Special Issue "Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2022) | Viewed by 8129

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jacek Wojtas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2 Str., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: Optoelectronic Engineering and Optical Metrology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photonics as the science of photon has a decisive influence on the recent scientific and technology achievements. It includes aspects of photon generation and photon-matter interaction. Although it finds many applications in the whole optical range of the wavelengths, most solutions operates in the visible and infrared range. Since the laser invention – source of the highly coherent optical radiation, optical measurements have become a perfect tool for highly precise and accurate measurements. Such measurements have additional advantages of non-contact and fast rate suitable for in-process metrology. However, their extremely precision is ultimately limited by e.g. noise of both lasers and photodetectors.

The Special Issue of the Applied Science is devoted to cutting-edge uses of optical sources, detectors and optoelectronics systems in numerous fields of science and technology (e.g. industry, environment, healthcare, telecommunication, security and space). The aim is to provide the state-of-the-art of photonic technology for precision metrology, and to identify directions for its future development.  This issue focuses on metrology principles and measurement instrumentation in optical technology to solve challenging engineering problems.

Technical topics include (but are not limited):

  • optical imaging and reflectometry
  • interferometry and spectroscopy
  • radiometry and photometry
  • remote and in-situ sensing
  • optoelectronic sensors and smart-sensors
  • optical sensors for robots and unmanned systems
  • industrial optical measurements
  • high resolution optical metrology
  • fiber-optic measurements
  • optical frequency metrology and optical clocks
  • optical sources and detectors
  • photonic metrological technology for science, environment, medicine, security, telecommunication, and space.

Dr. Jacek Wojtas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

 

Keywords

optical metrology; laser metrology; optical measurement; laser measurement; optical methods; optical techniques; optical instrumentation; laser instrumentation; uncertainty analysis; calibration; spectroscopy; microscopy; interferometry; thermography, optical tomography, reflectometry; photometry; optical sensing; optical testing; sensing of physical quantities; sensing of chemical quantities; biosensing; breath analysis; industry application; smart sensors; remote sensors; stand-off sensors; in-situ sensors; noninvasive sensors; optics; laser technology; detector technology; nanotechnology; fiber-optics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12084022 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Precision metrology is important for understanding and monitoring various phenomena, especially in special and scientific applications. The subject of the article covers selected aspects of the study of high-resolution measurements of the absorption spectra and their impact on practical issues. This research is [...] Read more.
Precision metrology is important for understanding and monitoring various phenomena, especially in special and scientific applications. The subject of the article covers selected aspects of the study of high-resolution measurements of the absorption spectra and their impact on practical issues. This research is crucial for the development of new systems based on laser absorption spectroscopy methods that can detect trace amounts of matter. Some of the most important parameters describing measuring instruments are also defined and illustrated. Specific examples of measurement results are presented, taking into account the need for the highest possible resolution, accuracy and precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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Research

