braces
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4665; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104665 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The plaster-casting method to create a scoliosis brace consists of mould generation and rectification to obtain the desired orthosis geometry. Alternative methods entail the use of 3D scanning and CAD/CAM. However, both manual and digital design entirely rely on the orthotist expertise. Characterisation [...] Read more.
The plaster-casting method to create a scoliosis brace consists of mould generation and rectification to obtain the desired orthosis geometry. Alternative methods entail the use of 3D scanning and CAD/CAM. However, both manual and digital design entirely rely on the orthotist expertise. Characterisation of the rectification process is needed to ensure that digital designs are as efficient as plaster-cast designs. Three-dimensional scans of five patients, pre-, and post-rectification plaster moulds were obtained using a Structure Mark II scanner. Anatomical landmark positions, transverse section centroids, and 3D surface deviation analyses were performed to characterise the rectification process. The rectification process was characterised using two parameters. First, trends in the external contours of the rectified moulds were found, resulting in lateral tilt angles of 81 ± 3.8° and 83.3 ± 2.6° on the convex and concave side, respectively. Second, a rectification ratio at the iliac crest (0.23 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.02 on the convex and concave side, respectively) was devised, based on the pelvis width to estimate the volume to be removed. This study demonstrates that steps of the manual rectification process can be characterised. Results from this study can be fed into software to perform automatic digital rectification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
3D Digital Adaptive Thorax Modelling of Peoples with Spinal Disabilities: Applications for Performance Clothing Design
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4545; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104545 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Peoples with spinal disability face a huge problem in the design and development of ergonomically fitted and comfortable clothing. Various research studies on the design and developments of functional clothing for scoliosis patients consider their morphological shapes. However, developing appropriate models of the [...] Read more.
Peoples with spinal disability face a huge problem in the design and development of ergonomically fitted and comfortable clothing. Various research studies on the design and developments of functional clothing for scoliosis patients consider their morphological shapes. However, developing appropriate models of the complicated and deformed anatomical shape of the patient in 3D digitization technologies makes it possible to design a comfortable and fitted garment. The current paper proposes a method for developing a fully parametric 3D adaptive model of the thorax of a patient suffering from scoliosis. The model is designed from the spine and follows the deformation of the spine to adapt the thorax skeleton according to the temporal evolution of the spinal column deformation. The integration of the model of the thorax, adjusted to the patient’s data, enables the chain of acquisition, processing, and global model to be validated. The fit of the model could be improved for the different bones and it is possible to modify the angles of the spine to see the evolution of the disease. The developed model greatly helps to further detect anthropometric points from certain bone parts of the skeleton to design a basic bodice adapted to the patient’s evolving morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
Analysis of Vertical Stiffness Characteristics Based on Spoke Shape of Non-Pneumatic Tire
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052369 - 07 Mar 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Recently, research regarding non-pneumatic tires that are resistant to punctures has been actively conducted, and the spoke structure design of non-pneumatic tires has been found to be a crucial factor. This study aimed to analyze the vertical stiffness characteristics of a non-pneumatic tire [...] Read more.
Recently, research regarding non-pneumatic tires that are resistant to punctures has been actively conducted, and the spoke structure design of non-pneumatic tires has been found to be a crucial factor. This study aimed to analyze the vertical stiffness characteristics of a non-pneumatic tire based on the shape of the spoke under the application of a vertical load. The three-dimensional model of a commercial non-pneumatic tire was obtained from the manufacturer (Kumho Tire Co., Inc., Gwangju, Korea), and the vertical stiffness characteristics of the three tire models with modified spoke shapes were compared and analyzed based on a reference tire model. Results show that the vertical stiffness of the fillet applied model is most appropriate. Furthermore, the vertical stiffness characteristics of the analyzed tire models indicate that if fillets with a minimum size are applied to the spokes, the stability of the non-pneumatic tire is expected to improve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
Realization of Agile Methods in Established Processes: Challenges and Barriers
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052043 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
This paper presents an explorative study and the results of 17 interviews with informants from different companies. Its purpose is to identify the challenges associated with implementing agile methods along with the established procedures for early design. The study exemplifies project leaders’ experiences [...] Read more.
