Special Issue "Synthesis and Application of Microcapsules"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Fabien Salaün

ENSAIT Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles, Roubaix, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: materials chemistry; polymer chemistry; textile engineering; microencapsulation; technical textiles; surface functionalization; smart coating; smart textile

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microencapsulated systems, based on polymer or inorganic shell and active substances, appear to be good candidates for a broad range of applications.

The design of microparticles as a “smart” polymeric system has drawn increasing interest over the last few years due to their considerable potential to protect different types of active agents for widely-varied application fields, such as medicine, biomedical, pharmaceutical, textile, agricultural, food, and printing. The recent progress in controlled microencapsulation techniques have greatly facilitated the synthesis of well-defined microcapsules with tailored functionalities. Microcapsule shells and their functionality may finally be used to modulate surface functions. All these benefits are currently fully exploited for new tailored microparticles for applications in drug delivery, self-healing, thermal energy storage, flame retardancy, cosmetics, functional coating, and material science, where they are used for the design of functional, responsive, or high added-value materials.

This Special Issue is motivated by the observed increasing interest shown by various research groups in this field. Thus, considering your prominent contributions to this interesting research topic, I would like to cordially invite you to submit an article to this Special Issue. This Special Issue will publish full research papers, communications, and review articles. It will give a global vision of researchers from universities, research centers, and industry working on microencapsulation around the world and share the latest results on the synthesis and characterization, giving rise to a special interest in their applications in basic and industrial processes. I would like to bring together a collection of comprehensive reviews from leading experts and up-to-date research from notable groups in the community, and it will be hopefully a useful source of information for researchers.

Manuscripts should be submitted online before 15 October 2018. I would very much appreciate if you would consider being one of our authors.

Dr. Fabien Salaün
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nano/Microencapsulation process and characterization
  • Coating process of encapsulated materials
  • Colloid and formulations
  • Encapsulation in layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films
  • Sol-gel chemistry
  • Emulsion-based processes
  • Encapsulation in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics, food, textile fields among others
  • Hydrogels, polymers, sol-gel glasses, inorganic-organic hydrid materials, porous materials, multifunctional particles, micro and nanocapsules, and other host matrices and materials supports of interest
  • Functional coating