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Communication
Integrated IR Modulator with a Quantum Cascade Laser
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6457; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146457 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
This paper presents an infrared pulsed modulator into which quantum cascade lasers and a current driver are integrated. The main goal of this study was to determine the capabilities of a new modulator design based on the results of its electrical model simulation [...] Read more.
This paper presents an infrared pulsed modulator into which quantum cascade lasers and a current driver are integrated. The main goal of this study was to determine the capabilities of a new modulator design based on the results of its electrical model simulation and laboratory experiments. A simulation model is a unique tool because it includes the electrical performance of the lasing structure, signal wiring, and driving unit. In the laboratory model, a lasing structure was mounted on the interfacing poles as close to the switching electronics as possible with direct wire bonding. The radiation pulses and laser biasing voltage were registered to analyze the influence of laser module impedance. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the quantum cascade laser (QC laser) design strongly influenced the shape of light, driving current, and biasing voltage pulses. It is a complex phenomenon depending on the laser construction and many other factors, e.g., the amplitude and time parameters of the supplying current pulses. However, this work presents important data to develop or modify numerical models describing QC laser operation. The integrated modulator provided pulses with a 20–100 ns duration and a frequency of 1 MHz without any active cooling. The designed modulator ensured the construction of a sensor based on direct laser absorption spectroscopy, applying the QC laser with spectral characteristics matched to absorption lines of the detected substances. It can also be used in optical ranging and recognition systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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Article
A New Method to Verify the Measurement Speed and Accuracy of Frequency Modulated Interferometers
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5787; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135787 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
The measurement speed and measurement accuracy of a displacement measuring interferometer are key parameters. To verify these parameters, a fast and high-accuracy motion is required. However, the displacement induced by a mechanical actuator generates disadvantageous features, such as slow motion, hysteresis, distortion, and [...] Read more.
The measurement speed and measurement accuracy of a displacement measuring interferometer are key parameters. To verify these parameters, a fast and high-accuracy motion is required. However, the displacement induced by a mechanical actuator generates disadvantageous features, such as slow motion, hysteresis, distortion, and vibration. This paper proposes a new method for a nonmechanical high-speed motion using an electro-optic modulator (EOM). The method is based on the principle that all displacement measuring interferometers measure the phase change to calculate the displacement. This means that the EOM can be used to accurately generate phase change rather than a mechanical actuator. The proposed method is then validated by placing the EOM into an arm of a frequency modulation interferometer. By using two lock-in amplifiers, the phase change in an EOM and, hence, the corresponding virtual displacement could be measured by the interferometer. The measurement showed that the system could achieve a displacement at 20 kHz, a speed of 6.08 mm/s, and a displacement noise level < 100 pm//√Hz above 2 kHz. The proposed virtual displacement can be applied to determine both the measurement speed and accuracy of displacement measuring interferometers, such as homodyne interferometers, heterodyne interferometers, and frequency modulated interferometers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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Article
Study of Image Classification Accuracy with Fourier Ptychography
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4500; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104500 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
In this research, the accuracy of image classification with Fourier Ptychography Microscopy (FPM) has been systematically investigated. Multiple linear regression shows a strong linear relationship between the results of image classification accuracy and image visual appearance quality based on PSNR and SSIM with [...] Read more.
In this research, the accuracy of image classification with Fourier Ptychography Microscopy (FPM) has been systematically investigated. Multiple linear regression shows a strong linear relationship between the results of image classification accuracy and image visual appearance quality based on PSNR and SSIM with multiple training datasets including MINST, Fashion MNIST, Cifar, Caltech 101, and customized training datasets. It is, therefore, feasible to predict the image classification accuracy only based on PSNR and SSIM. It is also found that the image classification accuracy of FPM reconstructed with higher resolution images is significantly different from using the lower resolution images under the lower numerical aperture (NA) condition. The difference is yet less pronounced under the higher NA condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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Article
Zero Drift Infrared Radiation Thermometer Using Chopper Stabilised Pre-Amplifier
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4843; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144843 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
A zero-drift, mid–wave infrared (MWIR) thermometer constructed using a chopper stabilised operational amplifier (op-amp) was compared against an identical thermometer that utilised a precision op-amp. The chopper stabilised op-amp resulted in a zero-drift infrared radiation thermometer (IRT) with approximately 75% lower offset voltage, [...] Read more.
A zero-drift, mid–wave infrared (MWIR) thermometer constructed using a chopper stabilised operational amplifier (op-amp) was compared against an identical thermometer that utilised a precision op-amp. The chopper stabilised op-amp resulted in a zero-drift infrared radiation thermometer (IRT) with approximately 75% lower offset voltage, 50% lower voltage noise and less susceptibility to perturbation by external sources. This was in comparison to the precision op-amp IRT when blanked by a cover at ambient temperature. Significantly, the zero-drift IRT demonstrated improved linearity for the measurement of target temperatures between 20 °C and 70 °C compared to the precision IRT. This eases the IRT calibration procedure, leading to improvement in the tolerance of the temperature measurement of such low target temperatures. The zero-drift IRT was demonstrated to measure a target temperature of 40 °C with a reduction in the root mean square (RMS) noise from 5 K to 1 K compared to the precision IRT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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Review