This paper presents an explorative study and the results of 17 interviews with informants from different companies. Its purpose is to identify the challenges associated with implementing agile methods along with the established procedures for early design. The study exemplifies project leaders’ experiences and implementation efforts. As leaders of design projects, they have proposed the use of a new method that involves teams engaging in testing and evaluation, which aids in the understanding and introduction of change initiatives. The challenges that are identified are as follows: (1) a lack of approval not only from top managers but also from critical peers; (2) an unprepared organization that did not allow teamwork; and (3) a lack of specific company success factors to support new methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
Article
A Theoretical Model with Which to Safely Optimize the Configuration of Hydraulic Suspension of Modular Trailers in Special Road Transport
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010305 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 494
Abstract
The dimensions and weight of machines, structures, and components that need to be transported safely by road are growing constantly. One of the safest and most widely used transport systems on the road today due to their versatility and configuration are modular trailers. [...] Read more.
The dimensions and weight of machines, structures, and components that need to be transported safely by road are growing constantly. One of the safest and most widely used transport systems on the road today due to their versatility and configuration are modular trailers. These trailers have hydraulic pendulum axles that are that are attached in pairs to the rigid platform above. In turn, these modular trailers are subject to limitations on the load that each axle carries, the tipping angle, and the oil pressure of the suspension system in order to guarantee safe transport by road. Optimizing the configuration of these modular trailers accurately and safely is a complex task. Factors to be considered include the load’s characteristics, the trailer’s mechanical properties, and road route conditions including the road’s slope and camber, precipitation and direction, and force of the wind. This paper presents a theoretical model that can be used for the optimal configuration of hydraulic cylinder suspension of special transport by road using modular trailers. It considers the previously mentioned factors and guarantees the safe stability of road transport. The proposed model was validated experimentally by placing a nacelle wind turbine at different points within a modular trailer. The weight of the wind turbine was 42,500 kg and its dimensions were 5133 × 2650 × 2975 mm. Once the proposed model was validated, an optimization algorithm was employed to find the optimal center of gravity for load, number of trailers, number of axles, oil pressures, and hydraulic configuration. The optimization algorithm was based on the iterative and automatic testing of the proposed model for different positions on the trailer and different hydraulic configurations. The optimization algorithm was tested with a cylindrical tank that weighed 108,500 kg and had dimensions of 19,500 × 3200 × 2500 mm. The results showed that the proposed model and optimization algorithm could safely optimize the configuration of the hydraulic suspension of modular trailers in special road transport, increase the accuracy and reliability of the calculation of the load configuration, save time, simplify the calculation process, and be easily implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
Novel Bionic Design Method for Skeleton Structures Based on Load Path Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8251; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228251 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Biological structures have excellent mechanical performances including lightweight, high stiffness, etc. However, these are difficult to apply directly to some given complex structures, such as automobile frame, control arm, etc. In this study, a novel bionic design method for skeleton structures with complex [...] Read more.
Biological structures have excellent mechanical performances including lightweight, high stiffness, etc. However, these are difficult to apply directly to some given complex structures, such as automobile frame, control arm, etc. In this study, a novel bionic design method for skeleton structures with complex features is proposed by the bio-inspired idea of “main-branch and sub-branch”. The envelope model of a given part is established by analyzing the structural functions and working conditions, and the load path is extracted by the load-transferred law as the structural main-branch. Then, the selection criterion of bionic prototype is established from three aspects: load similarity, structural similarity and manufacturability. The cross-sections with high similarities are selected as the structural sub-branch. Finally, the multi-objective size optimization is carried out and a new model is established. The bionic design of a control arm is carried out by the method: structural main-branch is obtained by the load path analysis and structural sub-branch is occupied by the fish-bone structure. The design result shows that the structural stiffness is increased by 62.3%, while the weight is reduced by 24.75%. The method can also be used for other fields including automobile, aerospace and civil engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
Secular Trends of Adult Population and Their Impacts in Industrial Design and Ergonomics
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7565; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217565 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Significant increase in 25 anthropometric variables of the Slovak and Czech population in time are defined in the paper. A total of 691 respondents from Slovakia and 688 from the Czech Republic were analyzed. Arithmetic means and standard deviations to characterize the anthropometric [...] Read more.
