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Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 17692

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University Taiwan, Hsin-chu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: laser engineering; laser physics; quantum–classical correspondence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in lasers and nonlinear optics provide powerful tools for an increasingly broad range of applications including spectroscopy, metrology, remote sensing, security, material processing, astronomy, medicine, biology, display, and ignitions. Especially, Q-switching and the high brightness that is achievable with giant pulses from mode-locking enable fruitful nonlinear interactions for materials. The purpose of this Issue is to highlight the recent progress and trends in the development of leading-edge lasers. The solicited areas include (but are not limited to): laser physics, spectroscopy, theory, and modelling for materials and cavities; tunable and new wavelength lasers; high-power lasers and power scaling strategies; short-pulse lasers; laser and nonlinear materials; laser structures; pump sources for lasers; narrow-linewidth, frequency-stable, and low-noise lasers; and applications in science, medicine, remote sensing, industry, and display.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to expand the current knowledge in the field and gather high-quality papers dealing with the applications of lasers and nonlinear optics.

Prof. Dr. Yung-Fu Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • laser physics
  • laser spectroscopy
  • wavelength conversion
  • mode-locking
  • Q-switching
  • cavity designs
  • laser materials
  • structured laser beams
  • laser applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
Modeling for Spatial Overlap Effect of End-Pumped Passively Q-Switched Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG Laser and Its Experimental Verification
by Yueh-Chi Tu, Min-Xiang Hsieh, Hsing-Chih Liang and Yan-Ting Yu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031338 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
In this work, the spatial effects of the pumping and lasing were considered into the coupled rate equations of passively Q-switched lasers for the condition of no saturation in the gain medium. A transcendental equation of energy utilization was derived, and the solution [...] Read more.
In this work, the spatial effects of the pumping and lasing were considered into the coupled rate equations of passively Q-switched lasers for the condition of no saturation in the gain medium. A transcendental equation of energy utilization was derived, and the solution to the equation was approximated by an analytic model developed in previous work. The reflection factor of output coupler with low reflectivity was modified for more accurate output energy evaluations. Experimentally, an end-pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG laser in a concave-plano cavity with output coupling reflectivity ranging from 10% to 92% was demonstrated, and two different pumping spot sizes of laser diode were adopted for validating the developed spatial model. The experimental results showed good agreements with the theoretical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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9 pages, 2888 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Threshold Conditions of Air Breakdown with Mode-Locked Q-Switched Laser Pulses, and the Temporal Dynamics of Induced Plasma with Self-Scattering Phenomenon
by Kai-Ting Yen, Chih-Hung Wu, Pin-Hsun Wang, Pi-Hui Tuan and Kuan-Wei Su
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010041 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3352
Abstract
A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with mode-locked modulations is utilized to explore the laser-induced air breakdown. The various modulation depths of the mode-locking within the Q-switched pulse can be utilized to investigate the threshold conditions. With the GHz high-speed detectors to accurately measure the [...] Read more.
A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with mode-locked modulations is utilized to explore the laser-induced air breakdown. The various modulation depths of the mode-locking within the Q-switched pulse can be utilized to investigate the threshold conditions. With the GHz high-speed detectors to accurately measure the temporal pulse shape pulse by pulse, it is verified that the air breakdown threshold is crucially determined by the peak-power density instead of the energy density from the statistic results, especially for mode-locked Q-switched lasers. The stability of the system for laser-induced breakdown can be evaluated by threshold width through fitting the statistical result. Otherwise, by measuring the temporal characteristics of the excitation pulse and the induced plasma, it is further found that the plasma radiation displays a few-nanoseconds time delay to the excitation pulse and shows a decaying tail to be 10 times longer than the plasma build-up time. Moreover, the incident laser pulse is observed to be self-scattered by the air breakdown, and a rapidly modulated scattering rate is found with a slight delay time to the excitation mode-locked subpulse modulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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6 pages, 1978 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Lasers and NdYVO4/KGW Raman Lasers at Lime and Orange Wavelengths
by Chi-Chun Lee, Chien-Yen Huang, Hao-Yun Huang, Chao-Ming Chen and Chia-Han Tsou
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 11068; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112211068 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
The comparison of output powers between self-Raman Nd:YVO4 lasers and Nd:YVO4/KGW Raman lasers operating at lime and orange wavelengths is presented. We exploit the LBO crystal with cutting angle θ = 90° and φ = 8° for the lime wavelengths, [...] Read more.