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Review
Low-Light Photodetectors for Fluorescence Microscopy
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062773 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Over the years, fluorescence microscopy has evolved and has become a necessary element of life science studies. Microscopy has elucidated biological processes in live cells and organisms, and also enabled tracking of biomolecules in real time. Development of highly sensitive photodetectors and light [...] Read more.
Over the years, fluorescence microscopy has evolved and has become a necessary element of life science studies. Microscopy has elucidated biological processes in live cells and organisms, and also enabled tracking of biomolecules in real time. Development of highly sensitive photodetectors and light sources, in addition to the evolution of various illumination methods and fluorophores, has helped microscopy acquire single-molecule fluorescence sensitivity, enabling single-molecule fluorescence imaging and detection. Low-light photodetectors used in microscopy are classified into two categories: point photodetectors and wide-field photodetectors. Although point photodetectors, notably photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), have been commonly used in laser scanning microscopy (LSM) with a confocal illumination setup, wide-field photodetectors, such as electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) and scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (sCMOS) cameras have been used in fluorescence imaging. This review focuses on the former low-light point photodetectors and presents their fluorescence microscopy applications and recent progress. These photodetectors include conventional PMTs, single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), hybrid photodetectors (HPDs), in addition to newly emerging photodetectors, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) (also known as multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs)) and superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SSPDs). In particular, this review shows distinctive features of HPD and application of HPD to wide-field single-molecule fluorescence detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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Review
Trends in Performance Limits of the HOT Infrared Photodetectors
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020501 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
The cryogenic cooling of infrared (IR) photon detectors optimized for the mid- (MWIR, 3–5 µm) and long wavelength (LWIR, 8–14 µm) range is required to reach high performance. This is a major obstacle for more extensive use of IR technology. Focal plane arrays [...] Read more.
The cryogenic cooling of infrared (IR) photon detectors optimized for the mid- (MWIR, 3–5 µm) and long wavelength (LWIR, 8–14 µm) range is required to reach high performance. This is a major obstacle for more extensive use of IR technology. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on thermal detectors are presently used in staring thermal imagers operating at room temperature. However, their performance is modest; thermal detectors exhibit slow response, and the multispectral detection is difficult to reach. Initial efforts to develop high operating temperature (HOT) photodetectors were focused on HgCdTe photoconductors and photoelectromagnetic detectors. The technological efforts have been lately directed on advanced heterojunction photovoltaic HgCdTe detectors. This paper presents the several approaches to increase the photon-detectors room-temperature performance. Various kinds of materials are considered: HgCdTe, type-II AIIIBV superlattices, two-dimensional materials and colloidal quantum dots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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Review
Ammonia Gas Sensors: Comparison of Solid-State and Optical Methods
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5111; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155111 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
High precision and fast measurement of gas concentrations is important for both understanding and monitoring various phenomena, from industrial and environmental to medical and scientific applications. This article deals with the recent progress in ammonia detection using in-situ solid-state and optical methods. Due [...] Read more.
High precision and fast measurement of gas concentrations is important for both understanding and monitoring various phenomena, from industrial and environmental to medical and scientific applications. This article deals with the recent progress in ammonia detection using in-situ solid-state and optical methods. Due to the continuous progress in material engineering and optoelectronic technologies, these methods are among the most perceptive because of their advantages in a specific application. We present the basics of each technique, their performance limits, and the possibility of further development. The practical implementations of representative examples are described in detail. Finally, we present a performance comparison of selected practical application, accumulating data reported over the preceding decade, and conclude from this comparison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Technology for Precision Metrology)
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