Special Issue "Selected Papers from ISET 2021, TSBME 2021, ISPE 2021, SEMBA 2022, and IEDMS 2022"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2023 | Viewed by 6331

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Congo Tak Shing Ching
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Guest Editor
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
Interests: biomedical instrumentation design; biosensors; tissue bioimpedance; biomedical electronics; biomedical optoelectronic; non-invasive medical diagnostics; assistive technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Po-Liang Liu
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Graduate Institute of Precision Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Interests: density functional theory and its application to the computational simulation and modeling of optical; vibrational, electronic, and thermoelastic properties of materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Dear Colleagues,

The impact of engineering technology on our daily lives is increasing at an unprecedented rate. This Special Issue discusses the latest trends in engineering research, not only in the industrial field, electronics field, materials field, but also in the medical field.

It is our pleasure to invite you to join the 3rd International Symposium on Engineering and Technology 2021 (ISET 2021) in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering 2021 (TSBME 2021), the 2nd International Symposium on Precision Engineering 2021 (ISPE 2021), the 2022 Symposium on Engineering, Medicine, and Biology Applications (SEMBA 2022), and the International Electron Devices and Materials Symposium 2022 (IEDMS 2022). ISET 2021 and TSBME 2021 will be held on 19–20 November 2021 at the National Chung Hsing University in Taiwan, ISPE 2021 will be held on 12-14 November 2021 at the Han-Hsien International Hotel in Taiwan, SEMBA 2022 will be held on 3-4 September 2022 at the National Chung Hsing University in Taiwan, and IEDMS 2022 will be held on 27-28 October 2022 at the National Chi Nan University in Taiwan, allowing attendees from all over the world to share their research achievements, explore the popular issues, and exchange new experiences and ideas in the field of engineering and technology.

ISET 2021, TSBME 2021, ISPE 2021, SEMBA 2022 and IEDMS 2022 will bring together scientists and technologists from academia and industry, encouraging the involvement of excellent early stage investigators. Topics of interest to this Special Issue include but not limited to:

Engineering: biomedical engineering, precision engineering, electrical and electronics engineering, civil and environmental engineering, chemical and material engineering, computer engineering, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, and other related topics.

Technology: assistive technology, information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology, and other related topics.

We look forward to meeting you in Taiwan!

