Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 10392

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Interests: hydroclimatology; hydrosystem modeling; flood/drought frequency analysis; climate variability and change; tropical meteorology; environmental assessment; risk management
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Joongbu University, Goyang 10279, Korea
Interests: remote sensing of hydro-meteorology; drought monitoring and forecasting; climate change adaptation; eco hydrology; statistical hydrology
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea
Interests: hydrology; climate change; sustainability; machine learning; artificial intelligence; big data; sensor networks; IoT (Internet of Things); early warning systems; hydrological modeling, disaster and risk management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of Safety and Disaster Prevention Research, Seoul Institute of Technology, 37, Maebongsan-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 03909, Republic of Korea
Interests: frequency analysis; water resources management; climate change; hydrological modeling; drought analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change is considered one of the most dangerous risks facing current and future generations and can have significant impacts on both civilizations and ecosystems.

Among the risks associated with climate change, drought has been recognized as a serious disaster that is widely spotlighted around the world. Droughts are caused by a lack of water due to less precipitation. Droughts are challenging to manage, particularly in the short-term, because they are continuous, wide-ranging, and long-term. Furthermore, it is difficult to define the start and end of the drought. Consequently, strategies to minimize drought damage and the development of countermeasures for future drought-prone areas are vital.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences entitled “Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management” welcomes topics including, but not limited to, observational and model-based studies that could provide useful information for water resources management, infrastructure design, decision-making, and policy to achieve our goals of enhancing the resilience of human-environment systems to climate change and increased variability.

Prof. Dr. Jong-Suk Kim
Prof. Dr. Joo-Heon Lee
Dr. Changhyun Jun
Dr. Sunkwon Yoon
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • climate variability and change
  • drought impact and risk analysis
  • environmental assessment and risk management
  • vulnerability and Climate change impact assessment
  • adaptation to climate change
  • resilience of human-environmental system

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 7666 KiB  
Article
Statistical and Water Management Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in the Reservoir Basin of the Volga–Kama Cascade on the Environmental Safety of the Lower Volga Ecosystem
by Alexander Buber, Mikhail Bolgov and Vladimir Buber
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4768; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084768 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
When managing water resources in order to provide water to consumers, a number of consequences arise related to the violation of the hydrological regime due to the regulation of flow by reservoirs. The second factor is possible climate change. These changes can negatively [...] Read more.
When managing water resources in order to provide water to consumers, a number of consequences arise related to the violation of the hydrological regime due to the regulation of flow by reservoirs. The second factor is possible climate change. These changes can negatively (or positively) affect the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. To reduce the impact on the environment, it is necessary to determine the nature and indicators of changes in the hydrological regime, calculate quantitative estimates of these indicators and ranges of acceptable values, and develop release rules that ensure compliance with these ranges with a given probability. To manage the water resources of the Volga and Kama Rivers, the main ecological task is to flood the floodplain meadows, to maintain the conditions of natural reproduction of fish on the Lower Volga, including the Volga River delta and the Volga–Akhtuba floodplain. In addition, it is necessary to meet with sufficient reliability the requirements of energy in the summer–autumn and winter low-water periods and water transport during the navigation period. The task of optimal management is to find such solutions in years of different water content that ensure the well-being of the main water users with a given probability and do not disturb the Lower Volga ecosystem. This article presents the research of the water resources state of the water resource system of the Volga and Kama river basins. A statistical analysis of the hydrological series of the observed inflow for 1916–2020 was performed, and the inflow change point (1979) was found by the Bayesian method of estimation. A statistically significant difference between the average inflow values of two series (1916–1978, 1979–2020) was proved using a two-sample Student’s test. The seasonal parameters of the reliability curves were calculated based on the three-parameter Kritsky and Menkel distribution. For these two series, water resource optimization calculations (using Excel Solver) were performed, and the reliability of fulfilling the requirements of water users was determined; for the series 1916–1978, an alternative solution was found in favor of fisheries, and an analysis of the results was also performed. The methodology used in the research allows finding trade-off solutions in the favor of different water users (ecology, agriculture and fisheries, water supply, hydropower, navigation, etc.) and is based on the use of multi-criteria optimization methods and the trade-offs theory. As a result of the research, new knowledge was obtained about the hydrological situation in the basin of the Volga–Kama reservoir cascade in connection with climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management)
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19 pages, 8294 KiB  
Article
On the Regional Temperature Series Evolution in the South-Eastern Part of Romania
by Alina Bărbulescu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063904 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
In the context of reported climate variations in different regions of the world, this work investigates the evolution of the temperature series in the Dobrogea region, Romania, using the maximum, average, and minimum annual temperature series from 1965 to 2005. The Mann–Kendall test [...] Read more.
