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Article

Characterising the Mould Rectification Process for Designing Scoliosis Braces: Towards Automated Digital Design of 3D-Printed Braces

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
2
Department of Applied Computing, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya 11600, Sri Lanka
3
Sri Lanka School of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Hospital Ragama, Gampaha 11010, Sri Lanka
4
Center for Biomedical Innovation, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa 10400, Sri Lanka
5
Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London W12 0BX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco Cavas Martínez
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4665; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104665
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
The plaster-casting method to create a scoliosis brace consists of mould generation and rectification to obtain the desired orthosis geometry. Alternative methods entail the use of 3D scanning and CAD/CAM. However, both manual and digital design entirely rely on the orthotist expertise. Characterisation of the rectification process is needed to ensure that digital designs are as efficient as plaster-cast designs. Three-dimensional scans of five patients, pre-, and post-rectification plaster moulds were obtained using a Structure Mark II scanner. Anatomical landmark positions, transverse section centroids, and 3D surface deviation analyses were performed to characterise the rectification process. The rectification process was characterised using two parameters. First, trends in the external contours of the rectified moulds were found, resulting in lateral tilt angles of 81 ± 3.8° and 83.3 ± 2.6° on the convex and concave side, respectively. Second, a rectification ratio at the iliac crest (0.23 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.02 on the convex and concave side, respectively) was devised, based on the pelvis width to estimate the volume to be removed. This study demonstrates that steps of the manual rectification process can be characterised. Results from this study can be fed into software to perform automatic digital rectification. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D scanning; adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; digital design; orthosis design; plaster-casting; scoliosis brace; sculpting software 3D scanning; adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; digital design; orthosis design; plaster-casting; scoliosis brace; sculpting software
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanz-Pena, I.; Arachchi, S.; Halwala-Vithanage, D.; Mallikarachchi, S.; Kirumbara-Liyanage, J.; McGregor, A.; Silva, P.; Newell, N. Characterising the Mould Rectification Process for Designing Scoliosis Braces: Towards Automated Digital Design of 3D-Printed Braces. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 4665. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104665

AMA Style

Sanz-Pena I, Arachchi S, Halwala-Vithanage D, Mallikarachchi S, Kirumbara-Liyanage J, McGregor A, Silva P, Newell N. Characterising the Mould Rectification Process for Designing Scoliosis Braces: Towards Automated Digital Design of 3D-Printed Braces. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(10):4665. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104665

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sanz-Pena, Inigo, Shanika Arachchi, Dhammika Halwala-Vithanage, Sanjaya Mallikarachchi, Jeewantha Kirumbara-Liyanage, Alison McGregor, Pujitha Silva, and Nicolas Newell. 2021. "Characterising the Mould Rectification Process for Designing Scoliosis Braces: Towards Automated Digital Design of 3D-Printed Braces" Applied Sciences 11, no. 10: 4665. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104665

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