Prof. Dr. Congo Tak Shing Ching
Prof. Dr. Po-Liang Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomedical engineering
  • electrical and electronics engineering
  • civil and environmental engineering
  • chemical and material engineering
  • computer engineering
  • mechanical engineering
  • industrial engineering
  • assistive technology
  • information technology
  • biotechnology and nanotechnology
  • control and automation engineering
  • renewable energy
  • cloud computing
  • artificial intelligence
  • computer vision and machine learning
  • mechatronics and robotics
  • embedded system, sensors, actuators
  • optics
  • precision manufacturing
  • precision measurement
  • precision inspection
  • micro-manufacturing and assembly technologies
  • precision control
  • mems
  • science and technology
  • applied science, engineering and technology
  • automation science and engineering
  • smart green technology
  • nanoscience
  • durable and thin membranes
  • catalyst material synthesis
  • characterization and modeling of fuel cells
  • compound semiconductor materials and devices
  • si-based processing, devices and integration
  • novel materials, medical device, large-area electronics, and related applications
  • photonic materials/devices, novel device concept and applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Deep Learning in Left and Right Footprint Image Detection Based on Plantar Pressure
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8885; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178885 - 05 Sep 2022
Viewed by 693
Abstract
People with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer primarily from lower-limb impairments. These impairments contribute to the abnormal performance of functional activities and ambulation. Footprints, such as plantar pressure images, are usually used to assess functional performance in people with spastic CP. Detecting left and [...] Read more.
People with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer primarily from lower-limb impairments. These impairments contribute to the abnormal performance of functional activities and ambulation. Footprints, such as plantar pressure images, are usually used to assess functional performance in people with spastic CP. Detecting left and right feet based on footprints in people with CP is a challenge due to abnormal foot progression angle and abnormal footprint patterns. Identifying left and right foot profiles in people with CP is essential to provide information on the foot orthosis, walking problems, index gait patterns, and determination of the dominant limb. Deep learning with object detection can localize and classify the object more precisely on the abnormal foot progression angle and complex footprints associated with spastic CP. This study proposes a new object detection model to auto-determine left and right footprints. The footprint images successfully represented the left and right feet with high accuracy in object detection. YOLOv4 more successfully detected the left and right feet using footprint images compared to other object detection models. YOLOv4 reached over 99.00% in various metric performances. Furthermore, detection of the right foot (majority of people’s dominant leg) was more accurate than that of the left foot (majority of people’s non-dominant leg) in different object detection models. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Cr Substitution on the Anomalous Hall Effect of Co3−xCrxAl (x = 0, 1, 2, 3) Heusler Compounds: An Ab Initio Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8303; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168303 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Based on density functional theory, we studied the electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of Co3−xCrxAl (x = 0, 1, 2, 3) Heusler compounds with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential. In this study, we report two [...] Read more.
Based on density functional theory, we studied the electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of Co3−xCrxAl (x = 0, 1, 2, 3) Heusler compounds with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential. In this study, we report two principal spin-related phenomena, namely, the anomalous Hall effect and current spin polarization of the Co3−xCrxAl Heusler compounds in the L21 crystal structure. Heusler compounds, both ideally and inversely ordered, were considered. We found that the calculated magnetic moment of Co3−xCrxAl decreased with an increase in the Cr concentration for both ideally and inversely ordered structures, except for Cr3Al. We also found that the spin polarization for all Co3−xCrxAl was larger than 50%, except for Cr2CoAl in the inverse structure. All the considered Heusler compounds were mechanically stable except for the regular Cr2CoAl. The Hall current spin polarization was also calculated. We found that Co2CrAl in the XA structure had the largest spin Hall conductivity of 370 (S/e cm), and the spin polarization of the induced Hall current was high. Full article
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Article
Channel-Wise Average Pooling and 1D Pixel-Shuffle Denoising Autoencoder for Electrode Motion Artifact Removal in ECG
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 6957; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146957 - 09 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
This paper presents a channel-wise average pooling and one dimension pixel-shuffle architecture for a denoising autoencoder (CPDAE) design that can be applied to efficiently remove electrode motion (EM) artifacts in an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The three advantages of the proposed design are as [...] Read more.
This paper presents a channel-wise average pooling and one dimension pixel-shuffle architecture for a denoising autoencoder (CPDAE) design that can be applied to efficiently remove electrode motion (EM) artifacts in an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The three advantages of the proposed design are as follows: (1) In the skip connection layer, less memory is needed to transfer the features extracted by the neural network; (2) Pixel shuffle and pixel unshuffle techniques with point-wise convolution are used to effectively reserve the key features generated from each layer in both the encoder and decoder; (3) Overall, fewer parameters are required to reconstruct the ECG signal. This paper describes three deep neural network models, namely CPDAELite, CPDAERegular, and CPDAEFull, which support various computational capacity and hardware arrangements. The three proposed structures involve an encoder and decoder with six, seven, and eight layers, respectively. Furthermore, the CPDAELite, CPDAERegular, and CPDAEFull structures require fewer multiply-accumulate operations—355.01, 56.96, and 14.69 million, respectively—and less parameter usage—2.69 million, 149.7 thousand, and 55.5 thousand, respectively. To evaluate the denoising performance, the MIT–BIH noise stress test database containing six signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of noisy ECGs was employed. The results demonstrated that the proposed models had a higher improvement of SNR and lower percentage root-mean-square difference than other state-of-the-art methods under various conditions of SNR. Full article