In the context of reported climate variations in different regions of the world, this work investigates the evolution of the temperature series in the Dobrogea region, Romania, using the maximum, average, and minimum annual temperature series from 1965 to 2005. The Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s slope emphasized increasing trends of nine (out of ten) minimum temperature series (nine of them at significance levels less than or equal to 0.05, and two at 0.1), three average temperature series (at a significance level of 0.1), and five maximum temperature series (at significance levels less than or equal to 0.05). The selection of the representative series at the regional scale, called the ‘Regional series’, was performed using two algorithms proposed by the author that are easy to employ, even by individuals without deep knowledge in the field. The first (called MPPM) was initially introduced for evaluating the ‘Regional precipitation series’, and the second is a version of MPPM based on clustering the data series. Comparisons with the series from the ROCADA database were performed to prove the algorithms’ performances. The best results were obtained by running the second algorithm with two clusters, for the minimum and maximum temperature series, and with three clusters, for the average temperature series. In comparison with the initial data series, the average MAEs were, respectively, 1.39, 0.37, and 0.84 for the minimum, average, and maximum series, and the corresponding average MSEs were, respectively, 1.49, 0.41, and 0.93. Comparison of the ‘Regional series’ with the series from ROCADA led to a decrease in the modeling errors, with the best ones corresponding to the average ‘Regional series’—MAE = 0.36 and average MSE = 0.25. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management)
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18 pages, 4503 KiB  
Article
Wavelet Analysis for Studying Rainfall Variability and Regionalizing Data: An Applied Study of the Moulouya Watershed in Morocco
by Rachid Addou, Mohamed Hanchane, Nir Y. Krakauer, Ridouane Kessabi, Khalid Obda, Majda Souab and Imad Eddine Achir
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3841; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063841 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation at the scale of the Moulouya watershed in eastern Morocco, which is very vulnerable to the increasing water shortage. For this purpose, we opted for wavelet transformation, a method based on the spectral analysis of [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation at the scale of the Moulouya watershed in eastern Morocco, which is very vulnerable to the increasing water shortage. For this purpose, we opted for wavelet transformation, a method based on the spectral analysis of data which allows for periodic components of a rainfall time series to change with time. The results obtained from this work show spectral power across five frequency ranges of variability: 1 to 2 years, 2 to 4 years, 4 to 8 years, 8 to 16 years, and 16 to 32 years. The duration of significant power at these frequencies is generally not homogeneous and varies from station to station. The most widespread frequency over the entire study area was found in the 4- to 8-year range. This mode of variability can last up to 27 consecutive years. In most of the basin, this mode of variability was observed around the period between 1990 and 2010. Oscillations at 8 to 16 years in frequency appear in only five series and over different time periods. The 16- to 32-year mode of variability appears in 15 stations and extends over the period from 1983 to 2008. At this level, signal strength is very weak compared to other higher-frequency modes of variability. On the other hand, the mode of variability at the 1- to 2-year frequency range appeared to be continuous in some stations and intermittent in others. This allowed us to regionalize our study basin into two homogeneous clusters that only differ in variability and rainfall regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management)
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24 pages, 15561 KiB  
Article
Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: Ecosystem Service Assessments in Spatial and Sectoral Planning
by Gerald Schernewski, Alena Konrad, Jannik Roskothen and Miriam von Thenen
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042623 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1511
Abstract
In this paper, we critically reflect on the ability of spatial and sectoral planning approaches to deal with regional climate change, especially sea level rise, and analyze the potential of ecosystem service assessments in regional coastal climate change adaptation planning. We present two [...] Read more.