The comparison of output powers between self-Raman Nd:YVO4 lasers and Nd:YVO4/KGW Raman lasers operating at lime and orange wavelengths is presented. We exploit the LBO crystal with cutting angle θ = 90° and φ = 8° for the lime wavelengths, and then we change the angle to θ = 90° and φ = 3.9° for the orange wavelengths. In self-Raman Nd:YVO4 lasers, experimental results reveal that thermal loading can impact on the output performances, especially at the high pump power. However, by using a KGW crystal as Raman medium can remarkably share the thermal loading from gain medium. Besides, the designed coating for high reflectively at the Stokes field on the surface of KGW also improved the beam quality and reduced the lasing threshold. For self-Raman Nd:YVO4 lasers, we have achieved the output powers of 6.54 W and 5.12 W at 559 nm and 588 nm, respectively. For Nd:YVO4/KGW Raman lasers, the output powers at 559 nm and 589 nm have been increased to 9.1 W and 7.54 W, respectively. All lasers operate at a quasi-CW regime with the repetition rate 50 Hz and the duty cycle 50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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8 pages, 2168 KiB  
Article
SESAM Mode-Locked Yb:Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 Femtosecond Laser
by Huang-Jun Zeng, Zhang-Lang Lin, Wen-Ze Xue, Ge Zhang, Zhongben Pan, Haifeng Lin, Pavel Loiko, Xavier Mateos, Valentin Petrov, Li Wang and Weidong Chen
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9464; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209464 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
We report on the first passively mode-locked femtosecond-laser operation of a disordered Yb:Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal using a SEmiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror (SESAM). Pumping with a single-transverse mode fiber-coupled laser diode at 976 nm, nearly Fourier-transform-limited pulses as [...] Read more.
We report on the first passively mode-locked femtosecond-laser operation of a disordered Yb:Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal using a SEmiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror (SESAM). Pumping with a single-transverse mode fiber-coupled laser diode at 976 nm, nearly Fourier-transform-limited pulses as short as 96 fs are generated at 1045 nm with an average output power of 205 mW and a pulse repetition rate of ~67.3 MHz. In the continuous-wave regime, high slope efficiency up to 59.2% and low laser thresholds down to 25 mW are obtained. Continuous wavelength tuning between 1006–1074 nm (a tuning range of 68 nm) is demonstrated. Yb:Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystals are promising for the development of ultrafast lasers at ~1 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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8 pages, 5628 KiB  
Article
Systematically Investigating the Structural Variety of Crystalline and Kaleidoscopic Vortex Lattices by Using Laser Beam Arrays
by Chengshang Chen, Yuhan Fang, Chichen Jang, Wenchi Chen, Hui-Chi Lin and Hsingchih Liang
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8018; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178018 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
We theoretically demonstrate that a family of vortex-lattice structures can be flexibly generated using a multi-beam interference approach. Numerical calculation presents a variety of crystalline and kaleidoscopic patterns. Based on the numerical analysis, we experimentally realized these structure beams by combining an amplitude [...] Read more.
We theoretically demonstrate that a family of vortex-lattice structures can be flexibly generated using a multi-beam interference approach. Numerical calculation presents a variety of crystalline and kaleidoscopic patterns. Based on the numerical analysis, we experimentally realized these structure beams by combining an amplitude mask with multiple apertures and a spiral phase plate. The excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results not only validates the presented method, but also manifests the structure of vortex lattices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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8 pages, 2567 KiB  
Article
Passively Q-Switched KTA Cascaded Raman Laser with 234 and 671 cm−1 Shifts
by Zhi Xie, Senhao Lou, Yanmin Duan, Zhihong Li, Limin Chen, Hongyan Wang, Yaoju Zhang and Haiyong Zhu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6895; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156895 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
A compact KTA cascaded Raman system driven by a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated for the first time. The output spectra with different cavity lengths were measured. Two strong lines with similar intensity were achieved with a [...] Read more.