Significant increase in 25 anthropometric variables of the Slovak and Czech population in time are defined in the paper. A total of 691 respondents from Slovakia and 688 from the Czech Republic were analyzed. Arithmetic means and standard deviations to characterize the anthropometric variables and their variation were defined and compared. Subsequently, quantiles of the selected anthropometric measurements of the adult male and female population in individual countries in the year 2004 and newly determined quantiles in the year 2018 were calculated and compared. Following the results, the fact that secular trend has stabilized and differences in population between individual countries have minimized over the course of the last 14 years can be stated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
Article
Detection and Classification of Aircraft Fixation Elements during Manufacturing Processes Using a Convolutional Neural Network
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6856; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196856 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
The aerospace sector is one of the main economic drivers that strengthens our present, constitutes our future and is a source of competitiveness and innovation with great technological development capacity. In particular, the objective of manufacturers on assembly lines is to automate the [...] Read more.
The aerospace sector is one of the main economic drivers that strengthens our present, constitutes our future and is a source of competitiveness and innovation with great technological development capacity. In particular, the objective of manufacturers on assembly lines is to automate the entire process by using digital technologies as part of the transition toward Industry 4.0. In advanced manufacturing processes, artificial vision systems are interesting because their performance influences the liability and productivity of manufacturing processes. Therefore, developing and validating accurate, reliable and flexible vision systems in uncontrolled industrial environments is a critical issue. This research deals with the detection and classification of fasteners in a real, uncontrolled environment for an aeronautical manufacturing process, using machine learning techniques based on convolutional neural networks. Our system achieves 98.3% accuracy in a processing time of 0.8 ms per image. The results reveal that the machine learning paradigm based on a neural network in an industrial environment is capable of accurately and reliably estimating mechanical parameters to improve the performance and flexibility of advanced manufacturing processing of large parts with structural responsibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
A Visualization System for Exploring Logo Trend and Design Shape Patterns
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4579; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134579 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 826
Abstract
A logo is an effective way of expressing a brand’s identity and an essential element in conveying the values and image of the company. The development process of a competitive logo should be based on a design that is future-proof in a rapidly [...] Read more.
A logo is an effective way of expressing a brand’s identity and an essential element in conveying the values and image of the company. The development process of a competitive logo should be based on a design that is future-proof in a rapidly changing global market; hence, understanding the design trends for successful logo design is key. In this study, the design shape elements of logo trend models were analyzed and made into a database. Then, a trend analysis system was produced using radial visualization (RadViz) and circular parallel coordinates data visualization techniques. RadViz allows observation of clusters of logos that have similar shape elements, whereas with circular parallel coordinates plots, detailed information of the shape elements of each logo trend can be seen. Using the system, it was confirmed that shape elements—such as transformation to surface, overlapping, artificiality, concept of color and rhythm—play a major role in driving a trend. It was observed that trends change over time as various shape elements are added or removed. In addition, our study is expected to help predict the logo trend models that will come into style in the future. While similar efforts have been made in the past, our proposed system improves upon them by utilizing standard design elements as the categorizing criteria, using a unique combination of RadViz and circular parallel coordinates data visualization techniques. Using our system as a guideline, many users would be able to create logos that reflect what is trending. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
Familiarization and Reliability of the Isometric Knee Extension Test for Rapid Force Production Assessment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134499 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Despite the rising interest in the use of portable force sensors during isometric exercises to inform on neuromuscular performance, the design of practical field-based methods to obtain reliable measures is an ongoing challenge. We aim at identifying the intra-session and test-retest reliability of [...] Read more.
Despite the rising interest in the use of portable force sensors during isometric exercises to inform on neuromuscular performance, the design of practical field-based methods to obtain reliable measures is an ongoing challenge. We aim at identifying the intra-session and test-retest reliability of a rapid, isometric knee extension test to evaluate the maximal voluntary concentric force (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) and impulse following a field-based approach. On two occasions, 14 athletes unfamiliar with the test completed three sets of 2 s ballistic contractions (as fast and hard as possible) with 30 s rest. Raw and filtered data were collected in real time using a portable force sensor. RFD and impulse were highly reliability during “late” phases of the contraction (0–250 ms) since the first session (coefficient of variation (CV) < 9.8%). Earlier phases (0–150 ms) achieved a moderate reliability after one familiarization session (CV < 7.1%). Measures at 0–50 ms did not reach sufficient reliability (CV~14%). MVC was accurately assessed. Dominant limbs were not importantly altered by the familiarization. In opposite, non-dominant limbs showed large variations. New evidence is provided about the positive effects of a single familiarization session to improve the reliability the isometric knee extension test for rapid force production assessment. Coaches and practitioners may benefit of from these findings to conduct practical and reliable assessments of the rapid force production using a portable force sensor and a field-based approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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