In this paper, we critically reflect on the ability of spatial and sectoral planning approaches to deal with regional climate change, especially sea level rise, and analyze the potential of ecosystem service assessments in regional coastal climate change adaptation planning. We present two concrete but contrasting case studies that focus on coastal realignment and wetland restoration as well as seaside tourism and resort development on the German Baltic Sea coast. The ecosystem service assessments compare past, present and potential future local development scenarios. Complementary, we apply the InVest and the Matrix ecosystem service assessment approaches. Despite some shortcomings, the proactive German hierarchical planning system seems suitable to deal with climate change and provide a framework for adaptation measures in coastal zones. It largely prevents a shift of climate change risks between municipalities and stakeholders. Comparative ecosystem service assessments seem well suited to play a role in the planning process by raising awareness about problems, possible solutions and consequences. On a local level, they can provide comprehensive insight into consequences of alternative measures. Our examples show that, in principle, potential future situations can be addressed with comparative ecosystem service approaches. We discuss whether the results of hypothetical future scenarios, with inherent uncertainties, might be misleading and counterproductive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management)
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28 pages, 3674 KiB  
Article
Reclaimed Salt-Affected Soils Can Effectively Contribute to Carbon Sequestration and Food Grain Production: Evidence from Pakistan
by Zia Ur Rahman Farooqi, Muhammad Sabir, Hamaad Raza Ahmad, Muhammad Shahbaz and Jo Smith
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031436 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Salt-affected soil reclamation provides opportunities for crop production and carbon sequestration. In arid regions such as Pakistan, limited studies have been reported involving soil reclamation and crop production under wheat–maize rotation, but no study has reported predictions on long-term carbon sequestration in reclaimed [...] Read more.
Salt-affected soil reclamation provides opportunities for crop production and carbon sequestration. In arid regions such as Pakistan, limited studies have been reported involving soil reclamation and crop production under wheat–maize rotation, but no study has reported predictions on long-term carbon sequestration in reclaimed soils for the treatments used in this study. Thus, a field-scale fallow period and crop production experiment was conducted for wheat–maize rotation on salt-affected soils in Pakistan for 3 years to check the effectiveness of organic amendments for reclamation of the salt-affected soils, carbon sequestration and food grain production. Treatments used were the control (with no additional amendments to reduce salinity), gypsum alone and gypsum in combination with different organic amendments (poultry manure, green manure, and farmyard manure). The treatment with gypsum in combination with farmyard manure was most effective at increasing soil carbon (+169% over the three-year period of the trial). The maximum wheat yield was also recorded in year 3 with gypsum in combination with farmyard manure (51%), while the effect of green manure combined with gypsum also showed a significant increase in maize yield in year 3 (49%). Long-term simulations suggested that the treatments would all have a significant impact on carbon sequestration, with soil C increasing at a steady rate from 0.53% in the control to 0.86% with gypsum alone, 1.25% with added poultry manure, 1.69% with green manure and 2.29% with farmyard manure. It is concluded that food crops can be produced from freshly reclaimed salt-affected soils, and this can have added long-term benefits of carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management)
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14 pages, 954 KiB  
Article
Appraisal of Water Security in Asia: The Pentagonal Framework for Efficient Water Resource Management
by Seo-Yeon Park, Jong-Suk Kim, Seungho Lee and Joo-Heon Lee
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8307; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168307 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Swathes of global water challenges, such as water shortages, water pollution, water-related disasters, and degradation of water environments, have seriously threatened human development. The discussion of water security or insecurity has been instrumental in drawing the attention of political leaders thanks to its [...] Read more.
Swathes of global water challenges, such as water shortages, water pollution, water-related disasters, and degradation of water environments, have seriously threatened human development. The discussion of water security or insecurity has been instrumental in drawing the attention of political leaders thanks to its political nature and strategic and urgent messages for society to take action. This study introduces a modified concept and definition of water security and a water security assessment framework based on a review of previous works on water security; the water security framework intends to shed light on five core areas: (1) social equity; (2) economic efficiency; (3) environmental sustainability; (4) resilience to water-related disasters; and (5) government competency. A total of 28 countries in Asia and the Pacific have been chosen and appraised for their level of water security. The assessment result unveils that Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea show high levels of water security. In contrast, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines are regarded as the countries with water insecurity. The magnitude of the study lies in critically assessing good or challenging aspects of water security so that the countries can start to consider possible policy options for achieving sustainable water resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Climate Change: Impacts and Risk Management)
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