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Microencapsulation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Pomace Ethanolic Extract by Spray Drying: Optimization of Process Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030612
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a process used in the stabilization of active compounds from various natural sources, such as tomato by-products, with the purpose to be used as additives in the food industry. The aim of this work was to study the effects [...] Read more.
Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a process used in the stabilization of active compounds from various natural sources, such as tomato by-products, with the purpose to be used as additives in the food industry. The aim of this work was to study the effects of wall material and spray drying conditions on physicochemical properties of microcapsules loaded with lycopene rich extract from tomato pomace. The assays were carried out with ethanolic tomato pomace extract as core material and arabic gum or inulin as wall materials. A central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the effect of drying air inlet temperature (110–200 °C) and concentration of arabic gum (5–35 wt %) or inulin (5–25 wt %) on the antioxidant activity, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and drying yield. SEM images showed that the produced particles were in the category of skin-forming structures. The most suitable conditions, within the ranges studied, to obtain lycopene loaded microparticles were a biopolymer concentration of 10 wt % for both materials and an inlet temperature of 200 and 160 °C for arabic gum and inulin, respectively. Arabic gum and inulin possessed a good performance in the encapsulation of tomato pomace extract by spray drying. It is envisaged that the capsules produced have good potential to be incorporated in foods systems with diverse chemical and physical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Microcapsules)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Healing Agent on the Curing Reaction Kinetics and Its Mechanism in a Self-Healing System
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112241
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Self-healing cementitious composites have been developed by using microcapsules. In this study, the effect of the healing agent on the crosslinking and curing reaction kinetics was analyzed. The effect of the diluent n-butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) on the reaction was investigated for five [...] Read more.
Self-healing cementitious composites have been developed by using microcapsules. In this study, the effect of the healing agent on the crosslinking and curing reaction kinetics was analyzed. The effect of the diluent n-butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) on the reaction was investigated for five fractions, namely 10.0%, 12.5%, 15.0%, 17.5%, and 20.0% mass fractions to epoxy resin. The Kissinger and Crane equations were used to obtain the activation energy and reaction order with different mass fractions of diluent, as well as the kinetic parameters of the curing reaction. The optimal fraction of BGE was determined as 17.5%. Likewise, the effect of the curing agent MC120D on the reaction kinetics was investigated for 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% mass fractions to the diluted epoxy resin. The optimal fraction was determined as 20%. The mechanism of the curing reaction with the healing agent was investigated. The infrared spectra of the cured products of 20% MC120D with BGE/E51 (0.0%, 12.5%, 15.0%, 20.0%, 100%) were analyzed. It is shown that not only the epoxy resin E-51 was cured, but also that the BGE was involved in the cross-linking reaction of the epoxy resin E-51 with MC120D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Microcapsules)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Human Dermal Papilla Cells in Alginate Spheres
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101993
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Maintenance of trichogenecity of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have been a problem during cell therapy for androgenic alopecia, as they lose their regenerative potential in in vitro culture. Various spheroid culture techniques are used to increase and maintain trichogenecity of these cells. However, [...] Read more.
Maintenance of trichogenecity of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have been a problem during cell therapy for androgenic alopecia, as they lose their regenerative potential in in vitro culture. Various spheroid culture techniques are used to increase and maintain trichogenecity of these cells. However, there are some critical drawbacks in these methods. Applying a hydrocell plate for sphere formation or hanging drop methods by hand would be difficult to control the size and cell density inside it. It would be difficult to commercialize or mass production for clinical therapy. In aim to address and overcome these drawbacks, we have introduced alginate sphere. The alginate sphere of DPCs were prepared by electrospinning at different voltages to control the size of sphere. Then the obtained alginate spheres were evaluated for cellular dynamics and density of DPCs under different conditions. In this study, we found that DPCs do not proliferate in alginate sphere. However, the number of DPCs were maintained and found to be in dormant state. Further, the dormant DPCs in the alginate sphere have upregulated DPC signature genes (SOX2, ALPL, WIF1, Noggin, BMP4 and VCAN) and proliferative capacity. Thus, we speculate that alginate sphere environment maintains the dormancy of DPCs with increased trichogenecity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Microcapsules)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Microencapsulation of a Model Oil in Wall System Consisting of Wheat Proteins Isolate (WHPI) and Lactose
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101944
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Microencapsulation allows for the entrapment, protection, and delivery of sensitive and/or active desired nutrients and ingredients as well as biologically-active agents. The microencapsulating properties of wall solutions (WS) containing 2.5–10% (w/w) wheat proteins isolate (WHPI) and 17.5–10% (w [...] Read more.
Microencapsulation allows for the entrapment, protection, and delivery of sensitive and/or active desired nutrients and ingredients as well as biologically-active agents. The microencapsulating properties of wall solutions (WS) containing 2.5–10% (w/w) wheat proteins isolate (WHPI) and 17.5–10% (w/w) lactose were investigated. Core-in-wall-emulsions (CIWEs) consisting of the WS and soy oil were prepared at a wall-to-core (W:C) ratio ranging from 25:75 to 75:25 (w/w). Microcapsules were prepared by spray-drying the CIWEs. The CIWEs had a mean particle diameter smaller than 0.5 µm and surface excess that ranged from 1.59 to 5.32 mg/m2. In all cases, microcapsules with smooth outer surfaces that exhibited only limited surface indentation were obtained. The core, in the form of protein-coated lipid droplets, was embedded throughout the wall matrices. In all but one case, core retention was higher than 83%, and in 50% of the cases, it was higher than 90%. Core retention was significantly influenced the composition of the WS and by W:C ratio (p < 0.05). Except for two cases, microcapsules exhibited very limited core extractability. The microencapsulation efficiency was >90% and was influenced, to a certain degree, by the composition of the CIWEs. Results indicated the potential for utilizing wall systems consisting of WHPI and lactose as effective and highly functional microencapsulating agents in food and related applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Microcapsules)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Advances in the Application of Microcapsules as Carriers of Functional Compounds for Food Products
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030571
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract
Natural bioactive compounds and living cells have been reported as promising products with beneficial properties to human health. The constant challenge regarding the use of these components is their easy degradation during processing and storage. However, their stability can be improved with the [...] Read more.
Natural bioactive compounds and living cells have been reported as promising products with beneficial properties to human health. The constant challenge regarding the use of these components is their easy degradation during processing and storage. However, their stability can be improved with the microencapsulation process, in which a compound sensitive to adverse environmental conditions is retained within a protective polymeric material. Microencapsulation is a widely used methodology for the preservation and stabilization of functional compounds for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications. The present review discusses advances in the production and application of microcapsules loaded with functional compounds in food products. The main methods for producing microcapsules, as well as the classes of functional compounds and wall materials used, are presented. Additionally, the release of compounds from loaded microcapsules in food matrices and in simulated gastrointestinal conditions is also assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Microcapsules)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Influence of Solvent Selection in the Electrospraying Process of Polycaprolactone
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030402
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Electrosprayed polycaprolactone (PCL) microparticles are widely used in medical tissue engineering, drug control release delivery, and food packaging due to their prominent structures and properties. In electrospraying, the selection of a suitable solvent system as the carrier of PCL is fundamental and a [...] Read more.
Electrosprayed polycaprolactone (PCL) microparticles are widely used in medical tissue engineering, drug control release delivery, and food packaging due to their prominent structures and properties. In electrospraying, the selection of a suitable solvent system as the carrier of PCL is fundamental and a prerequisite for the stabilization of electrospraying, and the control of morphology and structure of electrosprayed particles. The latter is not only critical for diversifying the characteristics of electrosprayed particles and achieving improvement in their properties, but also promotes the efficiency of the process and deepens the applications of electrosprayed particles in various fields. In order to make it systematic and more accessible, this review mainly concludes the effects of different solution properties on the operating parameters in electrospraying on the formation of Taylor cone and the final structure as well as the morphology. Meanwhile, correlations between operating parameters and electrospraying stages are summarized as well. Finally, this review provides detailed guidance on the selection of a suitable solvent system regarding the desired morphology, structure, and applications of PCL particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Microcapsules)
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