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Article
Ab Initio Studies of Work Function Changes of CO Adsorption on Clean and Pd-Doped ZnGa2O4(111) Surfaces for Gas Sensors
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 5978; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12125978 - 12 Jun 2022
Viewed by 603
Abstract
We performed first-principles calculations to study the adsorption of the CO molecules on both clean and Pd-doped ZnGa2O4(111) surfaces. The adsorption reaction and work function of the CO adsorption models were examined. The CO molecules on the clean and [...] Read more.
We performed first-principles calculations to study the adsorption of the CO molecules on both clean and Pd-doped ZnGa2O4(111) surfaces. The adsorption reaction and work function of the CO adsorption models were examined. The CO molecules on the clean and Pd-doped ZnGa2O4(111) surfaces exhibit maximum work function changes of −0.55 eV and −0.79 eV, respectively. The work function change of Pd-doped ZnGa2O4(111) for detecting CO is 1.43 times higher than that of the clean ZnGa2O4(111). In addition, the adsorption energy is also significantly reduced from −1.88 eV to −3.36 eV without and with Pd atoms, respectively. The results demonstrate ZnGa2O4-based gas sensors doped by palladium can improve the sensitivity of detecting CO molecules. Full article
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Article
Electronic Band Structures of the Possible Topological Insulator Pb2BiBrO6 and Pb2SeTeO6 Double Perovskite: An Ab Initio Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 5913; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12125913 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Using the frameworks of density functional theory, we found a new class of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs) in Pb2BiBrO6 and Pb2SeTeO6 double perovskites. Our ab initio theoretical calculations show that Pb2BiBrO6 and Pb [...] Read more.
Using the frameworks of density functional theory, we found a new class of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs) in Pb2BiBrO6 and Pb2SeTeO6 double perovskites. Our ab initio theoretical calculations show that Pb2BiBrO6 and Pb2SeTeO6 are Z2 nontrivial, and their bandgaps are 0.390 eV and 0.181 eV, respectively. The topology comes from two mechanisms. Firstly, the band inversion occurs at Γ point in the absence of spin-orbit interactions and secondly, the bandgap is induced by the SOC. This results in a larger bandgap for this new class of topological insulators than conventional TI. In Pb2BiBrO6 double perovskites, our slab calculations confirm that the topology-protected surface metallic bands come from the BiBrO4 surface which means that one can build a transport device using Pb2BiBrO6 double perovskites with a PbO layer as an outmost protection layer. The mechanical stabilities such as bulk, shear, Young’s moduli, Poisson’s and Pugh’s ratio, longitudinal, transverse, and average sound velocity, together with Debye temperature are also studied. Our results show that these Pb2AA’O6 (A = Sb and Bi; A’ = Br and I) and Pb2SeTeO6 are mechanically stable. Full article
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Article
High-Temperature Coefficient of Resistance in MoxW1−xS2 Thin Film
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5110; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12105110 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Despite the use of transition metal dichalcogenides being widespread in various applications, the knowledge and applications of MoxW1−xS2 compounds are relatively limited. In this study, we deposited a MoW alloy on a Si substrate using a sputter system. [...] Read more.
Despite the use of transition metal dichalcogenides being widespread in various applications, the knowledge and applications of MoxW1−xS2 compounds are relatively limited. In this study, we deposited a MoW alloy on a Si substrate using a sputter system. Consequently, we successfully utilized a furnace to sulfurize the MoW alloy from 800 to 950 °C, which transferred the alloy into a MoxW1−xS2 ternary compound. The Raman spectra of the MoxW1−xS2 samples indicated an additional hybridized Raman peak at 375 cm−1 not present in typical MoS2 and WS2. With increasing sulfurization temperature, the scanning electron microscopy images revealed the surface morphology of the MoxW1−xS2 gradually becoming a sheet-like structure. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystal structure of the MoxW1−xS2 tended toward a preferable (002) crystal orientation. The I–V results showed that the resistance of MoxW1−xS2 increased when the samples were sulfurized at a higher temperature due to the more porous structures generated within the thin film. Furthermore, a high-temperature coefficient of resistance for the MoxW1−xS2 thin film sulfurized at 950 °C was about −1.633%/K−1. This coefficient of resistance in a MoxW1−xS2 thin film indicates its suitability for use in thermal sensors. Full article
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Article
Optimizing U-Shaped Production Line Balancing Problem with Exchangeable Task Locations and Walking Times
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073375 - 26 Mar 2022
Viewed by 947
Abstract
This present study proposes to solve the U-shaped production line balancing problem with two constraints. First, following the precedence relationships between any pair of tasks, the locations of tasks are exchangeable. Second, all tasks are designed to be performed in fixed locations. When [...] Read more.
This present study proposes to solve the U-shaped production line balancing problem with two constraints. First, following the precedence relationships between any pair of tasks, the locations of tasks are exchangeable. Second, all tasks are designed to be performed in fixed locations. When two or more tasks are assigned to the same operator, the walking time between the locations has to be considered when estimating the cycle time. The proposed problem is first formulated using an integer programming formulation, which is then solved by commercial software, LINGO, to minimize the cycle time and performance of the U-shaped production line. The empirical results show that U-shaped production lines outperform traditional straight production lines. In addition, the U-shaped production line balancing problem with consideration of walking time provides an opportunity to further reduce cycle time. Full article
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