A compact KTA cascaded Raman system driven by a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated for the first time. The output spectra with different cavity lengths were measured. Two strong lines with similar intensity were achieved with a 9 cm length cavity. One is the first-Stokes at 1146.8 nm with a Raman shift of 671 cm−1, and the other is the Stokes at 1178.2 nm with mixed Raman shifts of 234 cm−1 and 671 cm−1. At the shorter cavity length of 5 cm, the output Stokes lines with high intensity were still at 1146.8 nm and 1178.2 nm, but the intensity of 1178.2 nm was higher than that of 1146.8 nm. The maximum average output power of 540 mW was obtained at the incident pump power of 10.5 W with the pulse repetition frequency of 14.5 kHz and the pulse width around 1.1 ns. This compact passively Q-switched KTA cascaded Raman laser can yield multi-Stokes waves, which enrich laser output spectra and hold potential applications for remote sensing and terahertz generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Review

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14 pages, 6653 KiB  
Review
Review of the Yb3+:ScBO3 Laser Crystal Growth, Characterization, and Laser Applications
by Dazhi Lu, Xiaoheng Li, Haohai Yu, Huaijin Zhang and Jiyang Wang
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10879; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210879 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Passive Q-switching is an effective approach for generating pulsed lasers, owing to its compact and additional modulation-free design. However, to compare favorably with active Q-switching and multi-stage amplification, the output energy needs to be enhanced for practical applications. Kramers Ytterbium ion (Yb3+ [...] Read more.
Passive Q-switching is an effective approach for generating pulsed lasers, owing to its compact and additional modulation-free design. However, to compare favorably with active Q-switching and multi-stage amplification, the output energy needs to be enhanced for practical applications. Kramers Ytterbium ion (Yb3+)-doped borate crystals, with their excellent energy storage capacity, have been proven to be high-potential laser gain mediums for achieving pulsed lasers with moderate and high output energy using passive Q-switching technology. In this study, the growth, characterization, and laser generation of one Yb3+-doped borate crystal, the Yb3+:ScBO3 crystal, are systematically reviewed. The continuous-wave and passive Q-switching laser characteristics are presented in detail, and the self-pulsations derived from intrinsic ground-state reabsorption are also demonstrated. The specific characteristics and experiments confirm the potential of the Yb3+:ScBO3 crystal for future pulsed laser applications with moderate or even high energy output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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22 pages, 11980 KiB  
Review
Laser Transverse Modes with Ray-Wave Duality: A Review
by Yung-Fu Chen, Ching-Hsuan Wang, Xin-Liang Zheng and Min-Xiang Hsieh
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8913; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198913 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
We present a systematic overview on laser transverse modes with ray-wave duality. We start from the spectrum of eigenfrequencies in ideal spherical cavities to display the critical role of degeneracy for unifying the Hermite–Gaussian eigenmodes and planar geometric modes. We subsequently review the [...] Read more.
We present a systematic overview on laser transverse modes with ray-wave duality. We start from the spectrum of eigenfrequencies in ideal spherical cavities to display the critical role of degeneracy for unifying the Hermite–Gaussian eigenmodes and planar geometric modes. We subsequently review the wave representation for the elliptical modes that generally carry the orbital angular momentum. Next, we manifest the fine structures of eigenfrequencies in a spherical cavity with astigmatism to derive the wave-packet representation for Lissajous geometric modes. Finally, the damping effect on the formation of transverse modes is generally reviewed. The present overview is believed to provide important insights into the ray-wave correspondence in mesoscopic optics and laser physics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronics for Lasers: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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